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Dernières notices ajoutées par région : Crète
Kokkina. I. Volanakis (13th EBA) reports on the excavation of rectangular rock-cut burial pits, structural foundations and some sort of enclosure, to which a date of the fifth to sixth century AD is assigned.

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Plakias Mesolithic Survey. T. Strasser (ASCSA/Providence), P. Murray (ASCSA/Boston), E. Panagopoulou (EPSNE), C. Runnels (ASCSA/Boston) and N. Thompson (EPSNE) report on the findings of two seasons of survey, noting also numerous reports both in the Greek press and in foreign periodicals. Twenty eight sites associated with caves or rock-shelters have been investigated in the area from Plakias to the Preveli gorge and around Ag. Pavlos. Of 2,139 lithic artefacts, microliths of Mesolithic type come from 20 sites, with Palaeolithic from nine locations. At Preveli 2, 3 and 8, finds from both groups were made, but such overlaps do not usually occur. The targeted methodology, the site distributions and the basic definitions of the industries have been discussed in AR 55 [2008-2009], 98-99. Most scatters yielded 80-100 artefacts, some (e.g. Schinaria 1) number in the thousands. Locally available cobbles of quartzite and chert as well as massive quartz were exploited: all can be knapped. Chert occurs only in the Mesolithic assemblages and in small quantities: it is arguably brought in from elsewhere. The Mesolithic artefact clusters are found in front of small caves or rock-shelters, and are limited in size and yield. The full range of assemblages (cores, debitage and retouched tools) suggest residence for long enough to acquire the raw materials and reduce them to tools. The largest collection was made at Schinaria 1; 564 artefacts were selected from several thousand pieces visible on the surface (Fig. 1). The assemblage consists almost entirely of quartz artefacts, and is rich in cores and retouched tools. The latter include notches and denticulates, pieces with retouch, geometric microliths, spines (piercers and borers of various types), truncations and small end scrapers. The Plakias industry has affinities with both the Lower Mesolithic (Lithique Phase VII) and the Upper Mesolithic (Lithique Phase VIII) at Franchthi Cave, but it would be hazardous to attribute any sites to one or other of these specific phases. The Palaeolithic material is found downslope from rock-shelters, eroding out of associated conglomerates or trapped beneath them in pockets of sediment amongst limestone outcrops. Terrarossa earths, both in situ and more extensive in distribution, or even redeposited, may contain lithic artefacts (e.g. Preveli 3 to a depth of 1m or more). A typical example might be seen in Timeos Stavros 4: here a debris flow appears to be preserved in a field below a limestone fault scarp. In an area of approximately 40m x 90m, a large concentration of stone tools was found mingled with angular pieces of limestone and travertine, suggesting a derivation from the caves and rock-shelters upslope. The lithic artefacts may belong to more than one Palaeolithic industry, including, in traditional terms, the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic (Fig. 2). These industries employed a reduction strategy using direct hard percussion to remove large flakes and, rarely, thick blades from minimally-prepared cores that were often worked bifacially. Considerable variability in the morphological tool types suggests opportunism in the selection of flake blanks and edges for retouch. Many blanks have only one edge retouched, often partially and discontinuously, frequently bifacially. Raw material was plentiful and there was much expediency in the use of blanks and a tendency to discard tools after only short periods of use. The Palaeolithic materials resemble the Acheulean sensu lato: this may be defined as consisting of large flakes used to configure big tools, with a diversity of morphotypes of small retouched tools and standardized knapping methods, among which the bifacial centripetal technique of core reduction stands out. The Acheulean may have a high frequency of large-sized flakes as blanks for the production of bifaces, the use of side-struck or corner struck flakes, the presence of techniques involving predetermination (‘approximate Levallois patterns’), attempts to thin the bifaces in the area of the bulb of percussion and a minimal investment in bifacial retouch. These descriptions would serve for the artefacts from Plakias. Some cores and bifacial scrapers, however, resemble Middle Palaeolithic artefacts and it cannot be ruled out that we are dealing with more than one Palaeolithic industry or facies in Crete.

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Mochlos. J. Soles (ASCSA/North Carolina) and C. Davaras (Athens) report on the 2010 excavation season, focused on locating the Protopalatial settlement below the main Neopalatial town. Work at the north east of the LMIB site and on a Hellenistic building was completed. EMIIB deposits are widely scattered across the site (Areas 3 and 4): the size of the settlement is estimated at 6000m2. An EMI, IIA and B building complex (the oldest yet excavated) was located at the east edge of the Prepalatial cemetery. Initially this was a dwelling with an obsidian workshop (Fig. 1). The nearby Building N, excavated in 1989 and then also identified as an obsidian workshop, is speculatively considered as a waste depot for it. Several rooms were later closed and terrace walls erected to accommodate feasting; a small cist grave was inserted, and the space to the south east was redesigned to accept offerings. Removal of the LMIB terrace at the south face of the Neopalatial ceremonial Building B2 in Area 1 revealed four closed pottery deposits of MMII, MMIIIA and IIIB, and LMIA: all were associated with cooking, having hearths with much organic matter. Work in the Neopalatial settlement (Fig. 2) concentrated in two locations. In Area 2 (between Blocks C and D), the northern part of the north-south street, found at the south in 1989, was traced. A large, LMIB stone-vase workshop produced vessels of notable size and quality (an unfinished one was of gypsum, imported from the Knossos region). The destruction of the house was accompanied by deliberate violence (e.g. to the lamp, Fig. 3). In Area 3 (between blocks B and C), the main east-west street of the town was revealed, its surface (cobbled or bedrock) worn smooth. It apparently led to a small cave on the east side of the island, where a freshwater spring (now 2m below sea level) may have served the community. Work begun in 2009 on a house at the east side of the street continued. Built at the start of MMIIIA, it was occupied and remodelled throughout the Neopalatial period. The main street runs along its west façade, turns east along the north side and continues beyond to the northeast. Work in the Hellenistic House (Area 4) had earlier revealed a coin of P. Canidius Crassus (34-32 BC). Little remains of the kitchen and dining area in the east part of this likely public dining facility. Below it was a collapsed LMIB wall, inside which lay a rectangular pyxis with sides and lid of elephant ivory and a wooden base (Figs 4 and 5), fallen from an upper room. The side panels carried a low relief seascape, and the lid an epiphany of a goddess (a well-known scene on many contemporary gold signet rings). It also resembles the fresco of crocus gatherers from Xeste 3 at Akrotiri in that the scene is set on a stage supported by incurved altars. The goddess sits enthroned beneath a tree shrine on the left with a lily in her left hand, and a procession of two men and two women approaches her from the right. The upper part of these figures was lost during the building’s destruction, but the scene is reconstructed as follows: the first male figure, who is larger than the others, presents a male-female couple to the goddess, while a female attendant stands at the rear. The partly burnt box contained two necklaces of amethyst beads (80 in total): traces of string identify strands of different sizes. With them were a silver bull’s head pendant, and an assortment of more beads of carnelian (one a figure-of-eight shield), lapis and glass-paste (one a lily). The remains of nine ivory crook-head pins were located alongside it.

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Gournia. L.V. Watrous (ASCSA/Buffalo) reports on the 2010 excavation season. Work focused in four areas (Fig. 1). In Boyd’s dump west of the palace, previously discarded material was assessed. EMII to LMIIIB sherds included an LMI palace style jar, a Knossian LMIB piece and LMIIIB decorated pithoi. A loomweight, stone tools, a rock-crystal vase fragment, and building debris (painted wall-plaster and mudbrick) were also retrieved. North-east of House Ea, excavation focused on the remains of the MMIA North Trench Deposit (which helped to define EMIB-MMI). An associated MMIB rubble wall runs south east to a bedrock outcrop and then east: it may represent a circuit wall for the Protopalatial community (Fig. 2). As well as MMIA (handmade, White-on-Dark) and MMIB (mostly handmade, Dark-on-Light) wares, a Middle Cycladic jug from Melos was recovered, as were loomweights, stone tools, an obsidian core and bones. North west of House Ea, known early house remains were also investigated. 0.5m below the LMI house lay a paved court built and destroyed in MMIIB, leading to a house-door to the north (Fig. 3). Finds on the floor included pithoi, cups, a basin, loomweights, a water-channel, and stone tools; from an upper storey came domestic wares close to those from MMIIB destructions at Quartier Mu, Malia. To the north of the town, an incline is maintained by heavy east west terrace walls: a fill of MMIIB date is spread a metre deep. One terrace is formed by a massive retaining wall of casement-like walls running east west. Abutting this terrace (south of the Pit House), lay a small, square, two-roomed structure, built and destroyed in LMIB (Fig. 4). A Triton shell was set next to a pile of ash with a bronze strip and a sheep/goat bone: perhaps a foundation deposit under the floor. On the ground floor were storage and working spaces into which debris from an upper storey (a possible terracotta chimney pipe, pithos and cups) had fallen. On the floor of the east room were a cup and a water-channel. The west room contained more material: an amphora, pithoi, two large stirrup jars, several large jars (one with a Linear A inscription), at least one cookpot, several conical and ogival cups, three stone querns (and two stone rubbers), many limpet shells, and a fine rhyton and tortoise-shell ripple cup. The larger of two pits was filled with architectural debris, sherds, bones and shell, as well as a mortar with a hole in its base. The smaller held only two conical cups. The overall assemblage suggests food production and storage, and the storage and dispensing of some liquid. The structure is distinctive: situated outside the town centre on the way to coastal vineyards and the harbour, it is smaller than town-houses proper, and was perhaps the establishment of an oil and perhaps wine producer/dealer.

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Pseira. P. P. Betancourt (ASCSA/Temple) and C. Davaras (Athens) report on a season of geological study in 2010, pursuing identification of which resources were exploited by the Minoans and how this was done. Study of the quarries and of raw materials was undertaken. In architectural contexts, two main stone sources were utilized: the Plattenkalk limestone, preferred for wall construction because of its strong and compact nature, and metacarbonate which is easily broken into slabs for paving, steps etc.  

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Sissi/Sisi. J. Driessen (Belgian School/UC Louvain) and I. Schoep (Belgian School/KU Leuven) report on the fourth excavation season in 2010 (Figs. 1 and 2), focused on the cemetery and on the earlier history of certain major structures. The latest use of the cemetery, in MMIIB, yielded a number of primary, articulated burials in pithoi or laid down within the EMII-MMI house tombs (earlier MMI-IIA use is also observed). At least 81 individuals have been recovered. Pottery, and mixed pottery and bone, deposits suggest frequent activity in the cemetery. Building 1.19 (Fig. 3), ca. 20m west of the main concentration, may imply that the entire lower terrace was devoted to the disposal of the dead (Figs 4 and 5). The Neopalatial Building BC (Zone 2) was cleared. One room contained a wine-press, tightly-packed pumice with a triton, and an infant burial in a pyxis (Fig. 6). Another held a thick fire destruction deposit including coarse jars, two cup-rhyta, a cup and a stone Blossom Bowl (Fig. 7). On top of the Kephali hill, the west façade of the Postpalatial LMIIIB Building CD (Zones 3 and 4; Figs 8 and 9) is preserved to a height of four courses, with returns every few metres corresponding to internal partition walls. A large columnar hall (Room 3.1; Fig. 10) is unusual in such a late structure both for its size (7.9 x 7.5m) and the axial arrangement of the two columns and entrance threshold. A well-made cist at the south west corner held a set of stone tools. The connection between this hall, a shrine (3), and another large pillared hall with a hearth (4.11) implies a distinctive social role. Tests in and outside Building CD yielded Proto- and Neopalatial deposits. To the south, in open space between Buildings CD and E, were at least two pits. The smaller, to the south, held LMIIIA2 pottery. The larger, at the north east, held much fine LM IIIA2-B pottery, including kylikes and champagne cups, plus bricks, large quantities of pumice, and stone tools. Fragmentary terracotta figurines and a sealstone were also retrieved. A large Neopalatial deposit with hundreds of cups was found in the same area. Building F (Zone 6) was destroyed at an earlier stage, since good deposits of LMIIIA2 were excavated in several rooms. A small test beneath the floor of one room yielded a sealstone, a turquoise bead and parts of two clay figurines.

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Karfi. S. Wallace (BSA/Heidelberg) reports on study and site conservation undertaken in 2010. Study of small finds from the 2008 excavation was completed. Conservation focused on Building A1, as well as B1 and C1. The walls and excavated sections of Building MG1 were also treated, revealing further pieces of the krater recovered by the hearth in Room B.  

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Palaikastro. L.H. Sackett (BSA/Groton) reports on continuing study. Street deposits show that Building 1 was in full use in LMIB, but had been completely cleared following the destruction. In Building 7, study concentrated on the northern half: an LMIIIA2 floor in Room 2 with sunken storage jars at the northeast has associated earlier and later (destruction and abandonment) levels. A good ritual deposit and some stone tools belong with Room 4, and a support-structure for a possible L-shaped staircase is identified in Room 9. Work was undertaken on the plasters for Block M and Buildings 1 and 5. Charcoal from Building 2 can be identified to species level, and grains, legumes, olive and grape (amongst others) have been identified within the environmental samples. A charred insect was retrieved from Room 1. Comparable discoveries were made for Building 7, including fish and small mammal bones. Formanifera have also been recovered.

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Gortyn, Prophitis Ilias settlement. N. Allegro (SAIA/Palermo) reports on continuing excavation in 2010, focused north of Building IV and the court B6, and then north of Buildings II and III (Fig. 1). The first area (Building VI and the Boundary Wall) also includes the west part of the upper terrace in Sector B. Under topsoil lay an east-west wall of local limestone pieces which runs some 25m to the east, beyond the excavation limits. To the west, a possible boundary wall makes a wide curve to the north west: it sits on other walls that belong to the upper terrace of the eighth- seventh-century settlement. Inside the enclosure at its east and west ends are two rooms, indicating buildings. The construction of this possible boundary probably involved earth moving, especially on its south front where a Geometric-Orientalizing house is cut away. No datable material is associated with this new construction, but stratigraphically it postdates the abandonment of the village in the second half of the seventh century. Probably it continued to the point after the first century BC when this side of the hill ceased to be used. In the second area, rooms B29 and B30 of Building VII were found. These rooms were probably bordered to the south by an alley which separated them from Buildings II and III on the lower terrace of Sector B, and a walkway made of stone chippings. The only finds on the beaten earth floor of B29 were a pair of fragmentary vases. Room 30 had a cooking area, and to the northeast, numerous fragments of at least two large pithoi. One has on its body raised bands decorated with incised herringbone patterns; the other has plastic cordons. A large limestone slab set flat in the middle of the room was perhaps a base for a pithos or a wooden roof support. Excavation thus provides information about the organization of living space in the eighth- to seventh-century village, and suggests the survival of some ritual interest after its abandonment (Fig. 2). Each of the two terraces in Sector B was occupied by a group of houses. On the lower terrace, Buildings I to IV faced onto the east-west street, and the upper terrace could be bounded by another parallel street yet to be unearthed. If so, this would show that the eighth and seventh-century settlement was organized by blocks. The arrangement of east-west axial routes may be taken to imply large-scale town planning, if experimental in character. Though imperfect, probably due to pre-existing conditions, this would recall western colonial arrangements, where parallel roads define blocks containing a single household divided by narrow corridors (ambitus). On the ruins of the eighth- and seventh-century village lay a moderately-sized enclosure, perhaps a temenos of a sanctuary. This would indicate that a cult area survived the abandonment of the settlement.   Pythion: the Theatre. E.F. Ghedini and J. Bonetto (SAIA/Padova) report on the sixth excavation season. Investigation focused on the architecture and stratigraphical sequence of the stage to complement the extensive knowledge gained in earlier seasons of the auditorium and the east entrance to the building. A trial was opened in the east sector of stage, between its front wall and the rear wall enclosing the theatre, where the 2002-2003 campaign located rubble from the building’s collapse in the fourth century, perhaps in 365 AD when a severe earthquake is documented (see AR 51 [2004-2005] 113). Collapsed traces of a large structure running east-west were also revealed in excellent condition (Fig. 3). Built of square bricks with trapezoidal cross-sections arranged radially, it is probably the barrel-vault that covered the stage interior (Fig. 4). The removal of the upper debris revealed items employed after the theatre fell into disuse: three small basins, with holes, placed behind the stands and up against the wall at the northern end are nearly identical with others at the east side of the stage and the aditus. They form part of the remodelling of the theatre into a stable which took place before the dramatic collapse in the earthquake. Beneath the remains of the barrel-vault was a second, deeper layer of brick and cement in poor condition. This is also vaulted and is divided into two, corresponding to the north and south parts of the entire block. A third massive structure, again in a collapsed state, was located near the north wall of the stage. This is a central pier from which sprang two arches, still partly preserved: it probably served as the base for the barrel-vault.   Pythion: the Byzantine Quarter. E. Zanini (SAIA/Siena) reports on the 2010 excavation, focused on understanding transformation in the urban fabric in this area from Roman times (Fig. 5) to Late Antiquity and the Early Byzantine period (fifth-eighth centuries AD; Fig. 6). Work concentrated immediately west of the Pythion, and north west of the Late Antique/Early Byzantine road where earlier excavation had revealed an important late structure. Near the Pythion, detailed investigation was made of dumps of sundry materials alternating with more or less consolidated street surfaces. This suggests a return in Late Antiquity to a more private use of this area following the earthquake that levelled the Temple of Apollo and the theatre. Study was completed of the street levels in Late Antiquity, whose partial removal permitted a better understanding of a small Roman building – perhaps a manteion – in front of the temple (excavated in 2007-2008). In the second area, excavation revealed the collapsed roof of a building paved with reused large limestone slabs, and with two floors. Numerous seventh- to eighth-century amphorae were substantially reconstructed. Three of the ground floor rooms had thin floors of beaten earth: the presence of two trial trenches dug by Halbherr in the early twentieth century permitted closer study of these areas. A complex of Roman and Late Antique walls emerged, on different alignments, and hard to comprehend. They are strongly built and supported the ground surfaces of Late Antiquity and Early Byzantine times.   Byzantine House Complex: the Altar of Theos Hypistos. J.M. Fabrini (SAIA/Macerata) reports on study of material from the 2003 excavation of the altar and from the 1997-1998 excavation of the rear face of the temple in the Praetorium. Decorated ceramics are well represented from the Byzantine houses and the West Street, with the late fourth- to fifth-century repertoire better known than that of the sixth to seventh centuries. The earlier set has a limited range of forms, mostly basins plus a few closed shapes (e.g. bottles). On basins, painted decoration is generally limited to a zig-zag on the flat rim; a few also have larger motifs inside, including elaborate volutes and leaf-shaped ornament.   The Baths, South of the Praetorium. G. Bejor (SAIA/Milan) reports on the 2010 excavation (Fig. 7) which focused on the eastern section of the caldarium and on the apodyterium to the north (where excavation began in 2009). In the caldarium (Rooms K, N1 and N2; Fig. 8), the north and east walls (damaged by a large modern pit) were rebuilt at the start of the sixth century AD, along with two unheated basins in Room L. Close to the angle of these walls, a well-preserved head of Hygeia (in the Hope version) was found built into them. Significant remains of the heated rooms of the baths built at the start of the fourth century AD were found in deeper levels, notably traces of the underfloor of the caldarium in Room K and its system of suspensurae. Loss of evidence due to later construction makes it impossible to determine the original extent and layout of the heated area of these earlier baths. The large paved apodyterium was defined in Room H (Fig. 9). The west wall had been totally removed in the past, but its position can be traced accurately. The beginnings of an pavement outside the north door confirms the boundaries of the building. The outlines can be traced of a large later pit made to hold rejected pieces taken from the large blocks of the north west pillar in the frigidarium (Room F). The pit had almost completely destroyed the two doors into the apodyterium. In Room G, a small lime-kiln was revealed, set on a base (1.25m x 0.87m) of brick and marble slabs with gaps between for ventilation. Numerous fragments of polychrome marble (opus sectile) were recovered, many with obvious traces of burning, debris of an incomplete process of lime-burning. This kiln indicates a short period of recycling, following the collapse of the sixth-century structure but before re-use of the building in the later sixth to seventh centuries AD. The kiln base is set on a layer of soil and ash, under which is a pebble surface contemporary with the large pillar at the north west of the frigidarium, and thus dating to the earliest stage of the Baths. This might be an open-area, balancing the position to the south of entrance room A. Finally, both areas revealed traces of a long east-west wall on which the fourth-century AD baths were set, in part reusing it. This runs in parallel with a stylobate just to the south of entrance-room A: a rectangular agora might have existed here.  

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Agia Triada. V. La Rosa (SAIA/Catania) reports on excavations in 2010 focused on an Neo- and Postpalatial extension of the settlement north-northwest of the fenced area (Fig. 1). Excavation in a level area by the small road to Kamilari (trench A) failed to produce evidence of the dates under investigation. Rather, the stratigraphical sequence shows a series of flood deposits from the nearby Ieropotamos in the Early Byzantine or Venetian periods. Trench B, on an open slope before Tholos B, produced no evidence of flood. The only sequence of prehistoric levels lay at the north side, where a series of steps in the natural kouskouras (Fig. 2) may have been made to even out the terrain. Significant information about the use and agricultural exploitation of the area in the Early Byzantine and Venetian periods was recovered. The bedrock was deliberately smoothed, and delimited upstream by a light enclosure wall, perhaps forming a service or storage area. Nearby at Tholos A, Halbherr knew of a late presence, perhaps associated with this structure. Between the seventh and eighth centuries AD, and perhaps in Venetian times too, one or more isolated farmsteads exploited this fertile riverside strip. Early Byzantine activity is now added to the long history of this site: thereafter there is no evidence from the period of Arab domination, and recovery took place only at the beginning of the Venetian era.

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Phaistos Survey. M.D. Benzi (SAIA/Pisa) and F. Longo (SAIA/Salerno) report on the 2010 survey season (Fig. 1) conducted in collaboration with the ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ (then Director, M. Bredaki). Prospection in Zone D aimed to define the phases of occupation. It revealed some earlier Minoan and Greek activity, but also the presence of Roman material that suggests the existence of a farming village. In Zone E the geo-referencing results for the area of Phaistos are presented in a new plan. The topographical grid, set up in 2008 and integrated in 2009, was enhanced, with GPS measurements taken at the excavations. In Zone C, material from the cleaning of an exposed section on the Phaistos-Matala road dates to the late Prepalatial (MMIA late) to MMIIA periods, with most material belonging to the latter. Trials in Zone A confirm the existence of an enciente ca. 2m thick, with two faces of orthostats and a filling of earth and stones (Fig. 2). Its construction cannot be dated, but its destruction is fixed to the first half of second century BC (noting finds such as a black-glaze cup and a Hadra hydria). Finally, a test in the open area of Zone B revealed a structure at a depth of 1m. Two pavements of small stones probably belong to a road network of late date.

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Prinias.  D.S. Palermo (SAIA/Catania) reports on the restoration of the Tripartite Building and Temple A (Fig. 1). The walls of the Tripartite Building, excavated in 2007 and 2009, are 0.6-0.7m thick. The porous local stone suffers spalling due to freeze-thaw damage. The walls were supported and given covering of sieved earth, with the top 0.2-0.3m left clear (Fig. 2). Inside the Temple, repairs to the north wall of the eschara necessitated its partial removal (Fig. 3). A concrete repair made in 1969 by the SAIA had replaced the stones found by Pernier: under it, ca. 0.5m of modern earth and rubble covered undisturbed archaeological levels. Stone slabs, matching the originals, were substituted.

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Kommos. J.W. Shaw (ASCSA/Toronto) reports. Analytical work on LBA pottery reveals that the main source of Mycenaean imports was the Argolid, and of Cypriot, the Limassol area. The intensity of these and other international contacts in the Aegean and surrounding area is matched at this period only at Tiryns and Troy. Work on preserving and presenting the site was advanced (Figs 1, 2).

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Knossos Urban Landscape Project (KULP). M. Bredaki (then Director, ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ), A. Vasilakis (ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ) and T. Whitelaw (BSA/London) report on continuing study in 2010. The 190,000 plain body sherds collected in 2005 were broadly dated and the 55,500 feature and decorated sherds re-assessed. All non-ceramic material was recorded (3,750 items, bringing the total to some 13,000): most were relatively recent in date. Specialist work concentrated on defining the principal fabrics and variants of the prehistoric periods and the Early Iron Age.  

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Knossos, Lower Gypsades. J. Bennet (BSA/Sheffield), E. Hatzaki (Cincinnati) and A. Bogaard (Oxford) report on the first phases of geophysical exploration in 2010 and 2011. After over a century of continuous fieldwork at Knossos, the Bronze Age town is perhaps the least understood sector of the site. Lower Gypsades (including the terraces on which lie the Caravanserai and the House of High Priest) offers scope to investigate the Bronze Age urban landscape of Knossos using geophysical techniques due to the absence of deep post-Bronze Age occupation levels and the likelihood that the area represents the outer suburbs of the settlement, bounded above and to the south by cemeteries. Information from earlier archaeological interventions and from the Knossos Urban Landscape Project provide a data set with good spatial control which combines different investigation strategies. Magnetometer survey over some 14.5ha was undertaken to gain a general understanding of the nature and density of sub-urban settlement and define its limits in this region (Fig. 1). In total 19 individual areas were surveyed, comprising 762 whole or partial 20m grid squares; 406,400 data points were collected, covering just under 11 ha. of the total area. Initial review of the geophysics plots (Fig. 2) indicates considerable modern contamination in the form of discarded parts from irrigation systems. Anomalies were re-visited to establish whether they resulted from obvious contamination or were potentially of archaeological significance. The plots suggest a ‘busy’ subsurface landscape, as expected relatively close to the palatial centre. Within the overall noise, the data indicate terracing broadly following slope contours, while possible tomb signatures appear to the south east and south west, suggesting that the cemetery lay across the southernmost section of the study area. These results are further refined by resistivity survey of selected areas within the larger region.

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Knossos. The ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ report the discovery and excavation of unrobbed Minoan chamber tombs at Teke/Ambelokipi. These contained gold objects, including necklaces, vases, and other clay objects.

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Aloides. M. Petrakis (28th EBA) reports on a burial chamber found in the course of land-clearance in the Manias field. Human remains (including 15 skulls and other bones) were located in a cave. Initial inspection of the accompanying pottery indicates a Byzantine, or perhaps later, date.

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À Malia, l’année 2010 a été essentiellement consacrée à la quatrième campagne de fouille du bâtiment Pi dans le quartier Delta (M. Pomadère, Université de Picardie/EfA). Le programme a comporté cinq opérations distinctes (fig. 1) : l’exploration des niveaux du Bronze Ancien (sondages dans les espaces 2 et 3, 10 et 19) : le matériel recueilli dans les différents sondages — céramique, lamelles ou éclats d’obsidienne — semble indiquer que l’occupation de la zone a commencé au MA IIA, voire à la transition entre le MA I et le MA IIA, alors que l’on date habituellement l’installation à Malia plus tard, au MA II. la fouille de dépôts secondaires protopalatiaux découverts et laissés en place au Nord-Ouest de Pi en 2008. L’intérêt particulier de ces dépôts résidait dans la date relativement ancienne de la poterie, entre le MM IB et le MM IIB. Dans la partie Nord-Est de la cour 25, en particulier, on a fouillé une fosse-dépotoir creusée pour y placer une grande quantité de poterie, notamment de la céramique très fine, des os, d’assez nombreux coquillages ainsi que quelques débris de constructions. — Le plan des structures est dans cette zone peu lisible, mais montre que les relevés publiés antérieurement étaient imprécis, voire inexacts. la fouille des pièces au Nord du bâtiment Pi (zone 6). – Les campagnes 2007 et 2008 avaient mis en évidence une importante couche de destruction MM IIB dans la pièce 17, avec de nombreux objets et vases complets. La fouille de ce dépôt, de datation homogène MM IIB, a été poursuivie jusqu’au sol vierge. La couche fouillée cette année était principalement composée de vases écrasés sur place, de plaques d’enduit et de morceaux d’argile verte, de vases en pierre mêlés à de gros charbons (fig. 2). Parmi le matériel plus exceptionnel découvert dans ce niveau très riche, notons la présence de deux petites lames en bronze (scies), une épingle torsadée et un poignard en bronze dont la lame, complète, avait conservé ses trois rivets (fig. 3), trois sceaux prismatiques dont deux hiéroglyphiques, un nodule et un fragment de barre (?) avec traces de scellés, des fragments d’os travaillé, quelques ébauches de sceaux, ainsi que sept vases en terre cuite miniatures. Dans l’angle Nord-Est de la pièce, des vases étaient entourés de cinq cornes de bœuf et de chèvre. La partie inférieure du dépôt de destruction découverte cette année dans la pièce 17 comprend donc des catégories d’objets de prestige ou se rapportant à des activités administratives comparables dans leur nature à ceux découverts, en nombre bien plus important, au Quartier Mu. Contrairement à ce que l’on supposait jusque maintenant, les fonctions attestées au Quartier Mu se retrouvent donc aussi dans d’autres secteurs de la ville protopalatiale. – De la fouille de l’espace 24, on retiendra que cet espace comprend vraisemblablement des niveaux protopalatiaux plus profonds, peut-être associés à la pièce 17 sur laquelle il ouvre immédiatement à l’Est. l’extension Ouest vers Delta alpha (zone 7). – La campagne de cette année visait en outre à éclairer la nature de la zone située entre le bâtiment néopalatial Pi et la maison Delta alpha, en explorant un secteur déjà partiellement fouillé et remblayé depuis. Le sondage, limité à une bande d’environ 3,10 m de large, n’a pas permis d’apporter de résultats décisifs. En particulier, la nature de la structure comprenant la cuve en ammouda — la gourne — mise au jour en 2008 demeure indéterminée. enfin, deux sondages ont été réalisés dans la « Rue de la mer », dans le cadre d’un programme de recherche plus vaste sur l’urbanisme maliote. Il s’agissait d’étudier l’aménagement de la voie et sa chronostratigraphie. Le premier sondage a été implanté entre le bâtiment Delta bêta et le seuil en ammouda de la pièce 13 du bâtiment Pi, sur une longueur d’environ 3,7 m. Du côté Sud, les dalles en ammouda passent sous les grands blocs de façade de la maison Delta bêta ; une première observation du matériel permettrait de dater l’établissement de la voirie du début de la période protopalatiale, confirmant ainsi la datation proposée par les premiers fouilleurs. Du côté Nord, le simple nettoyage a fait apparaître des pavés dont certains passent sous l’assise de moellons sur laquelle repose le « seuil » du bâtiment Pi et montre bien le caractère tardif de ce bâtiment. Le second sondage a été implanté au débouché de la pièce 3 du bâtiment Pi sur la « rue de la mer » : les premiers décapages sont riches en matériel néopalatial ; surtout, on a pu distinguer un état antérieur de la rue, sur lequel a été établi directement le dallage d’ammouda présent à cet endroit de la « rue de la mer ».

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L’exploration archéologique du site de Dréros a été poursuivie en collaboration avec l’éphorie d’Aghios Nikolaos et l’Université Paris 4 et avec l’appui de la municipalité de Néapolis (Alexandre Farnoux, Paris 4/EfA, Stavroula Apostolakou & Vassiliki Zôgraphaki, KD' EPCA). On présentera les différents secteurs étudiés dans l’ordre où ils se présentent au visiteur.   Secteur 5. – Situé sur la pente Nord du site, à une cinquantaine de mètres en contrebas du mur de soutènement de l’agora, le secteur 5 avait été repéré en 2009 en raison de la présence d’un four à chaux et de nombreux murs visibles dans les pierriers alentour ; un deuxième four à chaux a été localisé soixante mètres plus au Nord-Est : l’un et l’autre ont fait l’objet de relevés et d’une première étude. Pour le reste, après nettoyage, on a mis au jour les vestiges d’un important bâtiment dont le plan d’ensemble ne se dessine pas encore nettement (fig. 1) : une longue pièce rectangulaire (12 m sur 3,50 m), orientée Est-Ouest et appuyée sur un haut mur de terrasse, a été dégagée ; elle semble s’ouvrir au Nord par une porte en partie détruite par l’installation du four à chaux. Au Nord-Est de la pièce, le départ d’un mur indique clairement que la grande pièce appartient à un ensemble qui se développe vers le Sud. Sous une mince couche de surface, une couche de destruction par endroit très épaisse a livré un abondant mobilier céramique et métallique, en particulier à l’Ouest où une dizaine de pithoi a été dégagée, essentiellement d’époque hellénistique. Du reste, l’ensemble du mobilier — un bracelet, une anse en bronze, un hameçon en bronze, des clous en bronze et en fer, mais aussi des fusaïoles et des pesons en terre cuite, des outils lithiques, dont une meule — paraît appartenir à un équipement domestique d’une relative ampleur. Le bâtiment semble avoir été détruit brutalement et abandonné immédiatement à l’époque hellénistique, sans doute à la suite de l’attaque des Lyttiens. au Nord de cette grande pièce, une petite pièce prend appui sur le mur de terrasse et a été installée postérieurement, avec une porte ouverte au Nord ; à l’Ouest de cette petite pièce, un espace limité par le rocher entaillé a été aménagé. Ces deux espaces ont livré peu de matériel : de la céramique commune hellénistique ainsi que des os dans la petite pièce, un pithos, sans doute de date plus récente, dans l’espace à l’Ouest.   Secteur 1 : l’agora. – Le secteur 1 couvre l’agora et les gradins dégagés par les fouilles françaises de 1932 et 1936. Deux interventions d’inégale importance y ont été conduites : le nettoyage du côté méridional rend désormais visible la succession des degrés sur toute l’aile méridionale ainsi que l’angle Sud-Ouest. une fouille in extenso du côté Ouest a permis le dégagement d’une nouvelle série de cinq longs gradins très bien conservés sur une longueur de 9,21 m ; à 5,10 m de la limite septentrionale des gradins, trois blocs disposés en pi pourraient constituer un petit escalier partiellement conservé ou bien d'un siège. En contre-haut des gradins et après un alignement de pierres, a été mis au jour un dallage bien conservé et délimité à l'Ouest par un muret formant une banquette. Il s'agit vraisemblablement d'une voie, large de 1,85 m, qui longe les gradins à l'Ouest et se dirige ensuite, selon toute apparence, vers le temple d'Apollon Delphinios au Sud (fig. 2).   Secteur 3 (H. Siard). – Situé à l’extrémité orientale de la large terrasse qui couronne l’Acropole Ouest, ce secteur (fig. 3) avait permis en 2009 la découverte d’un petit autel et d’un ensemble de figurines en terre cuite : la campagne 2010 a d’abord vu l’achèvement de la fouille de la pièce à l’autel. Elle se présente comme un espace auquel on accédait depuis l’Est. Sans doute s’agissait-il d’une cour hypèthre, car aucun élément de toiture n’a été retrouvé : du reste, la présence de l’autel et celle de la fosse contenant des résidus sacrificiels fouillée en 2009 assurent que l’on faisait brûler des animaux dans cet espace. L’épaisse couche de destruction qui repose sur un niveau de sol mal conservé a livré, outre de la céramique, une statuette en terre cuite d’un homme drapé d’un himation et un couvercle de vase en bronze avec une figurine de souris. L’architecture simple et modeste ainsi que le matériel céramique de cette cour — céramique commune, mais aussi un peu de céramique fine destinée à la consommation alimentaire — invitent à considérer qu’elle appartient à une maison particulière. Le type d’autel et les statuettes découvertes dans sa proximité s’accordent parfaitement avec les vestiges d’un culte domestique. – Cette maison était en usage à l’époque hellénistique ; la destruction a pu intervenir à la fin du IIIe ou au début du IIe siècle, en relation peut-être avec l’attaque et la destruction de la cité par Lyttos. l’enlèvement des pierriers qui encombraient la partie Nord de la terrasse couronnant l’acropole Ouest a permis de mettre au jour les vestiges de l’angle Sud-Est d’un grand bâtiment, composé d’un long mur Est-Ouest et d’un retour vers le Nord percé d’une porte. À l’Ouest de cette porte, la fouille a mis au jour le niveau d’occupation qui repose sur un remblai correspondant à la construction du bâtiment. L’ensemble du matériel retrouvé dans la couche d’occupation — en particulier une quantité importante de pesons de métier à tisser — fait penser à un contexte domestique et indique une occupation à l’époque hellénistique ; cette période est également celle de son abandon. À l’Est de cette porte, et donc en avant du grand bâtiment, a été identifiée une cour, dont l’angle Sud-Ouest était occupé par un grand four de plan circulaire (fig. 4). Four et bâtiment ont été construits d’une même venue : ils fonctionnaient donc conjointement, la cour constituant une annexe de la « maison » et associant diverses fonctions : cuisine, comme l’attestent une quantité impressionnante de restes fauniques provenant de déchets alimentaires, de très nombreux fragments de céramique commune, mais aussi espace de stockage, en raison des nombreux fragments de pithos ou de grands vases de type amphore, ou encore espace de travail, si l’on en juge par les nombreux pesons de métier à tisser et fusaïoles, dont certains étaient associés à des tiges de fer qui pourraient provenir d’un métier. – Le matériel provenant tant de la couche de destruction que des couches d’occupation paraît entièrement l’époque hellénistique, ce que confirment trois monnaies de bronze trouvées dans la couche d’occupation. Au total, la campagne 2010 établit donc que les constructions sur cette terrasse, tant au Sud avec la cour à l’autel, qu’au Nord avec le bâtiment au four, datent de l’époque hellénistique. Elle établit aussi la nature domestique de l’usage de ces deux ensembles. Le second toutefois pourrait, au vu de ses dimensions, avoir eu une vocation « publique » ou être d’usage collectif.   Secteur 4. – Enfin, au sommet de l’acropole Ouest, la fouille menée en 1917 avait mis au jour un grand bâtiment public d’abord identifié comme un temple, puis comme un « andreion ». Les opérations conduites en 2010 ont permis de distinguer clairement une terrasse supérieure à l’Ouest et une terrasse inférieure à l’Est, dont on a retrouvé la limite Sud et, dans le mur qui la limite à l’Est, les indices d’une ouverture ou d’un accès (fig. 5). Elles obligent donc à reconsidérer le plan unitaire jusqu’ici admis pour ce monument. Il est désormais manifeste que l’on n’a pas affaire à un seul bâtiment, mais que la terrasse inférieure a pris appui sur la terrasse supérieure qu’elle a englobée en partie. L’examen d’un « dallage », dégagé par Xanthoudidis à peu près dans l’angle Nord-Est de la terrasse supérieure, a permis de reconnaître plutôt un mur, qui pourrait appartenir à un petit bâtiment rectangulaire. Sous ce mur, a été mis au jour un riche dépôt de céramique et de fragments de figurines votives : vases complets du type kalathos et près d’une dizaine de statuettes en terre cuite représentant des bovins (fig. 6) et datables entre la fin du bronze récent et le début de l’époque géométrique. La découverte de ce dépôt, joint au riche matériel découvert en 1917 — nombreux objets de bronze dont des éléments d’armure, vaisselle céramique en faible quantité, quelques fragments de statuettes en terre cuite — permet peut-être d’avancer l’hypothèse d’un temple installé sur un lieu de culte plus ancien et intégré postérieurement dans une terrasse plus vaste. Ajoutons à l’ensemble de ces opérations le nettoyage des anciennes fouilles de P. Demargne sur l’acropole Est : il a permis de dégager partiellement le bassin de décantation de la grande citerne nettoyée en 1932. Ce nettoyage partiel a fourni un matériel abondant dont de la céramique datée du XIIe-XIIIe s., en particulier des fragments à glaçure, d’importation étrangère (Chypre, Italie du Sud ou Sicile) ou de fabrication locale, ainsi que des objets ou des fragments de fer ou de bronze, dont une monnaie du XIIe s. (époque des Commène). À l’évidence, l’occupation byzantine de l’acropole Est ne s’est pas réduite à la présence d’une simple garnison dans une forteresse : il s’agit en réalité d’une installation d’une plus grande importance qu’il faudra préciser.

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Priniatikos Pyrgos. B. Molloy (IIHSA/Dublin), B. Hayden (ASCSA/Pennsylvania Museum), J. Day (Dublin) and V. Klontza-Jaklova (Pennsylvania Museum) report on continuing excavation in 2010. Work focused on Trench II on the top of the promontory (Figs 1, 2): horizons here include undisturbed or pure EM I, EM IIB, MM II, MM III, at least three LM IA, some LM III and Late Geometric through to early Orientalizing, Classical, Hellenistic, Early and Middle Byzantine. To the northwest, an EM I domestic unit under mudbrick debris was probably an interior space associated with cooking activity. Successive phases of pebble and earth surfaces were revealed, the last of which held a fragmentary pithos, quern and mortar (Fig. 3). A copper chisel tip was also recovered, as was FN/EM I-II evidence for in situ obsidian knapping typical of the normal reduction processes (flakes, rejuvenated cores and debitage: Fig. 4). A burnt hearth area with animal bone refuse was located here. A discrete feature defined nearby by broken pithos pieces contained an Ag. Onouphrios ware jug and goblet parts, all deliberately broken before being covered. The forms and fabrics suggest an early EM I date. An EM IIB Vasiliki ware jug was found on a rough deposit typical of the many such laid to create level space amidst irregular bedrock outcrops. The EM I settlement is now seen to spread from the top of the promontory down its east and west sides. Debris from an urban shrine of possible MM II date includes rhyta fragments (some from a bull’s-head, Fig. 5) amongst high-quality ceramics. There is substantial provision for storage. No associated structure is yet certainly identified, although certain walls as C 758 are 0.9m thick. One shallow bowl, which perhaps held molten metal, has a potter’s mark or hieroglyphic/Linear A symbol of vaguely Δ-form (Figs. 6 and 7), and two others show a simple X. A schist blade was found. Fine wares, many, such as cups, bowls and pouring vessels (including rhyta), for liquids, imply continued activity into LM IA. Tripod cooking pots and coarsewares including pithoi (Figs 8 and 9) indicate other activities in the immediate vicinity. These deposits of mostly local wares are associated with both plaster and earth surfaces. A deposit sealing the area dates to LM IA at the latest. Reoccupation was immediate: damaged pithoi were removed, and cruder stone walls (C 133) erected. Other activities broadly dated to LM IA are represented by post-holes, pits and surfaces, plus a plaster floor and a gutter alongside a wall (C 865 by C 867). Two kerbs (C 967 and 533) delimit an MM II-III open-air zone of large pebbles which measures at least 6m east-west, although the northern and southern borders have yet to be found.   To the south were two Late Geometric pits and a wall, the former containing finewares and cooking vessels indicative of a domestic establishment. The wall, which was built onto bedrock after the removal of Bronze Age material, defines an outdoor space lacking recognizable surfaces, into which the pits were sunk. EIA pits were also found elsewhere: one (C 883) contained a rim sherd with an early alphabetic inscription (Fig. 10). Pottery from these pits (e.g. aryballoi, jars, storage and cooking vessels) dates from the mid-eighth to early seventh centuries (Fig. 11), placing the reoccupation of the site earlier than previously believed. Again to the south, Classical levels are associated with a wall (C 779). A concentration of deposits dated to 500-475 BC, with residual pottery going back to 525-550. Imported amphorae include one from Chios. A Hellenistic pit was found in the centre/west. Late Roman to Byzantine ceramics include red slip, combed and ribbed wares, and Constantinople White ware. The diagnostic glass (e.g. goblets) dates from the late fifth to eighth centuries AD. In the early Byzantine Building Complex 1 (Fig. 2), the squared outer face of the inner curved wall of Room 2 suggests a martyrion or a tower; a form of enceinte can be detected (walls C 11, C 12, C 729: Fig. 1). A complete Early Byzantine chalice was recovered from a pit (Fig. 12). A layer of plaster and a glass lamp are associated with a later building phase. To the southeast three built tombs indicate high-status burials (Fig. 13): Grave 3 has stone walls and lintels and was plaster-covered; Graves 4 and 5 were contained within a small structure, as if a mausoleum. Graves 1 and 2 to the west are also of Byzantine date. Byzantine Building 2, to the immediate north of Byzantine Building 1, was also established early and remained in use for a long period with many phases of alteration. Exterior walls found to the east and north (C 14 and 548) belong to the initial phase of use, as does a pithos set in a concrete-lined pit; later walls (C 708 and 821) are on a slightly different orientation. Other masonry styles, and the small rooms 101 and 102, may indicate squatter occupation.    

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Eleutherna.  N. Stampolidis (University of Crete/Museum of Cycladic Art) completed the excavation of a tomb at Orthi Petra begun in 2009 (see previously AR 56 [2009-2010] 189). A chamber-tomb (3 x 2.8 x 2.20m) was sealed with rough stones to a height of 1.80m. A table of offerings was probably set beyond the doorway. Within are the skeletons of four women buried in the first half of the seventh century BC. The eldest was aged 68-72, the others are considerably younger at 25-28, around 16 and approaching 14 years of age. They had enjoyed a fine diet and were in good health. The causes of death are as yet undetermined. A ‘bed’ of four stones set neatly on the tomb floor had sockets for feet; beneath, a pyramidal-shaped stone with a depression on its upper face may have held a lamp or aromatic substances. The oldest woman lay in the centre, flanked by the others (two were buried embracing): all (and especially the eldest) were decked with jewellery. Their elite status is clear. Some 150 items of jewellery include pieces in gold and silver as well as materials rarer in this period, including amethyst, carnelian, rock crystal, faience, Egyptian Blue and amber. Many are simple beads, discs, wire spirals and the like. However other items include gold pins and a necklace, composite amulets, and a disc with low-relief decoration picked out in granulation depicting a Master of Animals (between lions) surrounded by bands of zig-zags and interlocked S-motifs. Gold bands (0.14-0.16m long x 0.03-0.04m wide) may have lozenge-patterns or the stamped head of a Daedalic-style goddess. Amulets portray pairs of standing women. Also present were two large bronze bowls and a basin with triangular handles, and a glass lekythos decorated with black and silver lines. Ceramics include four amphorae and lekythoi of Cretan-Cypriot, Cypriot and Phoenician types.   Widespread press coverage was given to the excavation in 2010 by N. Stampolidis of another tomb at Orthi Petra, close to the Tomb of the Warriors. Within the tomb, a huge pithos (1.20 x 1.80m) set on its side was sealed by a slab. The pithos contained two skeletons buried around 680-600 BC: one was a woman 25-27 years old, and the other a youth of perhaps 17. Over the woman lay a cover of white wool or linen, on which was sewn numerous gold ornaments (over 3000 small cut-out pieces were recovered, including lozenges, circles, squares and triangles, usually 0.01-0.03m and up to 0.05m long). There were 386 beads of gold and silver, amethyst, carnelian, rock crystal, amber and faience. Other finds include a small scarab and sheet rosettes, plus an ornament located on the upper torso of the woman. This last (only 0.02-0.03m in size) bears a design picked out in granulation and filigree which when viewed from one direction shows the head and bust of woman combined with the body and ‘wings’ of a bee making a goddess in Daedalic style, but inverted can be read as a lily. Vessels of faience are present. Associated with the male were an iron spearhead and an iron brooch fitting.  

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Trypiti. R. Veropoulidou (Thessaloniki/Ministry of Culture and Tourism) and A. Vasilakis (formerly ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ, now Director, ΛΕ’ ΕΠΚΑ) report on the marine shell assemblage from the EM II settlement. Most of the ca. 4,500 pieces came from middens and food preparation areas, with few from eating areas.  Twenty species are identified, although 97% of the assemblage consists of just five (including three of the genus Patella - limpets). Molluscs are all locally obtainable from the sea-shore. Limpets contribute just under half, with top-shells and murex around a quarter each. They were collected for consumption, as indicated by their discovery in groups, as fresh specimens and of large size (although the local diet was based mostly on cereals, pulses and occasionally livestock). Most were eaten cooked (the shells were often whole), though few had been in direct contact with fire, but some were eaten raw as cut-marks on some 12% of shells indicate. Broadly the same varieties were consumed in the same manner throughout the settlement; such variation as can be seen is open to a number of explanations, including disposal practises, personal preferences and different recipes. The total recovered exceeds those from other contemporary coastal settlements (e.g. Knossos, Kommos and Palaikastro), by some twenty times in comparison with Myrtos-Fournou Koriphi (a site otherwise similar in type, size and organization).

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Zominthos. The 2010 excavation season was the last conducted under the direction of the late Y. Sakellarakis (ASA). Work in the Central Building revealed the walls of four rooms of a Roman construction within room 29 (Fig. 1). The second room from the east contained a rectangular hearth; the upper levels had pottery of the Classical, Hellenistic and Roman as well as Byzantine, Venetian and Ottoman periods. Below two of the rooms, Minoan layers of the First Palatial period contained pottery including a fruitstand and a cup. Trials to the west of rooms 13-15 and west of room 17 yielded Late Minoan pottery – conical cups, jugs, cooking pots and pithoi. Mycenaean sherds were present in the upper fill. Window-openings were found in the wall between rooms 14 and 15 (Fig. 2). Further walls indicate the existence of structures beyond rooms 13-15.

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Ta Mnemata. The 2010 excavation season was the last conducted under the direction of the late Y. Sakellarakis (ASA). Parts of at least two Mycenaean structures are now known. Finds include considerable quantities of pottery (e.g. stirrup jars and tripod cooking pots), stone querns, and clay loomweights and spindle-whorls.

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Kouroupetos. In 2010, the late Y. Sakellarakis (ASA) continued excavation at a site disturbed by illicit digging. A few human bones were found, together with Bronze Age pottery (cups, cooking vessels and a feeding-bottle).

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Idaean Cave. In 2010, the late Y. Sakellarakis (ASA) investigated recesses in the cave walls, below the so-called adyton. Many small fragments of bronze vessels, gold and bronze sheet, ivory and sherds of many periods were found.

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Zakros. E. Platon (ASA/Athens) reports on a study season focused largely on the ceramic material. Among finds made in 1966, a hemispherical cup and part of a brazier are noted. From the 1970-1971 excavation of houses in the southeast of the settlement come table wares such as tumblers (Fig. 1), carinated and straight-sided cups, shallow bowls, two-spouted lamps and kadoi, plus a metal-working crucible with metal adhering to the interior. Conservation was carried out on a range of bronze items from the LM I palace: four knives, three chisels, a drill, a large saw and a crook-headed pin. From the LM III shrine depository building came drinking vessels such as hemispherical spouted cups, two-handled bowls, handless cups with a curving profile, amphoroid kraters, stirrup-jars and basins. The 1978-1979 excavations in House B, on the northwest slopes, yielded significant quantities of pottery including a pair of large kadoi, a four-handled small pithos with black crossed patterns, a small pithoid-amphora, two amphorae with oval mouths, eight prochoes with linear decoration (Fig. 2), three chytres and eight hemispherical kyathoi. Of particular interest from the Palace excavations is a large stamnoid bucket with a spout and two loop-handles (Fig. 3), decorated with bands on the lower half of the body and on the upper half, a lower zone of reeds and an upper containing wheel-motifs with double-axes in between.

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Agios Frangiskos, Herakleion. M. Andrianakis (Director, 13th EBA) and P. Epitropakis (13th EBA) report on the excavation of most of the east part of the monastery for the construction of offices for the ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ and Herakleion Museum. A lead commemorative medallion of the second half of the 14th century AD from the foundation of the apse bore a depiction of Saints Paul and Peter with the name of Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378) on the reverse. Inside the north wall is a well of dressed limestone. The red limestone floor of the groin-vaulted burial crypt incorporates the cover slabs of graves. A cluster of box-like, two-tiered nobles’ tombs (vaulted inside) were found, all robbed but nonetheless containing finds such as stone coats-of-arms, jewellery, and metal attachments from clothing. Another set of graves, similar but with flat covers that form the floor of the central nave, should be those of monks. While disturbed, they yielded parts of votive plaques, candle-holders, floor slabs, etc. East of the monastery, cutting the Arab-Byzantine town wall, is a third, comparable cluster of tombs belonging to Ottoman officers (to judge from crescent-moon emblems and traces of metal uniform accoutrements). A lower level held the remains of those who died in the course of the Seige: other such collections of bodies had been made when creating the courtyard to the south of the main Museum entrance. 

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Alevriko. V. Zographaki (ΚΔ᾽ΕΠΚΑ) reports on trial excavation in the Minoan settlement. Late Minoan architectural and ceramic remains are recorded, along with stone tools, obsidian; loomweights; shells and animal bone.   

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Almyrida. K. Giapitsoglou (28th EBA) reports on the rescue excavation of a sixth-century AD brick-built structure, probably part of a bath.     

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Eleutherna.  E. Tegou (ΚΕ᾽ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that rescue excavation in the north cemetery revealed 128 tombs (largely Hellenistic), cut into the bedrock (Fig. 1). Grave goods include vases and gold mouth-covers (Fig. 2).  

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Anavlochos.  V. Zographaki (ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavation at the Geometric-Archaic settlement, which covers three hilltops and the saddles between. Various structures were revealed in areas A (below hills 1 and 2) and B (hill 2). At Mirmingas, at the north foot of the hills, lies the cemetery of the settlement: two clusters of tombs were investigated, yielding clay vases and metal finds.     

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Angeliana. E. Kapranos (ΚE’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of an LM III ‘cave-tomb’ containing larnax burials.  

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Kyani Akti, Aptera.  V. Niniou-Kindeli, K. Tzanakaki, E. Papadopoulou (ΚE’ ΕΠΚΑ) report the excavation of a Late Roman industrial installation concerned with the production and transport of local wine.  

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Armenoi. K. Psarakis (28th EBA) reports on an excavation at the church of Ag. Ioannis Theologos. Beneath the 16th-century church are walls of a domed structure dated to the late 12th or early 13th century on the basis of wall painting fragments. This in turn overlies an Early Christian Basilica with a mosaic of the second half of the sixth century (by the same craftsmen responsible for the floor of the basilica in nearby Almyrida).  

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Bali. E. Papadopoulou and E. Kopranos (ΚE’ ΕΠΚΑ) report the discovery at Sidero of an LM IIIB structure. At Katevatis, a Middle Minoan building complex, comparable to that at Pera Galanoi to the west, is sited on a low hill by the sea (Fig. 1) – part of a range that stretches from Bali to Sises. A connection with the metalliforous deposits of the region is postulated.   

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Chersonissos.  K. Galanaki (ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on rescue excavation conducted between 1991 and 2010 in the Polis area of modern Limeni, where the centre of the late Classical and early Hellenistic cemetery lies below Roman and Early Christian occupation debris.     150 tombs with human burials were found, plus two horse burials. Most are pit graves usually covered with earth or sand and occasionally with terracotta or stone slabs: there are a few terracotta-lined cists. Grave goods comprise a large range of black- and red figure vessels (plus occasional marble vessels), including lekythoi, skyphoi, kantharoi, pyxides, miniatures, unguent and perfume vessels, jugs, amphorae, lamps, lachrymateria, alabastra, and egg-cups. (Figs 1-4). Jewellery comprises wreaths, diadems, earrings, necklaces, bracelets, rings, brooches and pins. Other personal items include strigils, mirrors, knucklebones, plus bronze nails, bone, silver and bronze discs and pellets, and bronze buckles, perhaps from shoes.

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Schisma, Elounda. V. Zographaki (ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery in the cemetery of Elounda of vaulted tombs similar to those found at Loutres (Ierapetra). The largest incorporates inscriptions from earlier, dismantled tombs. Further funerary inscriptions and a stele of a warrior were also found. Cist and pit tombs were also discovered both here and in Ag. Nikolaos.  

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Itanos. C. Sophianou (ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the investigation of three Hellenistic and four Geometric tombs in the cemetery. Below the Hellenistic tombs were Geometric cremations: the ash layer contained a large range of Late Geometric to Early Archaic vases - lekythoi, skyphos, an ash-filled kalpis, aryballoi with concentric circles, and a pyxis with a duelling scene (Fig. 1). Protocorinthian and Cypriot vases and Creto-Rhodian aryballoi were found. Other finds of this date include bronze fibulae, a bowl containing burnt animal bones, and terracotta loomweights.  

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Kalamavka. V. Apostolakou and V. Zographaki (ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) report investigation of three Minoan tombs at the sites of Porthias and Psathi.

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Kaminaki. V. Apostolakou (Director, ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a Minoan tomb, with rich grave goods.

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Karfi. V. Apostolakou (Director, ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a further 12 tombs at the known Minoan cemeteries of Astivithero and Vitsilovrisi.

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Kandanos (property of M. Kalaitzaki). P. Karniavoura (28th EBA) reports the discovery of two cist tombs, oriented east-west (Fig. 1), with no grave goods. 

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Chania, Kastelli. G. Phantakis (28th EBA) reports on a series of finds from the town, including a metalworking furnace, a cemetery and house remains. Coins indicate occupation from Late Roman to Venetian times.  Excavation on Episkopi E. Syngelaki Street in 2010 revealed four tombs oriented east-west. Tomb 1 was an osteotheke. The other graves yielded skeletal remains, two earrings, seven vases (one an oinochoe), and a brooch with cut cruciform decoration, al indicating a sixth-century date. A circular building, oriented to the east, had wall paintings on the north and south sides. Its sixth-century mosaic floor depicts a krater from which spring vines, plus ivy-leaves and part of a cross (Figs 1 and 2). The building recalls the circular church of the Archangel Michail in neighbouring Episkopi.

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Kephali Sphendyli.  M. Mavriki-Balanou (ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a Neopalatial Minoan building complex in the catchment area of the Aposelemi Dam. The structure, oriented almost north-south, contained 52 rooms and had strong walls of local limestone, with substantial use of mud-brick. Smaller habitation units and areas for religious activities are detected (Figs. 1 and 2). Neopalatial pottery (largely domestic in nature) defined the main use-phase. Substantial reuse in LM III is indicated by later walling. Some Archaic sherds (mostly from pithoi) were recovered. Under the structure, and below a layer of sterile soil, were four Late Neolithic/Early Minoan burials.

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Koiliari. V. Niniou-Kindeli, K. Tzanakaki, and E. Papadopoulou (ΚΕ᾽ ΕΠΚΑ) report the discovery of an LM II underground built tomb in a previously known cemetery.

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Kryoneri. M. Pateraki (ΚΕ᾽ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on continuing rescue excavation of an MM building with seven rooms, from which four pithoi were recovered.

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Loutra. G. Katsalas (13th EBA) reports the discovery in the ruins of the church of the Ag. Saranta of six tombs and a cruciform font. Tomb 1, in the central nave, is vaulted, with traces of decoration inside. The entrance, on the east, had stone steps down to the chamber and was closed with a slab. The Early Byzantine grave goods comprise two glass perfume vessels, an amphoriskos and a small oinochoe in a square cist in the west wall. Tomb 2, on the north side of the north aisle, is cist-like with terracotta cover slabs. Tomb 3, in the southwest part of the north aisle, is similar to tomb 1 but with a limestone cover slab: although disturbed, it contained a glass oinochoe and perfume flask. Tomb 4, in the central nave, is a stone cist with no goods. Tomb 5, on the south side of the central nave, is as tomb 4. Inside the south apse was a medieval child burial. The font is small and cruciform, with traces of hydraulic plaster on the inside and a clay outflow pipe.   

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Loutres. V. Apostolakou (Director, ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavation in the extensive Roman cemetery, west of the Ierapetra. Fifty-six tombs have been investigated to date. In addition to pit and tile graves, 12 single-chambered, vaulted tombs have been discovered, built of gypsum or limestone slabs (Fig. 1) or with dry-stone walls, and with brick vaults. Pottery and glass vessels date to the second-third centuries AD, and lamps from the mid-first to late third century AD. Bronze coins date to the reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Severus Alexander. Other finds include clay masks, gold jewellery, bronze vases, mirrors and strigils.

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Moires. V. Sythiakaki (13th EBA) reports the discovery of a late Imperial bath.  The three main rooms and the channel feeding the hypocaust system were located. The caldarium was probably covered by a dome: on the west side were baths and perhaps a swimming pool, all above the mouth of the praefurnium; the walls contained a piped heating system. The tepidarium had a separate praefurnium and hypocaust on square pillar-supports, but no wall heating. The frigidarium lies to the north and east, partly in a neighbouring plot. The floor was covered in a thick layer of hydraulic plaster. South of the bath, a rectangular pithos store probably held wine (the pithoi, found in situ, were walled up to the rim). On the west side was a yard and evidence of habitation (the lowest levels appear domestic in character). The fabric of the floor of the second phase contained a follis of the Emperor Heracleius and his son Constantinus (626/7–631/2 AD), a date consistent with the pottery of the same phase (e.g. a TRC 10 amphora from the pithos store). A bread stamp bore the owner’s name: (ICXC) BOHΘΙ  ΔΟΥΛΩ  CΟ(Υ)  [C]ΩΤΙΝΩ. The first phase of the bath dates no earlier than the fifth to early sixth century AD.

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Rethymnon, Old Town.  K. Giapitsoglou (28th EBA) reviews the results of rescue excavation in the old town. At the Neratze Tzami/Odeon, excavation in 2007–2008 revealed parts of the south and west wings of the Augustinian monastery. Pottery (mostly glazed) (Fig. 1) and bronze coins indicated that the complex was occupied between the early 15th and the late 18th century AD.  Investigation of a two-roomed, domed structure at the junction of P. Koronaiou and Smyrnis Streets in 2007-2008 revealed the apse of the church attributed to Ag. Sophia in Venetian sources, plus associated graves. A mihrab was built when the church was transformed into the mosque of Yahya Ibraim. Excavation at a church on Nikiforou Phoka Street (tentatively attributed to Ag. Paraskevi) showed that it was used for worship from the 16th century to the Turkish occupation, when it became a workshop and store. Excavation within the church of Ag. Frangiskos (2003–2005) revealed successive layers of closely packed tombs, a unique arrangement in the Venetian record and one which probably relates to the Ottoman siege of the town (which fell in 1646).  Repaving of the square of the Unknown Soldier in 2008 revealed the remains of the Gate of Ag. Varvara, part of the city’s land walls which were demolished at the beginning of the 20th century.  The church of the Ag. Apostoloi, on Kastrinogiannaki Street, was revealed in its entirety in 2009-2010 (the south wall and part of the apse had previously been visible, preserved to a height of 2.5m). This two-aisled church was established in the late 15th or early 16th century AD, and is mentioned as an Orthodox building in the 17th-century sources. Several building phases are observed. The two aisles are joined via three arches supported on orthogonal columns and one half-column on the west wall. The original entrance was in the west part of the north wall, with light coming from at least one window in the south wall. Inside the church were three cist tombs containing co-mingled burials: these must have been visible above the plaster floor. In Ottoman times the building was divided into two. The crudely made walls of a structure (of as yet uncertain function) are preserved in the east part of the church. The remaining area was probably used for storage, with modifications to the church structure including the opening of a window in the south wall: this use is indicated by a large pithos inserted into the north tomb (1) (Fig. 2). Excavation inside the Didymo Ktirio in 2010 revealed an earlier house with at least five-rooms, which was largely founded on bedrock. It was built of fieldstones covered in a light coloured plaster inside and out, and had at least one entrance on the south side (the threshold of which is preserved). A small channel ran under the floor of the central room. The building, which extends further to the east and north, beyond the area of the Didymo Ktirio, was in use in the later 16th century to judge from the small number of sherds (including ceramica berettina) and bronze coins recovered. An Early Byzantine coin found on the bedrock is the only indication of activity in this period yet found in Rethymnon. Following the destruction of the building (the cause of which is unknown), the Didymo Ktirio (likely used for storage) was built on the same site probably early in the 17th century.

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Palaikastro. C. Sophianou (ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of two Minoan tombs at Vigli and Kastri.    

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Phounardos. S. Markoulaki and N. Paterakis (ΚE’ ΕΠΚΑ) report the discovery of a multi-phase Roman and later farming complex associated with the production and storage of wine and olive oil production. Two stone wine presses are described.

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Potamoi. K. Giapitsoglou (28th EBA) reports the discovery of a small early fourth-century AD bath with four rooms, which was destroyed when the nearby river changed course. Remnants of the hypocaust system are well preserved (Fig. 1).  

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Roussa Ekklesia, Kastri. C. Sophianou (ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that excavation along the length of the defensive wall on the acropolis of Kastri, has shown the existence of 11 watch-towers and structures inside the wall. Pottery and two inscriptions previously recovered indicate occupation from Archaic to Roman times.  

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Sarakinou Kephala. V. Zographaki (ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that trial excavation at this known Minoan site, revealed MM I-II and LM IIIC pottery plus the remains of Hellenistic and Roman structures.  

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Elyros, Selinos. K. Kyriazopoulou, A. Tsingou and P. Drosinas (ΚE’ ΕΠΚΑ) report on a series of trial excavations. Architectural finds include a Roman theatre and details of the Classical fortifications. Four fortified late fourth-century BC tower complexes at Vlithia, Azogyre, Spaniaka and Anydroi, are strategically placed to watch over the coastal and land routes (they are intervisible). They are polygonal constructions, with circular towers along the perimeter.

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Skopi, Mesorachi. C. Sophianou (ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of an EM tholos tomb of Mesara type. Badly destroyed, it yielded some sherds and steatite beads.   

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Sphakaki. M. Vlasaki (Director, ΚE’ ΕΠΚΑ) with E. Papadopoulou, E. Kapranos and N. Tsatsaki (ΚE’ ΕΠΚΑ) report the discovery of 38 tombs in the known Hellenistic and Roman cemetery: 15 were tile graves (most unrobbed), 25 simple cists, seven other forms of cist, and one a pit.  A total of 233 ceramic and 28 glass vessels were recovered, plus a mass of other finds including beads, necklaces, sundry items of metal, stone and bone, loomweights and bronze coins.    

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Knossos, Teke (property of G. and N. Frangiadakis). M. Rousaki (ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery, in the course of rescue excavation, of Protogeometric to Orientalising tombs (plus a few of later date) from the Teke section of the Knossos North Cemetery was uncovered (Fig. 1). Most burials were cremations and enchytrismoi, with one inhumation only. Three types of tomb were found. There were two chamber tombs cut into the kouskouras bedrock, oriented northwest-southeast, with a long sloping dromos with burial niches in the sides and a round or elliptical chamber. The entrances, framed by large limestone slabs, were blocked with stones.  One tomb was robbed. The vases (Fig. 2), found in the chamber, were mostly complete but broken by the roof fall. The numerous finds include: amphorae, kraters, pithoi with conical lids (Fig. 3), bell-skyphoi, lekythoi, oinochoes, cups, a prochous, askoi, a kalathos, a pyxis and feeding-bottle, terracotta figurines (a horse and a quadruped), a bronze lebes and a bowl, brooches and pins, chains and earrings, iron blades and fire-dogs, a silver pin, and glass, faience and rock-crystal beads. In the Late Geometric period the tomb roof collapsed, leaving a depression into which were placed 24 items including cremation urns. The vases range from the Late Geometric/Early Orientalizing transition to the end of the Orientalizing period. The second tomb type (with 17 examples) is a roughly-dug pit. The third consists of scattered cists of irregular form: 12 are recorded, with associated ash-urns and burial pithoi. Grave goods are mostly pots (pithoi, pithoid amphorae and amphorae, cups, lekythoi, an aryballos and an alabastron), plus a few metal items (gold beads, a silver pin, and bronze brooches, pins, rings and a necklace).

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Tourloti. V. Zographaki (ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a tomb containing LM IIIC pottery.   

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Chania, Town Walls. C. Bourbou (28th EBA) reports on excavation of the Early Christian town walls (Fig. 1), which are set on the Hellenistic fortifications (which in turn lie on Late Minoan urban remains). A second low wall may be connected with water management.  

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Viglia, Kalyviani. M. Vlasaki (Director, ΚE’ ΕΠΚΑ) and M. Skordou (ΚE’ ΕΠΚΑ) report the discovery of an MM installation. Find include a terracotta rhyton in the shape of a feline head.  

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Ziros, Livari. C. Sophianou (ΚΔ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a tholos tomb of Mesara type. Unrobbed, but much disturbed, it is dated by the pottery contained to EM I–III/MM IA. Traces of burning on the bones are the result of localized attempts at fumigation inside the tomb. Other finds include items of jewellery in gold (one) and silver (five), bronze objects, stone and bone beads and parts of two terracotta figurines. Nearby rock-shelters, contemporary with the tholos tomb, yielded human skeletal remains and finds including EM to early MM vases, stone beads and necklaces, bone seals, gold leaf, silver beads and bronze tools, plus Roman pottery and a complete lamp.    

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Rethymnon. K. Giapitsoglou (28th ΕΒΑ) reports on excavations in the old town. On Kastrinoyiannakis Street, the plot of the church of the Holy Apostles was completely excavated. Three construction phases are noted.  In the late 14th or 15th century a single-nave church was built, a second nave was added to the north in the 16th century, and in the Ottoman period the building became part of a larger residential complex.  It remained in use until the late 19th century when for unknown reasons it was destroyed. Excavation within the twin building in the Agios Nicholaos bastion of the Fortezza fortress revealed an older building which was levelled and overbuilt in the late 16th or early 17th century.  Berettina pottery of the second half of the 16th century, Venetian coins and a bronze coin of Justinian were amongst the finds.  

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Sfakaki. E. Kapranos (ΚΕ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports the excavation of a Late Minoan IIIA2-B chamber tomb.  The east part of the chamber had been destroyed by a mechanical digger.  The tomb contained two larnakes and nine other vases together with a large number of beads.

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AVERTISSEMENT
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