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Dernières notices ajoutées par région : Crète
Palaikastro. L.H. Sackett (BSA/Groton) reports on a further study season.  A team of environmental specialists worked on flotation material, including charcoal, shells, foraminifera, seeds (grape, lentil and olive) and bone, as well as other fragments such as plaster.  An unusual lead ring bezel recognized from building 5 may be a companion piece to the gold ring with hunt scene from the same area.

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Mochlos.  J. Soles (ASCSA/ North Carolina) and C. Davaras (Athens) report on a further study season.  Experimental pottery production continued with the M potter’s wheel reconstructed in the artisans’ quarter.  Site conservation was completed for large parts of building C.7 and house C.3; the Prepalatial remains along the S façade of C.7 were also consolidated and left exposed to view.

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SE Crete, Archaeological Land Survey. S. Apostolakou (Director, ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) and N. Schlager (OAI/Vienna) report on the 2008 survey season, a continuation of a collaborative project begun in 1996 (see AR 43 [1996−1997], 117−18) and continued in 2000. At Aspro Nero (Paletsi) further Cyclopean walls were found abutting the N bastion to the N.  These are closely similar in construction technique and size of boulders to the walls of the large MM/LM settlement at Chametoulo (Aletourgio/Vrysi) 1.7km to the N.  Aspro Nero may be interpreted as a fortified post controlling the low-lying valley leading from the coast up to Chametoulo.  Most datable sherds in the area of these walls (and elsewhere on the site) are MM, with some LM and a few Byz or Emod. glazed sherds.  At the S border of the site, S of the S bastion, a huge natural limestone outcrop resembles Horns of Consecration with their long axis oriented N-S.  Some distance below to the E lies a small artificial platform.  In an outcrop on its E side, deep, narrow crevices contained numerous MM sherds, mainly cooking pots, bowls and cups, deposited deliberately.  This assemblage appears to be the debris from outdoor feasting in association with the outcrop. At Ag. Irini it is evident that the 2 sites previously identified (20 and 21) form part of one large FNeo−EMII settlement extending from the top of Kastri down its S and E slopes. There are no substantial differences in the materials and building techniques of the much eroded, flimsy walls just below the top of the hill compared to those further downslope.  The earlier assumption of a later MM date for the terrace buildings must be abandoned, although MM pottery is conspicuous on terrace III. Considering the vast amount of FNeo−EMII material across the site, the MM sherds imply a partial, perhaps temporary, reoccupation of this specific area in the MBA, though no MM architectural remains have been recognized. The top of the hill is devoid of architectural features.  Numerous fragments of Melian obsidian blades and cores, and local flints, concentrated on terraces I and II, imply knapping and working areas used by specialized craftsmen, who acquired or imported foreign raw materials and probably produced tools on the spot. Documentation of all visible remains indicates that this is one of the largest FNeo−EMII settlements in the area between Zakros, Xerokampos and Goudouras. Prior to 2008, the coastal strip and plateau of Livari had not been surveyed in its entirety (Fig. 1).  Parts of it were documented in 2000: an ?EM/MM settlement at Cheromylia (site 36), an EM−MMI cemetery and tholos tomb at Skiadi (site 37: see Goudouras below) and a FNeo settlement at Katharades (sites 34 and 35) on high ground above the coast.  In 2008, the area was completely mapped, including all anc. and mod. structures, not all of which were previously known: site 38 denotes those structures W of the gorge of Ankastara (N of sites 36 and 37) and site 39 those to the E.  Confirmed anc. sites are as follows. Site 38A (Fig. 2): FNeo−EMII settlement with a minimum N-S extension of 75m along the E slope of the small coastal range of Kastrokephalaki. Site 38B: quadrangular rock-cut feature at the peak of Kastrokephalaki with small cleft in the rock. Site 38C: walled-off and partly robbed cave on the W slope of the same range with many EMI/EMII sherds, including one fragment of fine Vasiliki ware of EMIIB.  Since no bones were detected, the function of the cave as a burial place remains  doubtful. Site 36: the site plan was supplemented with the addition of walls and buildings not previously recognized. Pottery and portable finds confirm a date no earlier than MM; the presence of LM pottery indicates continuing activity into the LBA.  Site 37: more EM and later pottery was identified and recorded in and around tholos tomb I within the necropolis of site 37 (Skiadi).  Because of its proximity to 38A, it must be seen now as the contemporary cemetery of that settlement. In addition, site 39A is a 19th Ct AD walled look-out post (vigla) on top of the steep cliff at the E limits of Livari. This season’s work allows a summary of the local development of settlement in the area: (1) FNeo settlement: Katharades acropolis (site 35) and Katharades bastion (site 34); (2) FNeo−EMII settlement: Kastrokephalaki (38A) with cult place (38B) and cave (burial?) deposit (38C); the necropolis at Skiadi (37) probably built and in use contemporaneously; (3) MM/LM settlement at Cheromylia (36); part of cemetery at Skiadi probably still in use; (4) LBA: end of continuous settlement at Livari. The hypothesis that Cl−Hel Stalai should be located at Livari could not be confirmed archaeologically.

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Pseira. P.P. Betancourt (ASCSA/Temple) and C. Davaras (Athens) report on fieldwork focused on mapping the geology of Pseira and the quarries used by the Minoans.   Three major quarry areas have been identified on the island, of which 2 were used to quarry metacarbonate, an altered limestone with a layered structure that breaks easily into slabs, and the 3rd produced hard and compact dark gray limestone. Other small areas where stones were removed from bedrock have also been identified.  These materials were used differently in the architecture of the town.  The metacarbonate was used primarily for floor slabs, thresholds and staircases, while the dark gray limestone was used for load-bearing walls. These 2 materials, plus mud-brick, formed the major components of the Pseiran houses, along with smaller amounts of other stones, including sandstone quarried from the coast near mod. Mochlos and a crystallized limestone from an unknown location. 

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Papadiokambos.  C. Sophianou (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on fieldwork at this M harbour town between the Mirabello and Siteia bays.   The excavation and conservation of house A.1 at the W end of the settlement was completed, and a ground-penetrating radar survey of the surrounding yard undertaken (Fig. 1). Ten rooms were uncovered on the ground floor (ca. 80−90% of the original plan): the undisturbed collapsed upper storey will allow for an unusually detailed understanding of the layout and contents of the upstairs rooms.  House A.1 has 2 architectural phases, the 2nd of which is LMIB, though probably not as late as the F LMIB phase identified at other sites in E Crete.  The 1st phase of the house, dated to MMIIIB/LMIA, ended with the Theran eruption. In area B, trenches were opened in house B.1, 150m SE of area A.  House B.1 is a more impressive construction than house A.1, both in terms of its architecture and the finds, which include a copper ingot fragment and a pithos stamped 10 times with 2 different seals. All visible walls were mapped in areas B, C and D, which probably includes the centre and E end of the M town (Fig. 1).  The town appears to cover 4−8ha.  Geological studies were aimed at reconstructing the BA landscape and the geological and tectonic events that may have been factors in the destruction and preservation of the site.  In area D, waves have exposed a thick layer of tephra from the BA Theran eruption, which covers M walls and pottery. The first stage of the pottery study of house A.1 has been completed.  Samples were collected from all ceramic and many stone objects (600 artefacts) and 100 samples chosen for the final organic residue study.  More than 400 soil flotation samples have now been sorted and studied.  House A.1 produced an exceptional record for the preparation and consumption of shellfish and fish, while soil samples from the hearths and jars from houses A.1 and B.1 contain a rich collection of carbonized plant remains (olive, legumes, grape, fig and almond).  Preliminary studies of the artefacts and ecofacts suggest that the inhabitants produced small amounts of olive oil and wine in the houses.

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Goudouras (Livari-Skiadi).  C. Sophianou (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the excavation of a Prepalatial cemetery, at the site of Livari-Skiadi, 5km E of Goudouras on a small promontory at the edge of a coastal plain.   A circular tholos tomb and a rock-shelter were noted: fragmentary walls suggest the existence of additional burial buildings in the area.  In 2008, excavation was limited to the interior of the tholos (interior di. 4m), the entrance to which is to the SE.  The burial stratum was unlooted but mixed due to the continuous use of the tomb.  It contained large quantities of very fragmented, burnt human bone from secondary burials. Other finds include clay vases, animal bones, sea shells, chipped obsidian and chert tools, a copper dagger and several items of gold, silver and stone jewellery.  Preliminary study of the pottery indicates that the tomb was built in EMIB and continued in use though EMIIA and EMIIB, and probably EMIII/MMIA. 

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Kephali Aphroditis.  P.P. Betancourt (ASCSA/Temple) reports on studies of this site, which was excavated in 1996 by T. Iliopoulos (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) and in 2003 by S. Apostolakou (Director, ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ).   The EMI site, which consists of a small 2-room building and courtyard surrounded by a fortification wall, is situated on a hilltop W of the village of Episkopi, overlooking the mod. road across the Isthmus of Ierapetra.  The S room of the structure had a stone bin, and the N a bench along the N wall and a stone support for a wooden column to hold up the roof. Nine or more large pithoi were preserved (among the earliest known in Crete) (Fig. 1), in addition to smaller clay vessels.  Immediately N of the building was a large area where fires had burned the soil red.  It is suggested that this was the location of a signal fire, with the fortified enclosure serving as a refuge for the local population.  The wall also enclosed the entrance to a small cave which could have provided water and additional space for storage.  The site provides new evidence for the unsettled conditions in E Crete at the beginning of the BA. 

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Azoria. D. Haggis (ASCSA/North Carolina) and M. Mook (ASCSA/Iowa State) report on the 2nd season of study and conservation following the 2002−2006 excavations.  Study of iron artefacts and slag allowed the identification of a number of smithing hearth bottoms from EIA and Ar fill levels.  Seventeen inscribed sherds (6th−5th Ct BC) were studied for publication. Animal bone identifications were completed, and querns were sampled for residue analysis.  Study of the human remains from the small tholos tomb in trench 3700 indicates a minimum of 7 individuals (5 adults, 2−3 children).  All structures on the SW slope of the S acropolis were conserved.

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Gournia Survey. L.V. Watrous (Buffalo/ASCSA) reports on continued study of material from the 1992−1994 survey.  Work was begun in the area of Sphoungaras, identifying and mapping the walls excavated by Harriet Boyd in 1901−1904: some are identified as fortification walls (with towers), others were Prepalatial house walls, while yet others served agricultural purposes.

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Pacheia Ammos, Alatsomouri.  S. Apostolakou (Director, ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the rescue excavation of a rock-shelter exposed during construction work for the cemetery of Pacheia Ammos.   In addition to a M pithos burial, an assemblage of Prepalatial pottery was discovered in one of a series of trenches opened along the length of the site, along with stone tools and an almost square pit dug into the soft rock.  The latter was probably part of a rock-shelter destroyed by the mechanical digger, leaving its contents undisturbed.  A G-shaped wall closed the opening of the shelter.  Inside, a layer ca. 0.4m d. contained a large quantity of vases, almost 100 stone tools, 8 loomweights, a few obsidian flakes and 2 or 3 fragments of potters’ turntables.  The pottery is entirely handmade in local clay.  While many vessels, including wide-mouthed prochoes, pithoi, amphorae and tripod cooking pots, are made from a red, coarse-looking clay, a greater number in a wide variety of shapes are made from a yellow-ochre coloured clay and in some cases are decorated with dark-coloured bands or drips.  A smaller number belong to the Light on Dark style, with the linear decoration characteristic of the end of the Prepalatial period in E Crete.  The function of the rock-shelter remains unknown, although the complete absence of bones precludes the usual use as a tomb.  An explanation in terms of storage of materials also has weaknesses, because the quantity of vessels exceeds that of usual household storage. An answer may be provided by chemical residue analysis of the 500 samples which have been taken from the pottery assemblage. 

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Pacheia Ammos, Pefka.  S. Apostolakou (Director, ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on an exploratory excavation conducted just SE of the rescue excavation at Alatsomouri.   Upon removal of the topsoil, 7 rectangular cuttings in the soft limestone were revealed, evenly spaced ca. 2m apart. These are described by the excavator as vats or basins (Fig. 1).  To the N of this row, 2 larger rock-cut depressions were found: the 1st is round (2m di.), while the 2nd, a small distance to the E, measures ca. 4m x 2.5m and is 0.5m d. (within it a well had been excavated to a d. of 8.5m). The only preserved remains of walls lie between basins 4 and 5: these form a T-shape, with 1 row of small stones preserved.  Between these walls were found fragments of murex shell.  Due to the shallowness of the fill, excavation across the entire area yielded only a small amount of pottery and very few stone tools from most of the basins, plus a small quantity of murex shell.  However, investigation of basin 2, and in particular the deep well, produced more than 50 crates of pottery, apparently all of the MMIIB period, together with a large number of stone tools, a few clay loomweights, shells, animal bones and a few bones of an adult male human. Flotation of the soil provided palaeobotanical evidence as well as carbon. More than 100 vessels have so far been restored, including tripod cooking pots, prochoes, a bottomless tripod vessel, pithoi and amphorae with characteristic MMIIB decoration, carinated  cups, conical cups, basins and a few examples of Kamares Ware.  From the well also comes a 3-sided steatite seal which appears to be a product of the Malia workshop. The number and position of the vats or basins, the deep well and the channel which connects it with one of the rectangular basins, the troughs dug in the ground, the murex shells between the basins, a pithos base found full of shattered murex shells, the type of stone tools and the large quantity of utilitarian coarse pottery (cooking pots, amphorae, basins, pithoi and spouted cups), often with unusually thick walls, suggest that this is an industrial area for the working of murex and the dyeing of wool purple (and perhaps with other plant and mineral colours as well).  It has been argued that the production of purple dye began on Crete during the MM period, due to the discovery of murex shells with pottery of this period at sites such as Kouphonisi, Palaikastro, Kommos and now Pacheia Ammos and Chrysi in E Crete.  Yet very few sites have been identified as installations for the production of purple dye and/or dyeing works, and these are mostly outside Greece and of more recent periods.  It is hoped that organic residue analysis from samples taken from more than 600 sherds will provide further evidence of the activities undertaken at this site.

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Anavlochos.  A. Farnoux (EfA/Paris), H. Wurmser (EfA), S. Apostolakou (Director, ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) and V. Zographaki (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) report on a study season conducted with the aim of publishing the material excavated by P. Demargne.  While the majority of the material dates from LGeo and the beginning of the Or period, occupation continued in the Ar period, perhaps until the beginning of the 5thCt BC.  

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Dreros. A. Farnoux (EfA/Paris), H. Wurmser (EfA), S. Apostolakou (Director, ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) and V. Zographaki (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) report a preparatory campaign to produce topographic maps and plans, and re-examine previously excavated monuments (the temple, the agora and the so-called ‘Andreion’).

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Priniatikos Pyrgos. B. Molloy (IIHSA/Dublin) and B. Hayden (ASCSA/Pennsylvania Museum) directed excavations at the FNeo−Ot site, continuing work in 2 trenches opened in previous seasons and opening 2 new trenches (Fig. 1). In area H, the main objective was to clarify the nature of the deposits filling the clefts in the bedrock in the area behind the small kiln previously excavated.  While some of the earlier deposits could have been washed into these gaps, most material was deliberately introduced as a levelling deposit.  The material is primarily EM with some FNeo, but the rarer MM sherds give a likely date for this activity.  It is probable that the kiln was in use in MMIB. One wall appears to be MM in date, with possible reuse in the Hel period.  A pebble layer directly E had small worn sherds of consistent EM date, probably brought from nearby to create a level terrace.  This area has suffered much from both marine and aeolian erosion, making it difficult to ascertain its original nature and use.  The ceramic sequence preserves phases from FNeo through to the MMIB, with some LM and Cl/Hel sherds in the uppermost levels. In trench II, walls and other features (particularly an ossuary) were encountered directly beneath the surface during the 2007 campaign (Fig. 2).  These features were exposed further.  The associated pottery is predominantly LByz, and includes examples of very high quality (for example, imported sgraffito and trail-slip wares), indicating activity of significant status, and perhaps a monastic settlement.  Local tradition reports churches on Priniatikos Pyrgos, and the mortar used in one apsidal wall suggests an EByz date for the revealed structure.  Since the ‘apse’ would be located on the N, rather than the E, side of the building, this may be part of a triconch church with N, E and W apses.  Excavation within the room to the N revealed no trace of a floor, but 3 probable MM−LM walls were exposed at deeper levels.  The alignment of one suggests a Hel date, but the pottery in the fill around it was predominantly LMIA.   A major feature in trench II is an MByz or LByz ossuary. Excavation of ca. 35% of the structure has produced remains of at least 20 individuals deposited in a single event.  These may originally have come from a cemetery associated with an EByz or MByz church, being reinterred when a later church was built. Since some of the pottery is EByz, it is clear that some of the original graves date to this period. Two exploratory soundings revealed several phases of metalled surfaces, incorporating different size beach pebbles in different phases.  While much of the pottery in the fill above was Rom, the surfaces appear to be of MM date.  They represent a large outdoor area near the summit of the headland, possibly associated with a building underlying the Byz structures. Trench III was opened on the W of the promontory, between kilns 1 and 2, to investigate activities in this area and determine the nature and extent of tidal erosion of deposits on this slope. A cobbled surface in the S of the trench appears to be part of a Hel or Cl road.  Deeper, a series of clayey laminations were apparently washed into the area.  It is suggested that these incorporate debris from pottery production, as the spot lies between two PH kilns, though the deposit appears to be LMIA at the earliest.  This fits the suggested industrial function of this area throughout PH and historic times.  Further N, a cement-lined reservoir may be Ot in date, reusing part of a MM wall. Beneath it in the centre of the trench, paving slabs of limestone, schist and conglomerate extend over an area larger than any domestic paved surfaces at nearby LM Gournia (Fig. 3).  N of the paving, an artificial terrace was built at or just above the level of outcropping bedrock.  The fill contained a large quantity of EM pottery, but the less numerous MBA sherds indicate that it was probably constructed in MM−II.  A sounding to the W revealed small patches of surfaces and a pottery sequence probably spanning MMI−II to LMIA. Trench IV was opened to the E to determine whether substantial depths of PH deposit exist on this side of the promontory.  All of the walls encountered appear to date to the 19th Ct, though no associated floor level was discovered.  An earlier, EM or MM, metalled surface lay just beneath the walls, though this was discontinuous throughout the trench.  Erosion had stripped away later soil horizons (consistent with the damaged condition of the surface) and this surface was exposed in parts, possibly in the 5th Ct BC and certainly in E historic times.  A large deep pit, possibly a well (excavation stopped at -1.6m), was located in the SE corner of the trench. The chronological span of occupation underlines the site’s importance.  PH, Cl and LByz materials in particular reflect the high status of the settlement at least in these periods.  The secure deposits of various dates will be used to refine the local chronology developed for the Vrokastro Survey Project, allowing a more detailed understanding of this centre within its regional context.  The diachronic research strategy will further illuminate the role of this community in the environmentally and culturally dynamic land and sea-scape setting investigated by the Istron Geoarchaeological Project. 

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Malia, Quartier Delta.  M. Pomadère (EfA) reports on a 3rd campaign of excavation in building Π.  The principal objectives were to define the N limit of the main building in the Neopalatial period; to complete the excavation of the levels of this phase in the W sector (zones 4 and 5); and to make soundings to reconstruct the complete occupation sequence of the building. As presently understood, building Π (Neopalatial phase I) is bounded to the E by a lane (Fig. 1).  To the NE, wall 109 formed the façade separating the building from areas to the N which seem to have been largely abandoned after MMII (areas 17−18 and perhaps 21).  In the NW, where an exterior wall had been expected, it appears that area 8 was bounded to the N only by light structures, with a passage to the NW.  Immediately to the N is a court of beaten earth (25), which seems to have been used in the Protopalatial period, and which produced 2 sherds inscribed with hieroglyphic signs (a potter’s mark and an inscription formed of 3 signs).  Two walls delimit what is probably a street, which opens out into this court from the W. Lastly, a small sounding was opened W of the W façade of building P, in order to determine whether a street passed here. The structures partially revealed (flagstones and a sandstone ‘gourna’) rather seem to be part of a Neopalatial building between Δα and Π. Excavation of the palatial levels of building Π related to the corridor 1B, semi-basements 10 and 11, and areas 14 and 16. The domestic, residential and relatively modest nature of the Neopalatial building is confirmed particularly by the pottery, notably storage vessels, ceramics related to food production and weights.  In particular, the SW angle of area 16 was occupied by 2 lines of large jars or pithoi, forming a niche in which were found many complete conical cups, several cups and animal bones.  A complete tripod pot also comes from this deposit, intended for food production.  Many difficulties remain in reconstructing the organization of the sector and the circulation patterns both within the building and in the neighbourhood. Several soundings illuminated the sequence of occupation in the sector.  There is a distinction between the N, which was abandoned after the Protopalatial period, and the S, where the Neopalatial levels seem to rest directly on EM deposits.  It is possible that traces of Protopalatial occupation were completely removed during the construction of the Neopalatial building, in the limited area explored by soundings.

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Sisi. J. Driessen (Belgian School/UC Louvain) and I. Schoep (Belgian School/KU Leuven) report on a 2nd season of excavation at the M settlement and cemetery on the Buffo (Kefali tou Ag. Antoniou), working in 6 zones across the site (Fig. 1). In zone 1 (Fig. 2), the burial area occupies several natural terraces on the NE slope.  To the W, a rock-shelter produced a dense fill of MM, LMI and LMIII sherds, associated with animal bones, charcoal fragments and a human leg bone. Burial building 1.9−10 contained 2 chambers, the 1st of which held the skulls of 9 adults, a child and a newborn, as well as long bones, all probably cleared from other burial buildings. The 2nd, not yet fully excavated, yielded 3 skulls and other bones.  No objects accompanied the depositions in either room. E of the building are traces of sandstone quarrying.  Upslope are burial buildings made of small fieldstones; the entrances may have been through the eroded N walls.  Dense deposits of pottery and bones between the rear wall of each building and the rising bedrock may represent tomb clearance.  In burial building 1.1−2−3, space 1.2 preserved 2 articulated skeletons deposited in EMIII/MMI.  An MMII pithos burial contained the trussed skeleton of a woman aged around 40.  Space 1.3 contained EMIII−MMIAcups placed upside down, with a bronze pin and a single bone.  Excavation of burial building 1.6−7−8 continued from 2007.  Room 1.8 held 3 adults and 2 children, and room 1.7 an adult and a child.  One of the adults in 1.8 was in an articulated position, 1 of the children was associated with a shell; a quartz bead and 2 MMIB−MMII cups were also recovered.  In burial building 1.11−12, 1.11 contained 4 primary burials, at least 3 vases, the remains of a larnax and a fragment of stone vase.  In 1.12, at least one burial was found in the N, while to the S, 2 jars, 2 spouted jars and an EMIIA tumbler were found; at least 2 of the jars held the remains of foetuses or newborn infants. In zone 2, further exploration of the megalithic building revealed a mature LMI destruction deposit in room 2.1.  The main structure is a large room, ca. 10.3m x 8.86m, with a few thin partitions.  A platform was constructed against the E wall, with a possible column base in front of it.  Finds include bronze needles and fragments of other bronze tools, a steatite button, a schist disc, loomweights and stone tools.  Four small rooms added at the SE contained pottery, stone tools and loomweights.  Since neither the layout nor the contents of the building appear domestic, it is interpreted as an industrial complex.  Two structures to the NE of similar construction and plan may also be industrial facilities. In zones 3 and 4 on the summit of the hill, excavation in 2007 revealed a large building probably constructed in EMIII/MMIA and reused in LMI and LMIIIA−B (Fig. 3). The terrace walls defining the W and N edges of the summit largely mask the exterior walls of this building, but where visible, they are built with large, sometimes dressed blocks of limestone or conglomerate, presenting imposing façades. During LMI and LMIIIB the building was ca. 40m x 25m, and of irregular shape, constrained by the shape of the hilltop and a road on the SE. The SW façade of the building may have been reached, though it is possible that there is a court located further S.  It is likely that this was the main structure on the site during these phases.  Many rooms have been traced but not yet fully excavated.  In 2007, a LMIIIB destruction level with pithoi and kraters was found in rooms 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3, and in 2008 this was confirmed in room 3.4.  Pithoi were recovered in rooms 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5, there was a probable hearth in 3.4 and a small staircase may lie between 3.3 and 3.6.  Room 3.1 was probably the main room of the complex.  In addition to a range of vessels, more than 80kg of pumice may have fulfilled some workshop function, since obsidian blades, steatite cores, a circular stone with a central depression, stone vase fragments and other stone debris were also recovered.  A large clay tube with 3 attached horns of consecration raises the possibility that there was a shrine in room 3.8.  Outside the entrance to room 3.3, a niche containing 4 identical juglets may be some kind of ritual deposit. In zone 4, room 4.4 (E of the monumental threshold revealed in 2007) may have been an open court.  Where the S wall of room 4.5 abuts the W wall of room 4.4, a foundation deposit was discovered.  This consisted of a large open vessel closed with a sherd (with a handle), an inverted (Neopalatial) conical cup contained within this vessel and, above, fragments of a triton shell.  In the middle of room 4.6, a slab probably supported a column.  The ceramic material may suggest an earlier destruction (LMIIIA) than in zone 3.  In the NW corner of the complex, some destruction was caused by a probable World War II gun emplacement; other possible such emplacements extend downslope to the NW.   Exploration of zone 5 revealed rooms belonging to one or more buildings.  Rooms 5.6, 5.8 and 5.12 preserve burnt debris and pottery including fine decorated LMIIIA1 drinking vessels. In the SW corner of room 5.8, hidden beneath the floor, a large (d. 0.46m) handleless lead vase was recovered. In zone 6, tests made in a large structure revealed the E façade and at least 3 rooms.  From the destruction layer outside the building came tiny fragments of coloured wall-plaster, a fragment of a stone vase and an ogival cup.  Excavation of the interior is unfinished; a fragmentary potter’s wheel, a lead weight and an LMIIIA2 amphora have been recovered. A massive cyclopean wall (Fig. 4) forms a corner at the SW foot of the hill.  One segment is about 2m h. and is preserved for almost 10m.  A Neopalatial deposit was stratified against this wall, although a fragment of a Rom amphora was also recovered.  Since this is the easiest access to the hill, the walls may have been intended to serve as a defensive bastion. Excavations in 2008 confirmed the chronological span and historical interest of the site.  Some FNeo/EMI sherds suggest that the hill was at least visited at this time.  The cemetery was in use from EMIIA onwards, and the settlement from at least EMIII: both continued to be used in MMII, although perhaps on a more limited scale.  During LMI, the EMIII/MMI building on top of the hill was reused, and industrial buildings may have occupied the middle terrace.  There is evidence for fire destruction in mature LMI on the summit and middle terrace. From at least LMIIIA1 onwards, only the summit was densely occupied.  The final destruction, by fire and perhaps also earthquake, occurred in the mature LMIIIB period. 

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Agios Charalambos. P.P. Betancourt (ASCSA/Temple) and C. Davaras (Athens) report on continuing study of material excavated from the cave of Ag. Charalambos.  Over 10,000 human bones have been catalogued.  While the total number of individuals is still uncertain because the bones were disarticulated and sorted by the Minoans before being placed in the cave, at least 400 individuals of all ages and both sexes are represented, and the actual number may be twice this figure or more.  There are several examples of trepanation. Among several thousand animal bones, sheep or goat, cattle, pig, bird, hare, dog, cat, badger and other species are represented, with sheep/goat forming the largest group.  Some animal bones have cut marks indicating butchery, and it is assumed that many of the bones represent food buried with the deceased.

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Karfi.  S. Wallace (BSA/Reading) directed excavations at the mountaintop settlement (ca. 1200−1000 BC) and MM peak sanctuary of Karfi first excavated by J. Pendlebury in 1937− 1939.  The aim was to investigate the distribution of the settlement over the 3 peaks of Karfi, Mikri Koprana and Megali Koprana, clarify the chronology of this occupation, identify and characterize earlier phases of site use and explore the potential for further research.  Four trenches were opened in different areas of the site (Fig. 1), together covering ca. 124m2 and each investigating specific questions. In area A, E of the ridge linking the settlement zone excavated in the 1930s with the large unexcavated area on Megali Koprana 300m to its S, a massively-constructed, large and isolated, surface-visible building with a ‘Mycenaeanizing’ plan (A1) suggested a temple or other public building of LMIIIC date.  This supposition was supported by some details of construction and the artefact record recovered: the latter includes a surface figurine, fragments of clay stands, large quantities of finewares and at least one giant pithos.  Since the previously excavated sector of Karfi had its own public temple, building A1 (if a temple) might represent an institution founded by a community sub-sector with a distinct, separate identity, located in area MG, or a sanctuary serving several sub-communities within the town.  Evidence for such a level of political and social complexity is lacking in any of the (mostly smaller) 12th Ct settlements systematically investigated in Crete. On the summit of Megali Koprana (area MG) a very dense and extensive area of LMIIIC architecture forms a separate well-defined sector of probably ca. 1ha within the town.  It was investigated through the excavation in its N part of a LMIIIC building complex of at least 3 rooms (2 very sizeable and one with a central hearth) which had been destroyed by fire.  This ensured excellent preservation of artefacts and organic remains including large burnt beams lying at floor level.  The trench also produced the only exterior deposit so far recorded on the site, immediately to the E of MG1.  This seems to comprise refuse layers, characterized by a high density and variety of animal bone, and will be extremely useful in characterizing subsistence at this upland site. In area B, a house of LMIIIC date (B1) was investigated immediately adjacent to Pendlebury’s excavation, in order to document a representative stratigraphy for the previously excavated zone.  Two N-S orientated rooms of a structure including at least 3 rooms were half-sectioned, allowing significant enhancement of understanding of the site through the first proper recording of a hearth and a corner work platform/stand in the E room and of a very wide range of LMIIIC vessel types preserved as complete or almost-complete vessels.  These seem to have been smashed in the burnt destruction of the building.  Extensive soil sampling, systematic sampling for organic residue extraction from the full range of ceramic wares and soil micromorphology studies on and around features within the room will greatly increase our understanding of how these spaces were used.  An extensive deposit of MMII date was found under the LMIIIC house.  This is highly significant in relation to the MM use of the Karfi peak, located ca. 150m to the W, as a peak sanctuary. The deposit as currently exposed is not definitely of ritual character (though one miniature vessel was found) and may represent ancillary activity of a kind not previously documented at any peak sanctuary.  In area C, a large 2-room building of massive construction was visible on the surface at the site’s extreme E edge and close to a probable LMIIIC fortification wall.  The structure was investigated to establish the date of its construction and the date of the maximal spread of the LMIIIC settlement, and to help assess the date and use of the wall.  Excavation of the S room suggested the complex to be of LMIIIC date, and showed it to preserve a large number of complete ceramic vessels and 2 hearths (one roughly central, the other against the S wall). Since there was apparently no communication with the N room, the investigation may be able to elucidate the phenomenon of the one-room household in LMIIIC Crete, though interestingly the room excavated is much larger than typical one-room houses of the period, including those in the old Karfi excavated zone. The 4 building complexes seem to have somewhat different dates within the period defined by LMIIIC ceramics, and study of their artefact record will throw considerable light on the development of the town over time.  Each building allows specific new interpretations to be made about the site, both in terms of its internal spatial, social and economic organization, and its wider historical context.  One of the most interesting findings is that at least some parts of the site (B1, MG1) were violently destroyed by fire: most LMIIIC settlements were hitherto thought to be peacefully abandoned at the beginning of the polis-state emergence process in Crete, ca. 1000 BC.  This not only makes for outstanding preservation of the archaeological remains, but potentially changes the historical understanding of the period. The project also includes a number of scientific studies designed to extract the maximum information from this site, and pursue research questions centred on economic adaptations in a period of major upheaval in Cretan history, here involving movement of a sizeable population to an upland environment. These include systematic sampling for wet sieving, soil micromorphology, organic residue analysis, C14 dating and charcoal identification.

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Ini. Excavations by A. Vasilakis (ΚΓ' ΕΠΚΑ) brought to light inscriptions referring to the 2nd site of anc. Arkadia.  Ten inscriptions were preserved, plus several buildings including a bath, an aqueduct, and an Episcopal basilica similar to that at Gortyn (Fig. 1).

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Agios Nikolaos, Gazi.   A. Vasilakis (ΚΓ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavations in 2006 and 2008 of a Neo and EPrepalatial settlement on a plot belonging to the cemetery of Ag. Nikolaos.  The site was discovered during the opening of a new road between Gazi and Ammoudara, and is located on the W slope of a hill overlooking the river valley. The central settlement probably lay to the SW on the height of Papoura (or Baira); it is likely that a major BA settlement is located there. In 2006, research focused on round cuttings in the rock exposed by the road construction, which were initially thought to be LMIII graves on account of the pottery collected.  Six round, well-like cuttings were found, which were entered from above; they had been completely looted in antiquity, so while they contained sherds of all periods, animal bones and many stones, their function could not be ascertained from their contents.  Investigation then moved to the surface of the plot, where the topsoil was removed over a 25m x 5m strip.  A large quantity of fine-quality pottery was collected from disturbed surface levels, indicating continuous use of the site from M to Rom times.  One small cutting located close to the others was excavated, noting another 3 larger ones further S which were evenly spaced in a row.  Two of these large cuttings were excavated, but yielded little information with which to characterize them, as they had been robbed in antiquity, just as their smaller counterparts had been.  The interpretation of these features thus remains open. They contained stones, many unusable or broken stone tools, many animal bones and much coarse and cooking ware which is mainly Rom and EByz in date.  The most likely interpretation of these features is as stores for grain or agricultural products.  In the middle cutting was found an unusual tool of grey-black flint, which is reported as appearing somewhat older than Neo. Undisturbed FNeo (4300−3000 BC) and EPrepalatial (EMI and EMIIA, 3000−2600 BC) layers were the major discovery. A deposit of pottery and stone tools is probably associated with a small house excavated immediately to the S, though there were no architectural remains in the EM level.  This level covers an area 1.35m x 0.7m and is 0.15m d.  The pottery divides into 2 principal categories: scored or wiped ware, made in brown clay which varies from light to dark and black, and which shows many varieties of decoration (from light and fine to deep and wide impressions), and burnished ware with simple or pattern burnish and an ash grey or black surface colour.  This dates to the LNeo period, although some sherds with pattern burnish could be EMI Pyrgos Ware.  Many of the sherds collected come from large vessels.

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Gortyn. Profitis Ilias settlement.  N. Allegra (SAIA/Palermo) reports on the 2008 season of excavation in the area N of building I, and in buildings II−V. Extension of the excavation N of building I, between the alley B11 and the site fence, has identified the N limit of court B12 as a terrace wall of sandstone blocks, partially collapsed into B12, which supported a fill (perhaps an open and paved space).  The fill was defined on the E by space B23. In building III, excavation was limited to removal of the alluvial soil in the NW quadrant of the large courtyard B6.  The N limit of this court has yet to be defined, nor is its function clear, although it may lead from a porch to the S (space B5), inside which was a circular structure. In building IV, extension of the excavation N has allowed the identification of 3 new spaces (B20−22), probably all belonging to building IV, with which they share E and W perimeter walls, though as yet no doorways have been found between these spaces and those to the S (B16−17).  The N limit of the new spaces has not been reached.  In B20, a layer of stone chips covered the remains of structures that delimited a fill of small stones and earth extending N over an abandonment layer of the 7thCt AD.  In B21 and B22, the abandonment layer has been reached but not investigated.  In the centre of B17 lay a circular structure made from stones set on edge, above which was a cup and other sherds: this was probably a form of eschara. Excavation was resumed in building V, W of the N-S alley B18, and has better defined the character of this sector, which was inhabited in the 7thCt AD.  There is a recurrent pattern of wide courtyards (B12, B6, B19) fronting on the E-W street axis. It is not yet clear if the open spaces relate to individual inhabited units, as seems to be the case for B12 and B18, or if one court may be common to 2 units, as perhaps for B6.  An important discovery in space B20 is the first reported structures of a Hel complex buried by abandonment layers from the 7thCt AD. Building S in the Byz quarter.  G.M. Fabrini (SAIA/Macerata) reports on a 2nd season of excavation in the quarter of the Byz houses, in an area occupied by the large S building which faces the W street, and which by virtue of its distinctive plan, structural characteristics and location, should be characterized as a public building. Completion of the sondage in the central area (area 53) allows the precise definition of the various chronological phases of the monument in this part of the city. In the large central hall, excavation was conducted down to virgin soil, into which were cut the foundations of the perimeter walls.  Onto virgin soil was set the foundation for a fine pavement made of slabs of calcarenite: dating of the finds indicates a tpq for the construction of the S building in the last decades of the 4thCt AD.  Excavation revealed a later alteration of the N wall to create a doorway linking with the adjoining area (area 50).  At an undefined date, there is evidence of the partial ruin of the pavement onto which was set, into the W wall, a small rectangular basin of grey Gortynian marble, in fragile condition.  The stratigraphy and preliminary study of the finds combine to suggest that the destruction of area 53 and perhaps of the S building are linked to the earthquake of 670, since there are considerable traces of fire. Quantitative and typological analyses of the mostly well-preserved tiles found in the destruction layer confirm their comparability with those used to roof the area.  The homogeneous group consists of cover tiles of types known from Gortyn in the LRom and Byz periods.  Among the ceramics discovered are Byz overpainted glazed wares, Byz lamps and late types of African, eastern and local amphorae. In addition, the surface levels were investigated in areas 59 and 52b.  In the latter area, excavation of a mod. ditch revealed part of a pavement, corresponding in elevation to that of the paved level of area 53.  The discovery in the fill of this ditch of several sherds of 13thCt sgraffito ware attests to use of the area during the Ven period. The Hellenistic temple.  E. Lippolis (SAIA/Rome) reports on the completion of the excavation of the Hellenistic temple in the insula N of the gymnasium of the praetorium.  The building forms part of a monumental display founded both outside and in the SE angle of an insula which was developed to the N of the praetorium complex, in a quarter with a high density of public buildings. The monumental nymphaeum near the temple was studied, and a new reconstruction proposed.  Excavation conducted beside the E anta gave important information about an older building of smaller proportion, perhaps a first nymphaeum, to which a side fountain was added between the 2nd half of the 2nd and the 3rd Ct AD.  The temple was shown to have 2 symmetrical pilasters which articulate the internal space of the pronaos, engaged with the side walls.  Excavation in the original emplecton produced pottery of the final quarter of the 2nd and the first half of the 1st Ct BC.  In the area between the nymphaeum and the temple, a monumental hall was built perhaps at the end of the 1st Ct AD: the robbing trench of the front wall and at least half of a large threshold block of white limestone, resting against the E wall of the sacred building, have been identified.  This new building forms a continuum with the S façade of the insula, but is only partially preserved.   For the L Imperial occupation phases, research concentrated on the final phase in the area NE of the public building constructed on top of the temple during the 2nd half of the 4thCt AD.  The levels immediately predating the final abandonment were excavated.  Under a partial collapse of the upper part of the walling emerged a hearth constructed on a simple clay base with a cooking pot with a lid close by.  This was complete but fragmentary, having been suddenly crushed by falling blocks between the 7th and the 8thCt AD.   Theatre of the Pythion. F. Ghedini and J. Bonetto (SAIA/Padua) led a team from the University of Padua in stablizing and consolidating some of the walling of the theatre of the Pythion.  Work focused on the lower annular passage where the vaults, which are not completely preserved, were reinforced with wooden props to prevent any possibility of collapse.  In the area of the scene building, consolidation was undertaken on the E part of the N enclosing wall which was leaning markedly.  Surface clearing was undertaken inside and outside the building, and tree and plant growth, which interfered with the visibility of the building and threatened the structure itself, was removed.   The Byzantine quarter of the Pythion.  E. Zanini (SAIA/Siena) reports on the 6th season of research in the so-called Byzantine quarter of the Pythion, which resulted in partial completion of an excavation initiated in 2002.  Fieldwork concentrated in the W part of the area, immediately in front of the Temple of Pythian Apollo, where in the course of the 2007 campaign significant remains of a monumental building were discovered, presumably Rom but of uncertain function.  The principal objective was to excavate this monument completely, dismantling the overlying remains of the LAntique and EByz periods, with the aim of understanding its original form and its transformation over time until its final disappearance from the urban landscape (Fig. 1). Excavation confirms the hypothesis advanced in 2007 that the building is square in plan with sides of 4.2m, contains a perfectly round interior space accessed via a door in the W side, which faces the Pythion, and has in the centre a large limestone cubic block, perhaps a statue base.  From the doorway, one or two steps descend to the floor level.  Of the original pavement only the foundation remains in the W half of the space; in the E half there is just beaten earth.  Within this space numerous traces of activity were preserved −in particular, more than 35 lamps (many complete), several amphorae necks and jars set into the ground and burnt animal bones.  The state of preservation of the building does not at present allow any convincing hypothesis to be developed about its reconstruction, not least because no traces of roof collapse are preserved inside the building.  The date of the building is also a matter for conjecture, although the building technique and the lamps together indicate a date probably in the 2nd−3rdCt AD. The excavation also aimed to trace the history of the monument to its abandonment, a course of development characterized by partial despoliation and secondary use which first involved covering the interior with private structures of the LAntique and EByz city and then its final disappearance.  In the last of these reuse phases, a wall was built against the N edge of the building, incorporating several sculptural fragments, including a medium-sized marble statue preserving the torso and legs of a male figure partially covered by a chlamys closed by a fibula on the right shoulder.  A preliminary identification of the figure is an Apollo of a type similar to that found at the Pythion, although other interpretations cannot be precluded in view of its state of preservation. 

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Skoteino cave, Lendas (Lebena). L. Tyree (ASCSA), A. Kanta (Herakleion Museum) and C. Davaras (Athens) continued the preparation for publication of the material from Davaras’ 1962 excavations in the cave.   Over 3 seasons, the natural and cultural features in the cave have been planned conventionally, complemented by 3-D laser scanning to capture the complex physiography of the cave interior.  On-site documentation includes geological and speleological observations as well as ambient atmospheric measurements.  The fieldwork and study of the excavated material aims to understand the physical, historical and cultural uses of the cave from antiquity to mod. times. 

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Knossos Little Palace N.  E. Hatzaki (BSA/Cincinnati) reports on the 2008 study season. The earliest activity on site dates to EMIII−MMIA, represented by fill dumped in a shallow E-W ditch.  The substantial landscaping of the FPalatial period (LMII− LMIIIA2) eliminated all traces of Neopalatial occupation surfaces and obliterated the drain running N of the Little Palace. This major landscaping is associated with white plaster floors on 2 levels bordered by an ashlar-faced wall running N-S and abutting the Little Palace façade immediately N of room 11. The space created was filled in, during 2 major dumping episodes represented by highly fragmented ceramics of the FPalatial−Postpalatial periods dating to LMIIIA2 and LMIIIB E, respectively.  Neither deposit can be interpreted as redeposited destruction debris; further study of the faunal and archaeobotanical remains in relation to the ceramic material will clarify the nature of these dumps.  The next building activity took place during the Postpalatial period (LMIIIB L−LMIIIC), contemporary with renewed construction at the Stratigraphical Museum extension site to the W.  Sections of the Little Palace N façade were demolished while others were incorporated into building 1 (previously designated the ‘Re-used Ashlar Building’).  Most of the building’s N façade and associated levels were removed during the EIA, but further disturbance of the shallow LMIIIC levels occurred during Evans’ excavations.  A succession of LMIIIC dumps in the narrow space created between the Neopalatial NE platform and the building 1 W façade might be associated with the use of the latter.  These levels were sealed by a paved court constructed one terrace up and associated with building 2, also dating to LMIIIC.  The upper levels of building 2 were heavily disturbed by EIA activity but a small deposit of advanced LMIIIC (M or L?) implies some activity taking place outside this structure after its abandonment. The project is producing highly detailed datasets which will enable reassessment of the coarse stratigraphical picture available from the Little Palace and the rich and complex stratigraphy of the Minoan Unexplored Mansion, and be linked to the wider picture of LBA activities in the core élite sector of urban Knossos. Neolithic.  V. Isaakidou (BSA/Sheffield) and P. Tomkins (BSA/Sheffield) report on study for publication of the material from the excavations of J.D. Evans (1959−1960, 1969−1970) in and around the M palace.  Studies of the faunal remains, chipped and ground-stone tools, and human figurines have been completed, while the ceramic study is close to completion.  A digital archive of the excavation records has been compiled, and interim studies involving a range of questions and materials have been published in V. Isaakidou and P. Tomkins (eds), Escaping the Labyrinth: New Perspectives on the Neolithic of Crete (Oxford, Oxbow 2008). Palace. C. Macdonald (BSA/Edinburgh), C. Knappett (BSA/Toronto), and I. Mathioudaki (Athens) completed the pre-publication study of MMIII deposits from the palace at Knossos, in order to determine how the structure was transformed between the Protopalatial and Neopalatial periods. Study of ceramic deposits in their architectural contexts has clarified the relatively obscure MMIII A and MMIIIB periods at Knossos, and indicates that, although the palace underwent important structural changes in MMIII, there was no wholesale rebuilding and redesigning, so it is not accurate to think of a ‘New’ palace replacing the ‘Old’.  The research will be published as a Supplementary Volume of the BSA. SW houses. C. Macdonald (BSA/Edinburgh) reports that study of the ceramics of 2 of the SW houses has been completed. This MMIB−II residential quarter was constructed on terraces descending SW from the palace.  Complementing the 4 MMIB−II deposits published recently, smaller deposits of these periods have been studied throughout the SW houses, including a MMIB deposit from S.VI.4 with a clay ‘pommel’ sealing.  Two successive MMIIIA deposits were studied in the N-S passage and in S.VII.4, where the later MMIIIA was associated with the earliest ashlar house wall outside the palace. Within S.VII, a large destruction deposit of LMII, belonging to the first phase of the building, was studied; it includes a large number of melon-shaped loomweights in a phyllitic fabric, probably not local. 

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Knossos Urban Landscape Project (KULP).  M. Bredaki (Director, ΚΓ' ΕΠΚΑ), A. Vasilakis (ΚΓ' ΕΠΚΑ) and T. Whitelaw (BSA/London) report on the 3rd and final season of fieldwork, which focused on 4 different areas on the periphery of the central block of land surveyed in 2005 and 2007 (Fig. 1). The aim was to survey all of the landscape currently available for investigation which potentially may have been utilized for cemeteries or other outlying sites or activity foci relating to the urban site of Knossos, through all periods of its occupation.  In 2007, investigation had concentrated on the areas of known cemeteries in the S part of the Knossos valley, within the protected alpha zone.  Work in 2008 completed the coverage of the alpha zone, both to the E on the summit of Aïlias and the prominent hill to the NE, and in the far SW.  While the latter area extends well beyond the zone of previously known remains, low sherd densities and scattered tombs were identified, and the investigation was also intended to provide a basis for the effective management of the alpha zone in this area, as well as taking the coverage far enough from the urban site potentially to encounter small outlying sites and track how they responded to the expansion and contraction of the urban centre.  The W boundary of the alpha zone runs along the ridge occupied by Fortetsa village, though the steep E-facing slope was not surveyed as the surface record is swamped by mod. debris deposited downslope from the village.  In the S and SE, coverage was extended to the extensive quarries at Ag. Eirene (never systematically investigated) and to the SE of Spilia, to ensure that the Knossian mortuary landscape stopped at the Spilia gorge, rather than extending beyond it, along the access route into the valley from the S. To the N, the major focus of the year’s work was the Kephala-Isopata ridge, known to have been used for high status burials in later prehistory.  This area is outside the alpha zone, and so has reduced protection, and is also a fast-developing suburb of Herakleion.  While it was not expected that undisturbed tombs would be detected through surface survey, it was essential that all available fields on the ridge be investigated before they disappear beneath housing and other (for example, the new cemetery) developments.  Coverage extended over the entire ridge and the slopes around the village of Kallithea, up to the national road and across it, to include the previously investigated Neo site at Katsambas.  Some fields passed-by in either 2005 or 2007 were also surveyed, particularly along the Kairatos river. Some 11,400 20m x 20m grid units were surveyed, bringing to 21,000 the total investigated during the 3 years of fieldwork. Approximately 30% of the 2008 units (with 72,000 sherds) were preliminarily processed; the remainder will be sorted in 2009.  In addition, it was possible to finish initial processing of the material collected during 2007. The field methods followed those used successfully in 2007, involving collection units defined on a 20m grid, located on the ground using satellite imagery and 1:5,000 maps, with positions checked every few squares by GPS.  Where feasible, 2 20m transects were walked across each square, usually along a side and down the centre, to allow scanning of the entire unit for features.  A transect 1m w. was searched for material, so 40m2 (a 10% sample of the area in each unit) was intensively searched. Numerous features were encountered, including likely tombs (principally Rom, in the S of the study area), small rock-shelters and the probable base of the Rom aqueduct, slightly upstream of the Ot aqueduct at Spilia. While a low density scatter of material of all periods was encountered over most of the investigated areas in 2008 (Fig. 2), the majority of the sherds recovered (ca. 57%), were of post-Rom date, not surprising given the amount of landscape surveyed in areas of new housing development.  Some 23% of the pottery recovered was PH, primarily in light scatters flanking the Kairatos, probably representing cemeteries between those already known at Zafer Papoura, Sellopoulo, Kephala and Isopata.  Two known areas of later PH occupation on the summit of Aïlias were better defined.  Deposition in the Hellenic to Rom periods is highly nucleated at the city, with few outlying scatters and relatively little material recovered in the peripheral areas surveyed this season (11% and 8% of material respectively).  One small Rom concentration on the summit of Aïlias is directly associated with the extensive limestone quarries, giving support to the Rom date hypothesized in the past.  The earlier glazed wares among the post-Rom pottery are concentrated below Fortetsa and along the Kephala-Isopata ridge, where some etchings of the siege of Ven Candia (1648−1669) place the extensive Ot encampments. The 21,000 units investigated have yielded nearly 500,000 sherds and ca. 7,000 other finds.  The 2008 season completed the surface collection phase of the project. 

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Herakleion.  In the area of Bedenaki, between the sea wall and Sophokles Venizelos Street, in the course of works by the Herakleion Port Authority at Herakleion harbour, a building complex was discovered with dual, defensive and religious, functions.  This was originally a probable defensive tower which was transformed into a church in LByz times with the addition of an apse.  Due to the density of burials in the floor of the church (12 to date) and the 2 arcosolia in the N wall, it is likely that this was a burial chapel, a view strengthened by a section of wall-painting with a depiction of the Second Coming.  In the apse of the shrine were preserved in situ parts of the procession of officiating dignitaries or priests, and to the W, part of a palm-bearer.  The discovery of the wallpaintings is significant as this is the 2nd ensemble in a town church, alongside those in the church of Ag. Petros of the Dominicans.  The limits of the building complex have not yet been uncovered on the N, W and S sides.  The 1567 map of Domenico Rosse da Este places the ruined Church of St Catarina E of Ag. Petros, towards the sea wall; it no longer appears on a map of 1570. 

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Galatas.  G. Rethemiotakis (Herakleion Museum) reports on the 2008 excavation season at the M palace and town of Galatas, focused on buildings 6 and 7 S of the palace and building 1, some 100m E. Building 6 is a large, 300m2 building, most of which was excavated in 2007.  The M hall and the adjacent lustral basin, as well as the building’s location close to the W wing of the palace and the court with the baetyl, indicate its importance in the settlement.  Some walls and a paved area at its SW corner are annexes to the enclosed space with the altar excavated in 2007. This area provided sound evidence for religious activity, the most spectacular object being a unique shrine model with a seated goddess figure inside. Building 7 is another large building of slightly smaller dimensions, badly preserved due to cultivation and erosion.  Its walls are parallel to those of building 6, suggesting that both belonged to a unified building programme.  The same orientation is repeated in other buildings which can be traced on the surface of the hilltop.  According to the excavator, these represent a planned layout which involves large urban blocks arranged along a probable N-S artery, with narrow alleys between.  As documented by test pits along the exterior walls, the structures were constructed in MMIIIA, which means that the palace and the major urban buildings around it were erected as parts of a uniform building programme.  To this period belong the contents of a room at the NW side of building 7 which contained many vases, domestic and finewares as well as a pithos, the inner walls of which were coated with lime.  The floor make-up in the other rooms included sherds of EMI−IIA and MMIB.  Small collections of Prepalatial pottery recovered from crevices in the bedrock mostly come from open shapes, namely thick-walled vases with incised concentric semicircles and herringbone patterns.  Associated with the sherds, obsidian blades and flakes indicate craft activities on the spot. Building 1 is where the excavation started in 1992 (initial results are summarized in J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur [eds], Monuments of Minos: Rethinking the Minoan Palaces [Liège, Université de Liège 2002], 60−61).  Excavation was resumed in this important and well-preserved building to obtain more evidence for its function and date.  The area excavated, ca. 40m2, is only a small part of this large, well-constructed and well-preserved urban house.  Parts of 2 joining exterior walls at the NW corner and a partition wall were revealed.  The latter wall is 1.7m h. with a marked inclination E, apparently the result of the earthquake which destroyed the building.  The lower courses of the exterior walls used large boulders, but for the upper parts, fine ashlar blocks were employed, consistent with palatial standards.  The associated pottery, which came from the upper floor, dates the destruction of the building to LMIA.  The vessels comprise jars, amphorae, pithoid jars, jugs and many cups, all evidence of drinking on a large scale.  Some fragments of stone libation tables and a vat-model, an exact copy in miniature of the spouted vat of a wine press, may relate to some kind of religious activity. Evidence for the earlier use of the building is provided by the contents of the corridor between the W exterior and the partition wall.  In this narrow space, no more than 5m2, were hundreds of densely packed MMIIIA vases, intact and broken. The vases had been discarded during a major reconstruction of the building which followed a catastrophic event at the very end of this period.  After that, the doorway was blocked and the area remained out of use to the end of the building’s life, providing an uncontaminated deposit.  The consequences of the same event are attested in the palace: this is a major and uniform destruction horizon involving building debris mixed with abundant MMIIIA pottery.  After the destruction this material was reused as a fill underlying MMIIIB floors.  Many types of vases are amply documented, involving finewares and coarsewares: shallow cups with out-turned rims, semi-globular and cylindrical cups (some with ribbed or grooved walls), basins, kalathoi, many tripod cooking pots, jugs, amphorae, miniature cups, chalices and kantharoi, some with crinkled rims, and a bird’s nest cup-rhyton.  More than 20 footed, circular, portable hearths, a type known from an MMII Phaistian cultic assemblage, testify to substantial religious activity inside the building. Many fragments of wall-plaster were discarded alongside the pottery in the same space.  They come from pictorial wall-paintings with subjects similar to those previously reported, i.e. twigs with leaves in blue and a red ‘net’. These fragments, along with those found in 1992 which belong to the same composition, date to MMIIIA.  They are contemporary with the fragment of wall-painting excavated in the palace.  Coming from uncontaminated deposits, these are the earliest well-dated fragments of pictorial wall-painting from Crete. In all likelihood MMIIIA was the great era of Galatas.  Not only was a palace created out of nothing, but also splendid urban buildings were erected, luxuriously decorated with wall- paintings probably by painters trained at Knossos. 

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Pediadha Survey. N. Panaghiotakis and M. Panaghiotaki (University of the Aegean) report the completion of studies of the regional topography, geology, hydrology and botany; studies of pottery and clay analyses are well advanced.  In recent years, field studies have focused on documenting the architectural remains on BA, Cl and Rom sites before they are destroyed through agriculture or illegal antiquities collecting. 

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Agia Triada. V. La Rosa (SAIA/Catania) reports on the 2008 excavation season, which focused on the large stoa in the so-called agora, which can be assigned to a late phase of LMIIIA2 (2nd half of the 14thCt BC). A reconstruction of the monument made in 2005 proposed the working hypothesis that the furthest 2 areas of the building and the steps at the N limit were a late addition to the complex. To test this hypothesis, a trench was opened to the E of the steps to expose the foundation wall of the building which appears to be bonded with the E wall of the staircase.  A 2nd trench, inside area VII, produced no indication in the bedrock for the existence of an earlier end wall that was later removed.  At present, therefore, there is no evidence that the furthest 2 areas of the building were later extensions. Surface clearing in front of area VI of this building confirmed that the large wall with off-sets (of the start of LMIB) was already in ruins before the layout of the square in front of the stoa.  A white-stuccoed channel which ran across the whole area was almost certainly connected with a workshop: the link with the various structures in the area suggests a construction date towards the end of the 15thCt BC.

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Phaistos. M. Benzi (SAIA/Pisa) reports on the 2nd season of survey around the city and in the territory of Phaistos, conducted as a collaboration between the Universities of Pisa and Salerno and the ΚΓ' ΕΠΚΑ. Mapping and georeferencing work was completed.  Geo sherds were located on the summit and slopes of Marathovigla. Intensive survey was conducted in an area immediately NW of the cemetery of Ag. Pavlos and the village of Ag. Ioannis. Preliminary study of the results allows the recognition of a settlement quarter densely settled in the M period and again in Hel times.  A significant discovery is a Cretan LGeo aryballos (end 8th−E7thCt BC) preserved almost intact.  For the study of the Cl and Hel city, great interest attaches to the discovery of 7 walls which define the contours in the area investigated.  Their dimensions and lengths mean that none can be ascribed to buildings; one example represents the remains of the S city wall. 

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Kommos.  J.W. Shaw and M.C. Shaw (ASCSA/Toronto) report on site maintenance involving the strengthening of walls and scarps, and the digging of foundation trenches for a possible future shelter to protect the Gr temples and the N stoa area of monumental M building T.  The new study centre/apotheke was completed, and a programme to clean, repackage and organize the storage of all antiquities initiated.

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Zominthos. Y. Sakellarakis (ASA) reports on continuing excavation of the M settlement, focused on room 15 and area 19 of the central building (plan: AR 53 [2006−2007], 112). The investigation of room 15 was almost completed.  The room had an E entrance, a window in the W wall and 2 niches in the S wall.  The floor was paved, and on it was found a large quantity of vessels of various types such as handleless conical cups, bridge-spouted and cylindrical cups, large and small lopades, kalathoi, amphoriskoi, braziers, prochoes, stirrup jars, chytres, vessel lids, pithoid vessels and lamps, which date to LMIA.  It is likely that room 15 was used as a workshop to judge from the number and position of the vessels, from certain features and from the discovery of pieces of quartz (rock crystal).  The latter is found in the area around Zominthos.  On the basis of his research at Zominthos and in the neighbouring cult site in the Idaean cave and the M peak sanctuaries of Iouktas, Kofinas and at Ag. Giorgios on Kythera, the excavator proposes that natural, polyhedral crystals were used in certain M cult practices. In room 15, pieces of pyrolusite (manganese oxide) were also found; this has a semi-metallic sheen, comes from Melos and Lavrion, and can be used in the preparation of pigments and the production of porcelain.  The excavator’s view that room 15 was a workshop is strengthened by the discovery of tools such as grinders and obsidian blades. Three large cylindrical ceramic vessels with feet, decorated with the well-known M reed motif, were found in one of the 2 niches in the S wall (Fig. 1); these are similar in shape to stone vessels.  All 3 have holes in the base and were used as rhyta.  According to the excavator, ‘the discovery of these vessels underlines the dual purpose of the foundation of the large central building at Psiloreite, at an elevation of 1,187m, namely industry and cult’, noting also that it was located very close to the route leading to the Idaean cave. Numerous gorges cut S to the Libyan Sea, with perennial streams that would have created extensive wetlands in the E Holocene as the sea level rose.  In addition, many local fault scarps have caves and rock-shelters, usually associated with springs, suitable for habitation. In area 19 of the central building, to the E of room 15, research concentrated in the E part.  At some depth a wall of stone slabs was found, running from E to W and preserved to a height of 3 courses.  Among the finds were 4 conical cups and fragments of other shapes such as kadoi and pithoid vessels, and beads of sard and agate. 

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Plakias Mesolithic Survey.  T. Strasser (ASCSA/Providence), P. Murray (ASCSA/Boston), E. Panagopoulou (EPSNE), C. Runnels (ASCSA/Boston) and N. Thompson (EPSNE) report on a survey which focused on finding pre-Neo remains on Crete.   The Plakias and Ag. Pavlos coastal areas in the nomos of Rethymnon were selected because they have environmental characteristics that closely approximate the preferred site locations of Mes foragers as demonstrated by discoveries in Epirus, the Argolid, the Sporades, the Cyclades and Cyprus. Numerous gorges cut S to the Libyan Sea, with perennial streams that would have created extensive wetlands in the E Holocene as the sea level rose. In addition, many local fault scarps have caves and rock-shelters, usually associated with springs, suitable for habitation. Survey focused on limestone caves near freshwater estuaries in regions where the present shoreline is near the E Holocene sea level. Fieldwork targeted paleosols where Pleistocene and E Holocene remains are likely to be preserved. Using these criteria, 18 lithic scatters were found and a sample of 1,764 stone artefacts collected. Small artefacts of Mes type were found at all but 3 of the sites, and large tools of Pal type were found at 4 sites. The project found Mes sites in coastal regions where freshwater streams and rivers entered the Libyan Sea (i.e. the Damnoni, Ammoudi, Schinaria, Preveli and Ag. Pavlos regions). The Plakias Mes surface remains are similar to assemblages from Franchthi cave, Klisoura cave 1, Sidari, Kandia and Maroulas. The assemblages primarily consist of microlithic (ca. 0.01−0.04m) flakes struck from small pebbles of quartz and chert by direct percussion (Fig. 1). Flakes of different sizes were then retouched, often on multiple edges. Retouch, uniformly small and discontinuous, is seen also on the cores and on debitage of all sizes and shapes, suggesting somewhat expedient use of raw materials. Differences among the assemblages may have chronological or functional significance. Chert artefacts were more plentiful at the sites around Damoni, Ammoudi and Ag. Pavlos, and quartz was the preferred raw material at the sites from Schinaria and Preveli. The lithic scatters appear to represent temporary or seasonal campsites. Only at Damnoni 3 was evidence observed for possible activities other than flaked stone production and use:2 or 3 possible circular stone features were located on a low shelf directly below the mouth of the cave. Three to 4 sites believed to date to the Lower Pal were identified in locations similar to the Mes sites, to facilitate hunting strategies incorporating access to fresh water and outcrops of raw material.  The S-facing cliffs of the Preveli gorge had 2 to 3 sites.  Two scatters are close together and after further analysis may be combined.  Another site was found on the E side of the Kotsiphos gorge in an area that remains to be thoroughly investigated.  The Pal assemblages employ mostly dull, opaque and blocky quartz, often poorer in quality than that used in Mes times, which is translucent, lustrous and fine-grained.  Use of other materials is suggested by a quartzite biface fragment from Preveli 2.  The Pal industry is distinguishable from the Mes by the larger size of the cores, debitage, flakes and tools, which are typically 0.08m to more than 0.15m l. (Fig. 2).  There are also technological differences: cores are typically unidirectional, bifacial or flat with centripetal flaking.  Flakes were the desired end products of the reduction strategy, averaging about 0.08m in size and very thick (typically 0.035−0.045m) with broad and sometimes dihedral platforms up to 0.03−0.04m w. The retouched tool types are distinctive and include bifaces, hand-axes, cleavers, side scrapers, double converging denticulates, pointed flakes, truncations, denticulates, burins and Clactonian notches on flakes. There was good reason to believe that Mes material would be found on Crete, since sites have been discovered on Kythnos, Youra, Alonnissos and Cyprus.  The Lower Pal Acheulean tools are surprising, though lithics of all phases of the Pal have recently been reported from Gavdos.  Since Crete has been an island since the Messinian Event almost 6 million years ago, early hominids had to use a sea-craft to reach Crete.  This pushes back the evidence for early sea-faring in the Mediterranean to at least 250,000 years ago, and possibly much earlier.

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Gavdos. Siopata-Katalymata.  K. Kopaka (University of Crete) reports on excavations at Katalymata near Siopata, in the complex of about 450m2 explored in recent years.   Its main period of habitation is LBI, when it was destroyed, very probably by an earthquake, and partly burnt.  MBA pottery and some architectural remains are also present.  This building hosted mixed activities, as shown by its rich contents, whether fallen or in situ.  Storage, grinding and pounding, and more specialized industrial work, perhaps related to perfume, metal and pottery manufacture, were certainly among them. The pottery is mainly locally made and includes pithoi, jars, basins, cooking pots, dishes, jars and many jugs and/or amphorae, but few cups, as well as some small, nicely decorated eye-jugs (Fig. 1) reminiscent of Cyc ones, and at least one small stirrup jar.  Local clays are generally soft to medium hard, pale and gritty, and the coarse fabrics recall Cretan oatmeal fabric.  Despite its obvious M style, the pottery shows long-lasting and conservative local technical and aesthetic features.  Thus, handmade vases and pushed-through handles are dominant throughout the 2nd millennium BC, and there is a clear preference for glossy surfaces, often painted with vivid orange-red colours, and with familiar, repeated motifs (for example, crosses, pairs of spirals, groups of pendent semicircles and wavy lines etc.) which point to a Gavdiot workshop.   Among other finds are small stone vases and several stone and clay lids, a few bronze items, and jewellery, including beads in faience, Egyptian blue, rock crystal, steatite, agate and amethyst (Fig. 2).  Two seals have been recovered: a MBIII−LBI ‘talismanic’ seal in veined agate, with a finely executed sailing boat, and a small discoid seal in steatite with random scratching or a cross with filling. All this reflects considerable comfort in the life of the users of the Katalymata building (Fig. 3), and general prosperity in the life of Gavdos; both conditions must be linked to the contemporary cultural acme of Minoan Crete. 

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Loutro.  P. Mortensen (Copenhagen) presents a brief account of lithics collected at ca. 150−220masl on the surface of redeposited sediments.  Twenty one individual bifacially and unifacially modified cobbles and flakes of coarse white to reddish-brown chert and limestone are described.  Consideration is given to the possibility that these are naturally produced ‘geofacts’, but the pattern of flaking, presence of bulbs of percussion and probable prepared platform on one example, are argued to demonstrate that they are artefacts.  The forms represented include choppers, flakes, picks, points, scrapers and a hand-axe.  Typologically, the artefacts can be compared with L Lower Pal and E MPal assemblages from N Africa and S Europe. 

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Lato. A. Farnoux (EfA/Paris), H. Wurmser (EfA), S. Apostolakou (Director, ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ), and V. Zographaki (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) report on continuing research.  A series of cores was taken in the dolines previously located, in furtherance of the hyromorphological study of the W limits of the territory of Lato.

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Lasithi area. G. Moschovi (13th EBA) reports on restoration of the churches at Kritsa (Panagia Kera) (Figs 1 - 7), Kroustas (Ag. Georgios) (Figs 8 - 15) and Limnakaro (Ag. Pnevma) (Figs 16 - 19)  in 2005-2008. The wall- paintings were dated to the 13th to 14th centuries AD for the first; in two phases (14th-century and late 16th at the entrance) for the second; and also in two (the later to around AD 1875) for the last. The 14th century is seen as a period of great constructional activity in Crete generally (all three churches were founded at this time). At Kritsa, Venetian influence is more obvious, e.g. in the treatment of the aisle and dome windows, whilst the other two churches are smaller, with tiled roofs and low entrances closer to the local vernacular tradition. In the 16th to 17th century, the Cretan Renaissance made inroads: plastered vaults replaced tiled roofs, walls were raised and the building made more impressive, wall-painting was neglected in favour of icons and carved stone enhanced the interiors. All these traits are evident here: e.g. Kritsa received gables. Standards were not maintained in the Ottoman period, but in the later 19th century political requirements led to improvements.

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Chryssi Island. S. Apostolakou (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavations at this small Minoan island settlement conducted in 2008 (Fig. 1). The site, marked by large deposits of murex shells, lies at the northwestern edge of the island and consisted of ca. 12-20 residences. Surface sherds suggest an EMI-II phase followed by a strong MMIIB presence, then reduction in MMIII to LMIA. The five houses investigated have two to three architectural phases within LMIB. They are single-storey structures of mud-brick on stone foundations, with well-made floors. Finds are typical for eastern Crete: decorated and domestic pottery (Fig. 2), stone vessels, fish-hooks, daggers and a bronze saw, bronze and silver pins, glass and faience beads, and a seal of red jasper (Fig. 3) (said to be obtainable on Chryssi). Over 300 ceramic samples were taken for analysis, as well as samples of the numerous shellfish found and soils from floors and hearths. Initial results from houses B1, A2 and A3 demonstrate the island’s role in the Minoan economy, especially in the production of purple dye. In a small room in A2 (a kitchen and store) (Fig. 4), a tripod cooking pot was found by a hearth in the northeast corner, as well as quantities of olive pips which were likely used as fuel. One room in B1 (Fig. 5) had a small stone hearth against the north wall, whilst a tripod jug stood on a broken cooking dish amidst thick ash. Many stone tools and clay cups were scattered on the floor around the hearth, with a huge amount of crushed murex and triton shells, and almonds. Another jar stood in the centre of the room, with a whole triton. Covering the floor was a thick layer of black burnt earth, broken shells, and almonds and olives (again used as fuel). In room 1 of A3 (Fig. 6) is a bench alongside a possible water container of stone slabs; the slope of the floor to the northwest, where there is a receptacle set into the floor, indicates the use of liquids here.

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Papadiokambos. Ch. Sophianou (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the 2008 season of excavation in the Minoan settlement (Fig. 1), which also produced some Hellenistic finds. House remains have been located along a 250m long stretch of cliff. House A1 (Fig. 2), by the sea to the northwest, was a two-storeyed structure with a yard and perhaps a garden to the south (a stream-course runs nearby). Ten rooms remain on the ground floor, with two more probably lost to the sea; some walls stand to 1.4m high. Downstairs rooms, with hearths, were used for food storage and processing. Finds comprise some 500 pots (many associated with foodstuffs -such as cooking pots including one with a modelled agrimi head on it, basins, jars and jugs), 200 stone tools, two bronze daggers, a lead weight and a sealstone. Two architectural phases are known: MMIIIB to LMIA, ended by the Theran eruption (noting pumice in the debris), and then LMIB, restricted to the northern rooms only, which is clear evidence of the consequences of the disaster. One hundred and fifty metres to the east are other structural remains: the massiveness of one façade, with large dressed masonry, as well as associated finds (a copper ingot [Fig. 3] and a bronze dagger [Fig. 4]) indicate the superior status of the building, though it too has lost rooms at the north to the sea. House B1 (Figs 5-6) to the southwest had (below a thick destruction deposit) remains of a well-beaten earth floor and a hearth from an upper storey (Fig. 7). Associated vases include two amphorae, two bridge-spouted jars, a cooking jar, and sundry cups and juglets (Figs 8-9), all LMIB in date. Stone weights, two querns, two stone tools (for making vases), a clay loomweight and a bronze fish-hook comprise the other finds. On the ground floor two complete pithoi were found set in pits: one was stamped (Fig. 10) 10 times by two seals on its rim and handle bases. The seals bore the motifs of a boat and a palm tree between hands: they look to be from a prism seal with hieroglyphic signs (such as those produced in the MMII Malia workshop). This and the pithos shape suggest they were made in MMII-III and would have been ‘heirlooms’ by LMIB. Surface finds of LMIIIB pottery include a kylix. Environmental research is an important goal of the project. Some 350 samples have been collected from various layers, hearths and inside pots. For example, house A1 (room 5) has yielded olive pips and grape seeds. Workshop activities were investigated by sampling stone tools and storage vessels, which indicated the household processing of oil and wine. Fig seeds, almond and lentils have also been found. From the hearth and floor of house B1 came more olive pips and lentils, and from the pithoi (Fig .11), seeds of grapes (Fig. 12), perhaps from wine production. The large quantities of olive pips found in the hearths of two houses argue for their use as a fuel (as does the scarce indication of carbonized wood). Animal bones indicate that the inhabitants of house A1 ate goat, sheep and pig meat, and were especially partial to seafoods. More than 50kg of various shell and crab remains were collected. Even at the time of the destruction, they were preparing such fare in the yard: as demonstrated by a plate of bivalves and a bronze knife. A skeleton of a small dog covered by stones was found at the east of the yard. Prospection and survey of the site and its hinterland indicate that this was a large town (5-8ha) with a local strategic role, located as it is between two major Minoan centres at Mochlos and Petras (Fig. 13). Its inhabitants also traded: pots from the Dodecanese appear in house A1 and the ingot in house B1 came from Cyprus. The role of the Thera eruption in its LMIA destruction is strengthened by a 0.15m deep layer including tephra over the ruins in the eastern part of the town.

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Ligortynos. A. Mylopotamitaki, M. Mavritsaki and N. Marnellou (13th EBA) report on excavations at the three-aisled church of Ag. Triada (Figs 1-3) in 2008. The ruins were choked by destruction debris, including worked stone, brick and wall-plaster (indicating at least two phases of use) with traces of burning (Figs 4-12). Reused elements include an Ionic column and a Roman column capital: a later floor was cobbled. Other finds include part of a carved stone embellishment from a window, a bronze lock and an iron pyxis. Ceramic evidence indicates that the building was in use from the 11th to 15th or 16th century AD, although most pottery dates to the 12th and 13th centuries. As well as domestic wares, there was a continuing presence of glazed vases (often small vessels such as cups and basins), including various incised styles (Figs 13-28). In the narthex and outside the church to the east were nine cist tombs, some with multiple burials (e.g. tomb 7 held 27 skulls), but three with singles (Fig. 29). Venetian bronze coins were found in tombs 1 and 6.

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Galatas Survey. L.V. Watrous (ASCSA/Buffalo) reports on the final study season. Work concentrated on Early Iron Age and Byzantine to Ottoman pottery, and both chipped and ground stone tools. The Byzantine ceramic tradition represented a clear break from the Roman: shapes may continue (e.g. African Red Slip and LPC/Phoceaean Red Slip), but the fine, soft and orange Roman fabric is displaced by a darker and harder fired, much more micaceous one, perhaps as early as the seventh or eighth century AD. Imports then were few, comprising Constantinople White Wares, sgraffito, perhaps from northern Greece, and a sherd of 13th-century Zeuxippus ware. During the Ottoman period, imports included Çanakkale and Grottaglie wares, slip-painted wares from Didymoteicho, transfer-printed wares from Europe, and Chinese porcelain and its imitations.

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Viran Episkopi. N. Pyrrou (28th EBA) reports on excavation and restoration conducted in 2008 at the three-aisled church of Ag. Demetrios (Figs 1-3). The irregularities of the plan and the obvious additions attest to more than four structural phases, during most of which the building was used as a bath (from the Middle Byzantine era). Evidence for this original use includes cisterns (Figs 4-6), holes in the roof (Fig. 7) and pipes in the walls (Fig .8). The original, rectangular structure (central [Fig. 9] and south aisles [Figs 10-13]) was elaborated towards the end of its life as a bath, the newer north aisle (Figs 14-17) itself having at least two phases. The floors were of tiles and plaster, and the walls plastered and painted red and yellow (Fig. 18). The transformation into a church (Figs 19-21) may be roughly dated by the gothic doorway (mid 15th century AD), though the lack of ceramic evidence makes dating imprecise. Alterations were undertaken in the Venetian period. Some tombs were located below the floors.

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Melidoni. I. Gavrilaki (ΚΕ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavation in the Gerontospilios cave (Fig. 1) from 1987-2008. The cave was used for habitation in the Final Neolithic/Early Minoan era, whilst from the Middle Minoan to the second- to first-century BC cult activities were dominant. The first phase, a yellow soil over the bedrock, is represented by typical occupation debris: stone tools (Fig. 2) and axes, obsidian and bone tools (Fig. 3), as well as a wide range of pottery including storage vessels. Later evidence shows varying foci of activities spread throughout the cave interior. Indications of fires of varying sizes (around which lie conical cups [Fig. 4], jugs and jars, and cooking pots [Figs 5-6]) stand alongside heaps of stones and more deliberate arrangements of slabs (like Πs) which are usually Middle Minoan to Late Minoan in date. A large stalagmite to the north (Fig. 7) attracted numbers of mould-made female figurines (ca. 680-600 BC), and then seated females (Figs 8-10) and lamps of the third to fourth century BC (Fig. 11). Roman bone pins also appear here. A very large collection of mixed figurine types of Bronze Age and later date underline the devotional aspect of the cave’s use. Other finds typical of Hellenistic and Roman contexts include horns of deer and goat (Fig. 12), lamps (Fig. 13) and astragaloi. The focus of this worship may have altered by the second to first century BC, when inscriptions mention the god Hermes. The latest activity is also situated more towards the cave mouth. From the 15thcentury AD onwards, large numbers of graffiti and inscriptions record the names and dates of visitors of many nations.

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Alikianos. Ch. Bourbou (TDPEAE-Chania) reports on the excavation in 2007-2008 of graves associated with the three-aisled Church of Zoodochos Pigi (Figs 1-2). Of the 77 tombs investigated, 21 were inside, mainly in the narthex, with the others lying close to the walls all around the exterior. Fifty were cist graves (Fig. 3), roughly rectangular and wider at the head, built of stones or a mix of stone and tiles, with stone covering slabs and earthen floors. Tomb 1 was larger and probably served as an ossuary, to judge from the mixed skeletal remains. Eleven were pit tombs: simple holes with rounded corners, but still at times covered with slabs. Eight were tile tombs: simple covering slabs or with tiles on their sides as a Λ. Most were single burials, but 23 were multiple burials in which earlier interments were displaced (Fig. 4). Thirty nine were burials of sub-adults. The deceased was placed directly onto the earth floor (some may have lain on wooden biers to judge from the presence of nails, e.g. 12 in tomb 54), supine, with the upper limbs arranged in various ways. Stones might be used to support the head (Fig. 5) or the jaw. Grave goods were rare, with just 22 items (of jewellery [Figs 6-10], clothing and coins) registered, half accompanying adults. Tomb 54 contained four glass (Fig. 11) and three bronze bracelets, a necklace (Fig. 12) and a pair of silver earrings (Fig. 13); the only ceramic vessel was placed over the face (Fig. 14). Preliminary dating indicates the late 11th to 12th century AD, though the coins found allow some burials to be Venetian or even Ottoman.

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Aptera. E. Papadopoulou (ΚΕ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on a tomb excavated in 2008. This lies 150m northwest (Fig. 1) of five other LMIIIA2-B chamber tombs excavated in the late 1960s at Kalami. It was partly destroyed by road-works and had also been looted (Fig. 2). The two underground chambers are unusual: one is less regular (A) (Figs 3-4), the other better fashioned and approached by three steps (B) (Fig. 5). The far ends of the chambers had been destroyed by road building and their roofs had fallen in. The dromos was not fully excavated (Fig. 6). Skeletal remains comprise 23 skulls and some long bones retrieved from chamber A, plus a few fragments in the dromos. Some 100 vases are listed: 72 in chamber A (Figs 7-8), some 15 from chamber B. The five vessels in the dromos (jars, an incense burner and cups) are a typical assemblage associated with rituals concerning the dead. Three bronze pins and a clay whorl were also found. Some of the decorated wares are smaller shapes dating to LMII (e.g. Ephyrean goblets and cups) (Figs 9-12). Others, such as kalathoi, stirrup jars, juglets and domestic wares, date to LMIIIA. Apart from one Mycenaean import, the pottery is from the Chaniot workshop. The two chambers appear to be virtually contemporary, and it is therefore possible that the tomb marks a transition between multi-chambered Minoan tombs and the more regulated Mycenaean variety.

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Kalami (Chalakatevakis-Ventouris property). K. Tzanakaki (ΚΕ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavations (Fig. 1) conducted in 2007-2008 which uncovered much of an Early Hellenistic structure (Figs 2-3) overlying Late Classical remains. The initial Hellenistic structure (of which three rooms are noted) was constructed on at least three levels to fit the lie of the land. In the later second century BC extensive renovation, perhaps following an earthquake, divided rooms into smaller units with the insertion of internal walls, leading to an east-west internal division. A total of 13 closed spaces/rooms were examined: most had earth floors, with one paved (room 8). Earthquake destruction probably caused the final abandonment in the later first century BC (stone and tile destruction deposits are traced on the floors). The early house was a site of olive and wine production on some scale: a wine press is preserved on the west side, with parallels from Black Sea sites such as Mirmeki and Olbia. A re-used oil press with Cypriot parallels was found in room 11 (Fig. 4); an inverted pot with olive pips (room 1 [Figs 5-7]) and a small cistern underscore the connection. In room 10 (Figs 8-10), a small hollow capped by a marble altar held a pair of clay figurines of Cybele and Attis alongside stone and clay ritual vessels of the third century BC. Lead and bronze objects were also retrieved from room 10. Though the structure retained its agricultural connections in the later phase of occupation, the nature and scale of operations changed. Finds now include many bronze coins, clay vessels (including amphorae from Kos, Knidos, Rhodes, etc.). Room 4 (Fig. 11) was partly open to the air: on the floor were scattered lead ring-links, with pumice and shells. Room 13 (Figs 12-13), always partly sunken into the ground, was employed for storage, with benches situated along the walls. In the stone and tile destruction debris were broken amphorae, stone tools and items of bronze. The presence of a pig jaw, plus another below the floor, look like deliberate deposits of a ritual character.

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Galatas. G. Rethemiotakis (Herakleion Museum) presents an overview of excavation in the Minoan settlement and Palace conducted between 1992–2008. The Palace, which covers ca 0.6ha, is the largest in Central Crete after Knossos, Phaistos and Malia. Built in MM IIIA, it underwent an episode of destruction in the same period and was then rebuilt much as before in MM IIIB. It gradually fell into disrepair before its final destruction late in LM IA (close to 1500 BC). The building (Fig. 1) had four wings, a central and west court, and a Minoan Hall in the north wing: the walls were built of orthostats and ashlar.  A unique feature is a rectangular hall in the east wing, with four pillars surrounding a large rectangular hearth. Focal points for religious purposes include the Hall of the Baetyl in the south wing, and the Hall of the Altar in the north wing which had two associated bothroi and the remains of sacrifices and offerings. The theatral area, in the centre of the complex, had another stone baetyl set in a platform. The excavator suggests that a processional route led from the town to the Palace. In the surrounding settlement, six structures built between MM IB and LM IIIA2-B have been sampled or completely excavated. The settlement reached a peak in LM IB, with extensive ceramics, including Palatial styles, such as Floral and Marine. Building 6 contained a terracotta shrine model dated to MM IIIA by association: it depicts a seated pregnant female, with her hands on her belly and feet on a raised rest (Fig. 2). This is the earliest such model known, and its private setting is of interest.

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Maroulas. N. Pyrrou (28th EBA) reports on rescue excavation at the site of an agricultural villa. The structure had at least five rooms on two levels, with at least two building phases dating between the mid third and the sixth centuries AD. The destruction layers yielded a large quantity of complete vases.  

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Viglia, Metochi (Kissamos). M. Skordou (KE’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the excavation of ca 150m2 of a Middle Minoan site. Three rooms were revealed, plus four irregularly shaped pits containing large amounts of pottery. Vessels recovered included coarseware utensils, storage jars, basins, bowls, cups, and incense burners.  The discovery of multiple rhyta (four were found in one room, and 11 in another) and a natural triton shell may suggest that the site was used for ritual.  Two of the rhyta, both small, were in the form of cats’ heads. Fragments of bone are also reported.  Only one figurine was found: a small terracotta cow.

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Amnisos. S. Mandalaki (ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports a 25m-long wall, running east west and preserved to the height of a single course, on Paliochora hill, 250m southwest (inland) of the Minoan settlement.  The construction is dated to Middle Minoan IA.  Many sherds from cups (eggcups, goblets, rounded cups), tripod cooking pots, plates, and bowls were collected.

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Aposelemes Dam. M. Mavraki-Balanou (ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of settlement remains at a number of sites in the area of the dam. An extensive Minoan settlement at Avdou, near Petros and Agios Leontios, was founded in Middle Minoan III.  An earth-floored open space, paved corridors and streets, and a monolithic threshold are recorded.  At some point perhaps in late Middle Minoan III the site suffered destruction and was immediately reoccupied with modifications to the architecture which did not alter buildings’ external dimensions.  The site was abandoned before the close of Late Minoan I. At Mesochorio, between the villages of Avdou and Sphentyli, a strongly-built Minoan residence with at least four rooms is dated to Middle Minoan III- Late Minoan I by domestic pottery.   Excavation of a large Minoan complex at Kephali southwest of Sphentyli has so far revealed 52 rooms, most belonging to a single building.  This building, of squared blocks of local limestone, has paved outdoor spaces and four polythyra.  Three large rooms contained storage jars.  The principal period of is Middle Minoan III- Late Minoan I, but Late Minoan III and Archaic sherds were also found.  At a greater depth than the building lay 25 simple pit burials the date of which, whether Final Neolithic or later, remains to be resolved. Middle Minoan III- Late Minoan I and perhaps Late Minoan III architectural remains were found at Paliotavernas Armi, northwest of Sphentyli, with a facility for producing oil or wine.  Archaic remains were found west-southwest of the trench protecting the church of Agios Konstantinos and south of the same church.  At the former site were the remains of a farmhouse with four rooms arranged in a gamma shape, and a number of cut and built pit deposits.  Stone plaques served to support large pots.  The building had two phases.  Most finds, including several pithoi, came from the first phase.  The second phase dates to 600-550BC after which the building was abandoned. An extensive Roman rural settlement lay south of Sphentyli at Leniko.  A symmetrically organised complex of 20 rooms included spaces for storage and production.  The building contained a kiln, stone tools (and a millstone), loomweights, and bronze coins together with the remains of olives and carbonised barley.  The building remained in use from the first century BC to Late Roman or Early Byzantine times.  

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Herakleion, coastal wall. E. Kanaki and E. Papagianakis (13th ΕΒΑ) report that excavation of a stretch of the coastal wall close to Agios Petros revealed part of the Byzantine fortification.  When the Venetian fortifications were built further to the north, an abandoned tower was transformed into a church.  Inside were 14 graves.  All but one were oriented east-west: the exception was oriented north-south and its cover bore the monogram of Saint Catherine of Sinai.  A further eight graves were found in the narthex and nine outside the narthex next to its west wall.  The church decoration and inscriptions date to the 14th century.  The pottery ranged from Middle Byzantine to Ottoman.

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Herakleion, Erotokritou Street. Z. Aletras (13th ΕΒΑ) reports the discovery of a well preserved Middle Byzantine bath 5m below street level, comprising three rooms with two cisterns and the furnace to the west.  One room was completely exposed.  This had a hypocaust, apertures in the walls, and a floor of thick marble slabs set on sand, lime and gravel.  A second room had a dome, hypocaust and marble floor:  disturbed deposits on the floor contained 12th- to 13th-century pottery.  To the east was a long room with walls covered in waterproof plaster, bases for the heating system and, under the south wall, a furnace fed through an apsidal opening.

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Katevati (Mylopotamos). E. Papadopoulou and L. Flevari (ΚΕ’ ΕΠΚΑ) report on excavation at a newly identified Minoan site on a hill beside the coast.  On the summit, a complex built of schist and spread over two natural terraces included two large rooms, one with a schist floor and the other with an earth floor.  The small quantity of pottery on the floors indicated the building had been abandoned before its destruction.  Sherds from the room with the schist floor mainly consisted of conical cups with some utilitarian vessels such as jugs.  Sherds from the room with the earth floors were fewer, consisting of jars, kalathoi and tripod vessels, with a very limited number of conical cups.  Outside the rooms, to the south, were high concentrations of pottery including cooking pots and conical cups.  The pottery dates to the Protopalatial and beginning of the Neopalatial period.

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Poros-Katsambas. I. Serpetsidaki (ΚΓ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavation on two plots, one west of the Katsamba stream and the other on the Tripitis hill, immediately south of the eastern part of the modern port. Early Minoan I-Early Minoan III/Middle Minoan IA pottery and obsidian blades were collected in both plots.  Protopalatial building remains, founded on bedrock, were also found in both.  The plot west of the Katsambas stream produced rooms and areas with plastered walls, clay and schist floors, and clay benches covered in red plaster.  Pottery, including Kamares ware, was found together with terracotta animal figurines, beads, seals, and stone tools (including obsidian blades).   The plot on the Tripiti hill had an area possibly associated with the production of plaster, and a deposit containing Middle Minoan IA-B vessels,  The Neopalatial phase is best represented in the plot on the Tripiti hill where building remains include earth and schist floors, red and blue wall plaster, and mudbrick from the upper floors.  Pottery included both cooking pots and high quality wares.  Many finds relate to craftwork (including crucibles, grindstones, tools, moulds, residues of metal processing, weights): some were in deposits cut into the rock.  A potter’s kiln was also found.  One rock-cut deposit contained ivory objects, a gold earring, faience beads and pieces of triton.  At the plot west of the stream, the Neopalatial phase is represented by a Middle Minoan III-Late Minoan IA deposit (principally of cups) in a room cut into the rock.  This room had a narrow corridor, three steps for entry, and cuttings for the supports of wooden stairs, and is noted as originally Protopalatial.   Little Late Minoan IB pottery (floral and marine style) was recovered, while Late Minoan II-IIIA1 is represented by some characteristic types.  Late Minoan IIIA2-B is represented by walls and floors overlapping earlier remains.  Craft activity is principally attested at the plot on the hill. The plot by the Katsamba stream had a burnt Late Minoan IIIB destruction deposit.  

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Chryssi Island, Dragasaki plot. S. Apostolakou (KΔ'ΕΠΚΑ) reports on trial excavations in advance of a new building. A 6m stretch of stone wall with mortar and plaster was identified, oriented SW-NE. It was not possible to identify an associated building. Roman pottery was found.  Excavation was carried out by M. Kyriakaki.

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Kavo Plakos. Chr. Sophianou (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on surface survey conducted on the promontory of Plakos, with volunteers from the Ephoreia and A. MacGillivray of the British School. The promontory was investigated in its entirety with the exception of inaccessible or dangerous areas. Several new archaeological sites were identified and mapped, and a temporary demarcation of the more significant was proposed. These included: ·         Two long walls of indeterminate date, probably boundary walls, in the north and south of the peninsula ·         A concentration of Roman pottery in the area of the lighthouse ·         A rock-carved well on the shore (diameter 2m) ·         Traces of retaining walls of limited extent, with Minoan pottery ·         A large concentration of Minoan ceramics and LM conical cups. ·         At a lower level, a cave, probably with one chamber (not investigated due to lack of equipment) with a built modern staircase. Depth approx. 10m. ·         On a limestone outcrop traces of masonry and mostly EM pottery ·         Traces of modern, Byzantine and perhaps Venetian masonry ·         A Minoan establishment remains (within the proposed limits of the archaeological area): remains of buildings and MM ceramics on the hill opposite the site of  on the Vlychadia, where Davaras excavated two LM I buildings ·         Remains of buildings with megalithic walls, MM-LM ceramics and a built cistern with internal staircase/ladder (within the proposed limits of the archaeological area) ·         Remains of walls and Minoan ceramics in two locations (within the proposed limits of the archaeological area)

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Schisma Elounda - Property of Ar. Skouloudi - Chr. Lyraki-Skouloudi. V. Zographaki (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the excavation of 12 Roman tombs, mostly tile-covered "hut tombs". Disturbance and water damage hindered identification of the limits of tombs and retrieval of finds. However two nearly complete vessels were found in one tomb. A built cist tomb was also found (Fig. 1) and remains of another partially in the adjacent property.  K. Tsiampasis participated in the excavation.

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Settlement of Istron Kalou Choriou. V. Zographaki (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on a severely damaged Hellenistic pit grave found during the opening of trenches by the Municipality of Agios Nikolaos (Fig. 1). The upper part of a skeleton and skull were preserved in situ, as were 2 clay vessels, one of which was a lamp. M. Kyriakaki participated in the excavation.

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Petras, plot of D. and I. Papadaki. Chr. Sophanou (KΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the results from 7 test trenches on this property adjacent to the excavated archaeological site. Sherds of various periods and a Venetian coin were found, but no structures were identified.

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Schisma Elounda, plot of E. Kounalaki-Loukaki. V. Zographaki (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on continued excavations (Fig. 1). Twelve more tombs were found of three types: built, most likely vaulted, cist and tile-covered "hut tombs". Some tombs were cut into covering soil, others into bedrock.  It was more clear that the intrusive tombs (especially the built and cist tombs) took no account of the existing burials, destroying totally or partially tombs in the same area.  It is not yet clear, whether these intrusions took place in the Roman or already in the Hellenistic period. In the topsoil in the plot were found: many tiles and potsherds, a marble funerary stele, inscribed with 16 lines, another inscribed stone, part of a lamp, glass vessel fragments and iron nails. Part of a plaster floor was preserved in one of the tombs. The 3 built tombs (Fig. 2) were perhaps vaulted, but their walls were not preserved to sufficient height to document the vault.  7 tombs were of the tile-covered "hut tomb" type.  Tomb 14 included a bronze coin, part of a bone pin and a glass perfume bottle. Tomb 18 contained skeletal remains in poor condition, a glass perfume bottle, pieces of a glass vessel and a bronze coin. Other tombs were heavily disturbed and yielded only a few bones and sherds, an obsidian blade (Tomb 21) and a piece of amphora (Tomb 22). Three graves were of the cist type. Grave 20 was heavily disturbed but contained a lamp, a bronze plate, bronze tweezers, bronze clothing decorations, and pieces of a glass vessel. Tomb 15 contained a bronze coin and fragment of a glass vessel. Only tomb 16, among those excavated, was undisturbed and contained 2-3 bodies, while the offerings were placed in distinct locations within the tomb.  These included bronze coins, 2 glass perfume bottles, vessel fragments, a clay fruit-stand, a lamp with a depiction of a deer, another lamp with animal decoration and a bronze ring. B. Kassapakis participated in the excavations.

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