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Dernières notices ajoutées par région : Péloponnèse
Gyros. E. Kourinou (National Archaeological Museum)  presents archival evidence which indicates that the 7thCt BC seated statue (ANM 57) long assigned to the Sanctuary of Demeter near Agiorgitika instead probably came from the Sanctuary of Artemis at Gyros, near Mouchli, E of Agiorgitika in the W foothills of Mt Ktenias, partially excavated by V. Bérard in 1889.  Documents here reproduced include lists of Bérard’s finds and of items from the sanctuary confiscated from a local smuggler.

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Aspis. - (Gilles Touchais, Paris 1/EfA, et Anna-Philippa-Touchais, EfA, et, pour la muraille, Sylvian Fachard, ESAG). Les travaux sur la colline de l’Aspis, où les travaux ont bénéficié comme tous les ans depuis 2005, d’une subvention de l’INSTAP, ont concerné deux points principaux : l’habitat mésohelladique, avec la poursuite des travaux de consolidation sur le terrain, à l’issue desquels les vestiges du secteur Est sont beaucoup plus lisibles et les structures mieux armées pour résister aux agents destructeurs (fig. 1-3). L’étude du matériel céramique et faunique issu de la fouille a été poursuivie, avec une attention particulière portée à trois ensembles : la tombe d’adolescent(e) recouverte par des fragments de pithos (ht. 1,50 m), la sépulture en jarre de nouveau-né avec son couvercle fait d’une jatte minyenne (fig. 4-5) et le « dépôt » constitué de vases brûlés, brisés et compactés dans une cavité du rocher (fig. 6). le rempart d’époque historique : au cours de cette première campagne, l’objectif était de repérer les vestiges de la fortification et de ses différents éléments, courtines, tours et saillant. En dehors du mur de fortification mésohelladique, il semble que deux autres phases de construction peuvent être rétablies, la seconde correspondant à une reconstruction qui pourrait dater dater de la fin du IVe ou du début du IIIe siècle av. J.-C. : les interventions en sont reconnaissables à l’appareil polygonal réglé d’excellente facture alors utilisé (fig. 7). On observe également plusieurs types de réfections : certaines courtines sont reconstruites, des tours sont ajoutées et un long bastion triangulaire en saillie par rapport au circuit est ajouté au Nord-Est (fig. 8-9).

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Isthmia, sanctuary of Poseidon. E. Gebhard (ASCSA/Chicago) reports on continuing study by the University of Chicago. Construction debris from the Archaic Temple of Poseidon showed that the wall blocks were finished when hoisted into place. A block was identified as belonging to a stone floor in the pteron at the east end of the building, installed probably in the second half of the sixth century BC. A stylobate block, adjacent but not in situ, has a cutting on its rear edge for a floor slab or other stone fitting. Examination of materials from the construction of the Classical Temple of Poseidon and its subsequent rebuilding after the fire of 390 BC indicates that the temple was almost entirely rebuilt, re-using earlier fragments wherever possible. Its condition when robbed in the fifth century AD was clarified. Patterns of stone robbing found during the 1954 excavations were traced from the excavation notebooks. A section drawing through the Antonine Temple of Palaimon was prepared. The entrance to the passage leading to the adyton lay at the floor level of the precinct surrounding the temple: the passage vault would have risen almost 3m above the entrance, confirming the high, narrow shape of the opening depicted on Corinthian coins of the period. In the Rachi settlement, study of the terracotta architecture and roof tiles revealed a class of tile manufactured in Corinthian fabric but comparable to Laconian in shape and size. Since the two systems were incompatible, some houses must have had Corinthian roofs, while the Corinthian-type Laconian tiles could only be used for Laconian-type roofs, perhaps in a combination with true Laconian tiles. T. Gregory (ASCSA/Ohio) reports on the work of the Ohio State University team. Continuing study of material from the Roman bath, the area east of the Temenos (the East Field) and the Byzantine Fortress, was accompanied by cleaning and study in these areas (Fig. 1). Further conservation of the mosaics of the Roman bath (especially rooms VI and XII) was undertaken (Fig. 2). The cleaning and stabilization of old trenches south of the Roman bath and east of the Temenos continued. Undocumented building remains traced in trenches from the 1970s comprise the foundations of two parallel Roman walls apparently from a colonnaded peribolos adjoining the Roman bath to the south (Figs 3-4). The Hexamilion Outworks project continued investigation of a large Early Roman complex just north of the bath. The walls of this structure rest on Classical foundations, and several construction periods can be identified. This complex is evidently different from the large Doric-style structure to the northeast.

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Kenchreai, Koutsongila ridge. E. Korka (Ministry of Culture and Tourism), J. Rife (ASCSA/Vanderbilt University) and K. Kissas (Director, ΚΖ' ΕΠΚΑ), with P. Kasimi (ΚΖ' ΕΠΚΑ), report on the 2009 excavation season on the Koutsongila ridge north of the ancient harbour (Figs 1-2). In area A, activity concentrated on the wall found in 2007 and the areas to the west and east. A further 4m long stretch was uncovered, continuing south (Fig. 3). The wall rests at the base of a small hill; a dense Early to Middle Roman sherd deposit, representing pottery washed downslope against the wall, was found to continue along its interior (west) face. To the east, a broad depression (ca. 4.5m wide) extends from the wall to a vertical face in the bedrock outcrop upon which sits the rectangular building of probable ritual function explored in 2007−2008. This depression may be an important traffic route, although no road surface or wheel ruts were preserved in its relatively soft calcareous bed. The long wall was thus erected to arrest slope erosion and protect the depression from sediment and debris. A passageway or road along the depression would have approached the harbour from the north across the middle of the ridge, and entered the harbour front from behind the complex at the base of the north mole. Renewed exploration of the area west of the long wall and on top of the hillock uncovered evidence for burial and cremation (trench A-09-02). Although this seems to have been an open area in antiquity, a channel cut across the trench contained a distinct layer of ash mixed with intensely burned human and animal bone, buried haphazardly under rubble − debris from one or more pyres deposited here after multiple cremations and then covered. The area formed part of a larger cremation zone (a smaller secondary deposit of similarly burned bones was found nearby in 2007). The primary position of the cremation pyres is uncertain. Area B, near the southeast edge of Koutsongila, was the main focus in 2009 (Figs 4-5). The function of the structures uncovered in 2008 was clarified. In the area of the putative Early to Middle Roman villa, excavation of the well was completed to modern sea level (ca. 7.4m deep), though in antiquity it clearly went deeper. The well was filled with structural and domestic debris from a fifth-century cleaning operation following the destruction and disuse of the villa: this may be associated with the erection of a major structure nearby. Excavation immediately to the south revealed a large octagonal structure (14.25m maximum interior width) erected in an apparently open area in late antiquity (Fig. 6). This had a massive outer wall in mixed mortar, rubble and brick, founded on platforms set into the bedrock on the north side and in shallow footing trenches on the south. Inside, a series of angular piers divided an outer ambulatory from an interior chamber. One wide entry was found in the north wall: others may have existed, but the evidence is lost. Numerous fragments of blueish-grey schistose marble with acanthus leaves in relief show that the interior walls were richly finished. The floor of the ambulatory was in places paved with simple tiles but elsewhere consisted of hard-packed earth. In contrast, the central chamber had a mosaic pavement of interlocking geometric patterns with diamonds, stars and circles in black, white and red. A building of this scale with such an impressive design and decor, located prominently above the harbour, must have dominated the landscape. Associated artefacts and stratigraphy provide a broad outline of the building’s history. Along the exterior base of the north wall, a narrow trench opened into a small elliptical pit containing numerous intact lamps and coins deliberately placed (Fig. 7). This foundation deposit dates to the early fifth century. When the Octagon fell into disuse, sediment collected over the decaying floors, and transients made fires and built a screen wall inside the building (Fig. 8). Finds from the thin deposits over the floor do not postdate the mid sixth century. Around that time, the building collapsed in a catastrophic event that toppled the walls into one massive layer of structural debris over the whole area. Few artefacts relate to the Octagon’s use, leaving its design and surroundings as the best evidence for its function. Comparable octagonal buildings were erected in late antiquity as palace-halls (e.g. Thessaloniki), baptisteries (e.g. Ravenna), Imperial mausolea (e.g. Romanuliana) and martyria (e.g. Phrygian Hierapolis). No walls were found to indicate that the Octagon formed part of a larger architectural plan, making identification with a palatial or ecclesiastical complex unlikely. However, seven fifth- or sixth-century cist graves (G63−G69) of the finest construction were clustered around it and aligned with its walls (Fig. 7). The intentional placing of these distinctive graves suggests that the Octagon had a funerary function, but whether as the burial site of a member of the local élite or a holy figure is uncertain. If so, the Octagon is a rare case in the known architectural repertoire of late antique Greece. In area C, in the heart of the Roman cemetery, one chamber tomb, tomb 2, was explored (Fig. 9). The rectangular chamber (4.15m x 4.6m) resembles others on Koutsongila: it is rock-cut, has loculi and niches in the walls for inhumation and cremation, a bench on the front wall and an altar on the back, and a vaulted ceiling. The walls preserve painted plaster with polychrome-banded decoration and a schematic garland in red, while the floor was finished with cement. The construction apparently dates to the mid/late first century, as other tombs on the ridge. The chamber was looted at an early date, and the numerous cups, bowls, cookware lids, lamps and a miniature stone altar were scattered. Thereafter, apart from occasional disturbances by robbers, the chamber gradually filled with a combination of disintegrated mortar, plaster and rock that had collapsed from the walls, and washed-in colluvial sediment. Exploration outside the tomb revealed that a building in mortar and rubble with a monumental façade once enclosed the narrow, rock-cut stairway descending to the stomion. No structures or artefacts were found to identify graveside rituals, which must have occurred elsewhere and/or inside the chamber. Finally, wheel ruts running north-south through this area predate the construction of the tomb, and thus give a sense of the traffic along the coast before the development of the cemetery.

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Ancient Corinth. G. Sanders (ASCSA) reports on the 2009 season of excavation and study in the complex of medieval and post-medieval houses in the area of the South Stoa. Documentation of pottery from the 1960s excavations and of the standing remains in the central section was completed (Fig. 1). Later structures overlying the medieval house in the central section of the area were removed and six rooms excavated down to their construction phase (Fig. 2). The floor of the northwest room was covered with a thin sherd deposit representing a minimum of 37 Constantinopolitan White Ware pitchers. Such pitchers were frequently used as kettles for boiling water, to judge from lime-scaling and flash marks on the exterior of known examples. However, none of the pieces from the northwest room showed evidence of use, and they seem to have been kept in storage. A pit cut through the floor contained a large 11th-century storage amphora re-used in some form of industrial activity (its mouth and neck had been heated to temperatures which melted the fabric into an amorphous mass). The well in the east room was filled in the late 13th century. It contained a mass of restorable fine, cooking and plain vessels, datable to ca. 1260−1270, and quantities of domestic animal and bird bone, fish scales, sea shells and eggshell. Among the faunal remains were the vertebra of a large tuna which originally weighed over 200kg, and the maxilla and mandible of a hoopoe (Upopa epops). The westerly of the south-central rooms originally had two large storage pithoi set in the floor. These were removed, probably in the 13th century. The room to the east had a hearth belonging to the earliest use of the house, but there is no clear evidence for cooking activity in later phases. Apart from the floors of the southwest room and the space under the stair excavated in 2008, and with the exception of the northwest room, all the domestic contexts were kept remarkably clean. The house dates to the 11th century and was modified in the 12th and especially 13th centuries. Its form is essentially that of a courtyard house with an open central court surrounded by nine domestic, storage and stabling spaces. The southern range of rooms certainly had a second storey.

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Sikyon Survey Project. Y. Lolos (Thessaly) reports on the 2009 study season (Fig. 1). Prehistoric pottery of all phases from Middle Neolithic to LHIIIC was found in small quantities mostly on the southeast edge of the plateau. A very little Geometric and Archaic pottery and small concentrations of Classical were also found on the plateau: the majority of sherds are Hellenistic and Roman. Most are coarse domestic ware: petrographic analysis shows that this fabric is a mixture of marl and terra rossa clays with quartz, limestone and flint inclusions. The Early and Middle Hellenistic pottery of Sikyon (end of the fourth- to the mid second-century BC) resembles that of neighbouring Corinth, Isthmia and Stymphalos, and differs appreciably from that of Attica, Argos and Elis. Aegean imports are almost unknown: the few imports found are mostly amphorae from the Adriatic (especially Brindisi and Lamboglia 2 types), which served as models when local production developed in the second century BC. From the second century BC to the first century AD, tablewares, cookwares and other domestic pottery were also produced in the characteristic local coarse clay with silicate inclusions. The most significant potters’ quarter in ancient Sikyon lay at the southern edge of the south plateau, bordered by residential blocks to the north and east. Hellenistic material was scattered over the entire plateau, with the greatest concentrations on the south plateau. The area immediately south of the agora (SP76−81) produced (mostly domestic) middle and late Imperial pottery (second- to fourth-century AD). The area east of the agora (SP83−106) contained large concentrations of Late Roman and Early Byzantine material (fourth- to seventh-century AD), although Early Byzantine fineware is almost completely absent. There is little Late Roman and Byzantine on the southeastern projection of the plateau (SP82 and 107) where pottery is mostly Frankish and Ottoman (13th- to 16th- century). The expansion of the settlement probably relates to the development of the castle by the Villehardouin in the early 13th century. The 21 coins found in the survey range from a fourth-century BC Athenian issue to a 16th-century Venetian. Planning of the excavated monuments in the agora (the temple and overlying basilica, the stoa, palaestra and bouleuterion) progressed (Fig. 2), and many of the ancient quarries, architectural remains and geological features were mapped. Magnetometry was undertaken at selected locations on the plateau, notably the (as yet unexcavated) stadium (Fig. 3): the track is estimated as 28m wide and 198m long. Samples from selected points on the plateau were analysed using X-ray fluorescence to identify settlement, manufacturing and agricultural activity. In area NP104, high levels of phosphorus and potassium inside the ancient residential blocks probably reflect the discard of domestic refuse (Fig. 4). Much lower levels are found along the roads. Higher values for metals such as zinc and to some degree copper also relate to buildings, as does the presence of sulphur.

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Nemea, Sanctuary of Zeus. K. Shelton (ASCSA/Berkeley) reports on activity in 2009. Museum study (directed by S. Miller) focused on skeletal material from Early Christian burials around the sanctuary, with samples taken for analysis of diet, environment and health status. Reconstruction of the Temple of Zeus (Fig. 1) focused on the foundations and krepis at the east end, especially the northeast corner. Finishing on columns K-29 and K-28 was completed following the installation of their capitals. The 13 drums for column K-27 were completed and installed on the temple, along with the capital. Surface finishing of K-27 continues, while the epistyle blocks to span K-30 to K-26 are being patched. A study of structural issues concerning the stadium tunnel and of the necessary conservation protocol was conducted by K. Zambas.

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Kleonai. T. Mattern (DAI/Marburg) and K. Kissas (Director, ΛΖ' ΕΠΚΑ) report on the 2009 survey season. Areas identified as survey targets from ΕΠΚΑ archives were systematically visited. Numerous new find locations were mapped, providing both a view of the settlement history of the valley and information to assist in coordinating the protection of archaeological monuments. In the Daliani area east of Ag. Vasileios, localized concentrations of well-preserved early pottery were found on the edge of a scattered ancient settlement. In conjunction with known older Geometric pottery, this confirms early settlement. Near the Ag. Vasileios railway crossing, a concentration of coarseware and roof tile where a Hellenistic mosaic was previously reported indicates extensive building. A further site with large-scale Hellenistic(?) architecture lies west of Ag. Vasileios: column fragments and clear concentrations of pottery were recorded (Fig. 1). The site is probably an extramural sanctuary. New finds immediately outside the ancient city include a grave built of spolia, the gravestone of [Ar]istokrito[s] and two joining fragments from the coffers of a (funerary?) aedicule (Fig. 2). Parts of the city wall were documented in the east and north, in the latter case with foundations of a tower (Fig. 3). Pottery and roof tile concentrations indicate late antique and Early Byzantine farms.

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Mycenae. S. Iakovides (ASA) reports on continued excavation in the lower city and on a geophysical survey of the area (Fig. 1). Hellenistic structures were oriented towards the Hellenistic theatre. A thick layer of reddish-brown soil separated the Hellenistic and Archaic remains from the Mycenaean and Geometric beneath. At the northwest edge of the excavation area, an originally round, thick-walled structure was transformed into an apsidal building by the addition of side walls. Inside were stones, unfired bricks and tiles, plus Hellenistic sherds which date the use of the structure as a cistern or well. To the west was a round stone hearth, preserving material from its use phases including ash, charcoal, animal bone, burnt olive pits, Mycenaean figurines, sherds and a small clay disc. Middle Helladic, Geometric and Archaic sherds were also found (Fig. 2). Building remains south of the well included a main wall (12m long), to the west of which were Mycenaean sherds, figurine fragments, a half-finished sealstone, stone tools and two iron arrowheads. (Fig. 4). Ninth-century tomb immediately to the east postdate the wall. Another wall runs north-south through the centre of the excavation area and is preserved to a height of 1.8m at the north end. A Mycenaean date is confirmed by artefacts found beneath it. Excavation in the south of the area continued to expose a long, narrow building (10m long x 1.8m wide), oriented east-west and partitioned into two rooms of unequal size. Fragments of ivory objects and animal bone were found in the west room, and in the east (which is divided into two smaller areas) were stone tools, stone sling-shot, an animal figurine (Fig. 3), pithos and cooking vessel sherds, and animal bone. Pottery was mostly Mycenaean with some Corinthian. To the north of the long building, continuation of the 2008 excavation revealed three or four rooms. In the east room were figurines, a bead, animal bones and pottery of several periods. In the northernmost room were two child burials in small pits under the floor. One, with a slab cover, contained a one to two year-old and four beads, and the other the skeletons of two infants without goods. Small finds included Mycenaean figurine fragments, obsidian and flint, fragments of stone vessels, coins, lead sheet, iron nails, arrowheads and hooks, ivory objects, terracotta loomweights, pieces of plaster and wallpainting, pigments, animal bone, shell, much pottery and tile, cereal grains, and grape and olive pits. Geophysical prospection over a large area of the east bank of the Chavos located the walls of a large building complex for future investigation.

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Midea. The Greek-Swedish excavation on the Mycenaean acropolis of Midea continued in 2009 under the direction of K. Demakopoulou (Director Emerita, National Museum) with the collaboration of A.-L. Schallin (Director, Swedish Institute at Athens) and N. Divari- Valakou (then Γ' ΕΠΚΑ, now Director, Γ' ΕΠΚΑ, Director of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Ministry of Culture and Tourism). The Greek team excavated on the lower west terrace of the acropolis and the Swedish team in the area of the east gate. The Greek team completed investigation of the syrinx through the west section of the fortification wall, discovered in 2007. The area in front of the entrance to the sally port in the inner face of the citadel wall was further cleared, with the removal of a destruction deposit next to the north jamb containing rubble, large stones and boulders fallen from the fortification wall. The removal of this deposit revealed bedrock in much of the area sloping down to the syrinx. This is cut vertically at the east and south sides, forming a rectangular shaft in front of the opening of the sally port. Piles of stones probably come from ruined steps leading to the entrance. The remains of a stone pavement belong to a north-south path approaching the sally port. The interior of the sally port was investigated for 4.52m, and fill ca. 0.9−1m deep removed (Fig. 1). The syrinx is a passageway running east-west obliquely through the fortification wall, which at this point is 5.7m thick. The side walls are built of boulders founded on a layer of hard soil, small stones and pebbles. This layer is 0.55m deep by the entrance and gradually diminishes to 0.15−0.1m in the middle of the syrinx. The side walls curve slightly inward towards the top, while the roof is mostly covered with horizontal stone slabs. The floor, of levelled bedrock, slopes continuously with shallow steps at several points. The sally port is 1.4m high and 0.6m wide near the entrance, gradually reducing to 0.8m high and 0.45m wide as the passage runs deeper. Near the deepest point reached before the excavation was halted for safety reasons, the roof is lowered following the inclination of the floor, while the passage is so narrow as to be impassible. This is an effect of the devastating earthquake that hit Midea at the end of the 13th century BC, as evident in the distorted and tilted side walls and the fallen stones from the walls and the roof. In order to find the exit, some 1.2m outside the fortification wall, excavation continued in the three adjacent trenches opened in 2007 against the outer face of the wall. A large part of the outer face of the wall was exposed for a length of 10m and to a height of 3m (Fig. 2). Examination of the exposed wall surface revealed that the construction of this section differed from that of most of the citadel wall and of the inner face of this part of the wall. Instead of boulders and large stones, medium-sized stones were used, with some boulders only in the lower part. Most of the outer face of the wall, plus part of the syrinx including the exit, collapsed or was severely damaged in the earthquake (noting many boulders and large stones in this area apparently from the collapsed section of the wall), and the wall face was rebuilt in LHIIICE and the sally port blocked. This work coincides with the construction of room I against the inner face of the wall, near the entrance to the sally port. At the same time the megaron complex on the lower terraces, which was also destroyed by earthquake, was largely repaired. A substantial programme of repair and rebuilding was therefore initiated on the lower terraces of the acropolis following the destruction. The fill of the part of the sally port excavated this season was a dark, rather loose soil containing large and small stones, rubble and pebbles. A considerable quantity of mostly LHIIIB2 sherds was recovered. More abundant, and also fragmentary, pottery of the same date comes from the destruction deposit excavated near and in front of the entrance to the sally port. It is noteworthy that LHIIICE and M as well as Early Mycenaean and Middle Helladic sherds were found both in the fill of the sally port and in the destruction deposit, and that there were many joins between sherds from these two areas. The commonest shape among the LHIIIB2 decorated pottery is the deep bowl (of all types, with Group A predominating). Stemmed bowls (some monochrome) are abundant (Fig. 3); many stems of this shape were found, some trimmed and probably used as lids. Kraters and mugs also occur. A fine semi-globular bowl, partly restored from many sherds, is banded in and out with a fringe of joining semicircles on the exterior rim. Also abundant are closed shapes, such as jugs, amphorae and hydriae, stirrup and collar-necked jars and alabastra. Plainware examples include conical and carinated kylikes, deep bowls, mugs, dippers, shallow angular bowls, basins and jugs. Numerous stirrup jar sherds are decorated mostly with stylized octopus tentacles. One of two non-joining sherds of another stirrup jar of this type preserves a trace of a Linear B sign. The coarseware recovered includes many sherds of pithoi and other storage vessels. There are also cooking vessels, including some in a fabric containing silver or gold mica, plus sherds of handmade burnished-ware jars. A few stray LHIIIC sherds were found inside the sally port and in the destruction deposit. To LHIIICE belong sherds of kraters coated inside, and a fragment of an amphoriskos or collar-necked jar decorated with hooked stems. A large part of a shallow angular bowl with linear decoration dates to LHIIICM. Early Mycenaean sherds in both deposits include a number of LHIIA−B, mostly from Vapheio cups. The plentiful Middle Helladic sherds found in both deposits are of grey and black Minyan and matt-painted ware. Other finds from both deposits are fragmentary terracotta human and animal figurines and a part of a throne model, the rim of a lead vessel, a fragmentary bronze pin, fragments of stone tools, blades and flakes of obsidian and flint, pieces of fluorite, mother-of-pearl and ochre, many fragments of painted plaster, as well as animal bones, seashells and carbonized figs. Approximately 20−25m outside the northern section of the citadel wall was a massive Cyclopean terrace wall of boulders. Its north face, preserved to a height of 0.8−1.1m, was cleared for a length of 30m. This strong retaining wall supported a road leading to the main (east) gate of the acropolis. It is comparable with the retaining walls of Mycenaean highways in the Mycenae and Berbati areas, and with those of the Tiryns-Epidauros highway. This newly-found road connected Midea with areas to the northwest of the acropolis and probably with the highway from Mycenae to Tiryns. Its construction likely coincided with that of the acropolis fortifications.

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Tiryns. J. Maran (DAI/Heidelberg) reports the completion in 2009 of the documentation and restoration of the ca. 1,000 fresco fragments and fragment groups found by the Archaeological Service near the West Stairs in 1999−2001 (Fig. 1). These finds belong to the same complex as the frescos found in 1910 (e.g. the large procession of women, hunting frieze, deer frieze). Study continues, but preliminary results may be noted. In certain cases, analysis of the find conditions and contexts on the Tiryns acropolis permits paintings found in secondary debris to be allocated to particular ranges of rooms within the palace, and thus to their original architectural, functional and iconographical context. The large procession of women, of which new fragments could be identified, is such a case. Besides common motifs such as processions (now also identified in small format: Fig. 2), the new finds expand the known repertoire at Tiryns with the addition of rare motifs such as the image of a female figure apparently holding a smaller figure, which may be connected with a small group of possible figurine depictions on wall-paintings from Mycenae and Tiryns. There are also images of marine creatures apparently drinking from or holding vessels (Fig. 3); one of these occurred among the older finds and two among the new. The chronological significance of the new finds is already evident, as they were found in contexts clearly associated with LHIIIB2 ceramics. Thus the majority of the Tiryns paintings are connected with the final architectural phase of the palace, and not, as widely assumed, with some earlier phase. The possibility of cross-comparison on the basis of stylistic development is of importance for the relative chronology of Mycenaean wall-painting.

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Lerna. M.H. Weincke (ASCSA) reports on continuing work on a conservation plan for the House of the Tiles and a programme to improve the Lerna display in Argos Museum. Analysis of the stone eaves of the House of the Tiles shows them to be made of a shale or siltstone (chlorite and illite) quarried locally.

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Franchthi Cave. K.D. Vitelli (ASCSA) reports on continuing study and analytical programmes. Study of the Franchthi ornaments was devoted to Neolithic assemblages, in particular from trenches FAN, FAS and L5. Eight phases and sub-phases are recognized, in general agreement with the lithic and ceramic phasing. Early and Middle Neolithic show strong continuity, whereas sharp breaks occur at the beginning of the Late and Final Neolithic. Microscopic study and photography of the manufacturing and wear traces on the FAS and FAN material revealed variety among the apparently homogenous series of Late Neolithic beads. This obtains also for the ‘small fired steatite’ beads which may actually have been glazed. Study of cockle-shell bead blanks (Cerastoderma glaucum) was coupled with experiments to reconstruct manufacturing procedures and thus document different choices of blanks and different production steps for the Early and Late Neolithic cockleshell beads. Study of the faunal sequence in trench H1-B was completed in 2009. Trench H1-B constitutes the longest Palaeolithic sequence at Franchthi Cave − at least 20,000 years of human occupation spanning numerous cultural and environmental changes. Basic trends in Upper Palaeolithic to Mesolithic foraging are identified as follows, based on these data. A terrestrial focus in diet defines the lower half of the sequence. The diet shifts fairly abruptly to a mixed marine-terrestrial focus above unit 172. Units 153−70 point to exceptional ‘instability’ in economic and other faunal patterns, some of which must relate to dramatic climate shifts leading into the Holocene. The shifts indicate major reorganization of human economic systems. Exploitation patterns restabilize as a new regimen above unit 150. As foragers started to turn to aquatic resources in earnest, they began by gathering pond turtles and marine shellfish. Marine fishing was also practised early on, but fishing became more important and diversified with time. The sequence in which aquatic resource types were integrated into the meat diet follows closely an optimality prediction, beginning with easily collected small animals, moving to greater use of fish and ultimately to fishing for tuna, large fish that are difficult to catch and land. The foraging regimens of units 172−58 were especially diversified, and this may indicate the first of several increases in occupation intensity at Franchthi Cave. Small game exploitation is somewhat less diversified above unit 154, but a variety of species continued to be exploited − in particular fish and carnivores. By unit 128, fish had become very important and more diverse, culminating in a heavy emphasis on tuna fishing. It is not yet clear whether the rising intensity of occupation at Franchthi reflects changes in local human population densities. However, the heaviest use of marine shellfish began around the same time, as did the heavy exploitation of land snails and labour-intensive collection and processing of small-grain grasses and legumes. Increased pressure on local resources is expected to encourage humans to exploit lower-ranked species such as these. Speculatively, we may have evidence from the H1-B faunal sequence at Franchthi Cave of feed-back relations between rising populations and expansion into new habitats and technological innovations that span the Late Palaeolithic to the Mesolithic.

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Kandalos and Manthyrea (Anc. Manthyrea). M. Petropoulos (Director, ΛΘ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery, in the course of excavation connected with the project to re-establish Lake Taka, of Mycenaean -Late Roman walls in a location near Tegea which accords with Pausanias’ placing of ancient Manthyrea.  

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Tegea, Palaia Episkopi. A.-V. Karapanagiotou (ΛΘ' ΕΠΚΑ), D. Athanasoulis (25th EBA) and K. Ødegård (Norwegian Institute at Athens) report on the first season of collaborative excavation in 2009. West of the ancient theatre and the Byzantine church of Episkopi, the paving of the ancient agora was revealed in a succession of tile-packed surfaces of the Byzantine period, the latest dating to the 12th century AD. Slag from a Byzantine metalworker’s shop was also found. To the north were the remains of Byzantine buildings, one of which was evidently linked to agricultural activity since the thick cement floor of one room fits its use as a wine-press.

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Mount Lykaion, Sanctuary of Zeus. M. Petropoulos (Director, ΛΘ' ΕΠΚΑ), M. Voyatzis (ASCSA/Arizona) and D.G. Romano (ASCSA/Pennsylvania) report on excavation and study in 2009 (Fig. 1). Stratigraphical evidence places the first use of the altar in the prehistoric period (Fig. 2). Late Neolithic, Early, Middle and Late Helladic pottery was discovered, with Mycenaean especially well represented (noting numerous kylikes and other small finds). Strata above this include Submycenaean and Protogeometric material, and Geometric to Hellenistic sherds in an apparently continuous sequence. There were large quantities of Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Helladic sherds in nearly all layers of the altar. Dedications recovered include miniature bronze tripods, silver coins, metal objects and miniatures of various kinds. Quantities of animal bone continue to be found, but as yet no human bone. In the lower sanctuary, excavation was continued immediately north of the seats or steps (Fig. 3): part of a terracotta water channel may relate to the use of these seats in the fourth century BC. Outside the northeast corner of the xenon was a long, sunken open-air corridor with carefully cut walls. More of the 67m long stoa was cleared (Fig. 4) and three trenches were opened in the hippodrome (Fig. 5). Geological, topographical and architectural surveys continued alongside excavation, following directions outlined in 2008 (Fig. 6). Architectural study of the bath to the northeast of the hippodrome began.

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Agios Vasileios (Xerokampi). A. Vasilogamvrou (Director, Ε' ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of further remains of Mycenaean settlement in the course of rescue excavation. In addition to pottery and figurines, fresco fragments and fragments of three Linear B tablets indicate the existence of a higher-order centre in the vicinity. Tablet 1 preserves the word e-pi-zo-ta, referring to daggers or short swords, on one side in a large quantity (500−999) and, on the other, in a smaller (100). Tablet 2 has the name ti-jo-ko (Antichos). Tablet 3 preserves the following words on each line: -to-jo (line 1); wi-ti-mi-ja (Isthmia) (line 2); TELA-PA (ideogram for textile) followed by three (line 3); lines 4−5 are illegible; PTE-WE (woven fabric, as a dedication) (last line). 

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Pavlopetri. E. Spondylis (EMA) and J. Henderson (BSA/Nottingham) report on the first season of underwater survey of the submerged prehistoric town off the Pounta shore, opposite Elaphonisos. The site was first identified in 1904, rediscovered in 1967, and in 1968 surveyed by a team from the University of Cambridge using a fixed-grid system and hand tapes. The resulting plan, covering an area of 300m x 100m, included at least 15 separate building complexes, courtyards, streets, two chamber tombs and 37 cist graves. The underwater site continues south onto Pavlopetri island, on which were visible remains of walls and other archaeological material. On the Pounta shore, a cemetery of at least 60 rock-cut graves was provisionally dated to the Early Helladic. A little Early to Late Bronze Age surface pottery was recovered from the seabed in 1968, but the submerged buildings were dated by analogy mainly to the Mycenaean period. Ceramic evidence for later use of the site comprises Hellenistic cooking pots, black-glazed wares, Roman ribbed ware and late sixth- to seventh-century AD sherds. In 2009 a new survey recorded the surviving architectural remains and recovered a range of surface finds from across the site. Two survey methods were employed: points were taken using a shore-based robotic total station; and trial survey was carried out using a Kongsberg-Mesotech MS 1000 sector scan sonar. In testing the sonar equipment, a wide range of scan radii were used from fixed positions, ranging from 150m scans of building complexes to very high resolution 5m scans. The MS 1000 sector scan sonar provides instantaneous high-resolution sea floor scans which consist of 3D point cloud data comparable to that produced by terrestrial laser scanners. The data produced will be manipulated in 3D environments to produce isometric images of the submerged building complexes. In addition to recording the 30,000m2 of buildings first identified in 1968, over 9,000m2 of new buildings were discovered to the north (Fig. 1). At least 25 co-joined square and rectilinear rooms (built of rough square limestone blocks as elsewhere on the site) began some 10m from the existing shore line. A 40m long street was lined with rectilinear buildings with stone foundations. One square building (3m x 3m) contains the remains of a central pillar-like structure. Two new cist graves were discovered alongside what appears to be a pithos burial in a corner of one of the newly discovered rooms. A large trapezoidal building, ca. 34m long and 12−17m wide, contains at least three separate rooms and is comparable in layout to Early Bronze Age buildings. Its size and prominent position within the settlement imply that it was of some importance. The extent of the town is now estimated at ca. 4ha. The pottery collected in 2009, while unstratified, covers the entire extent of the site as now known and provides a clearer picture of occupation history. Occupation began in the Final Neolithic. Ongoing study of the artefacts sampled, i.e. 442 ceramic items, an iron nail and an obsidian chip, provides the following chronological breakdown: 3% Final Neolithic, 40% Early Bronze Age, 15% Middle Bronze Age, 25% Late Bronze Age, 3% Classical/Hellenistic, 0.5% Roman/Byzantine. Of the pottery, 13.5% is badly worn and provisionally characterized as Bronze Age. Early Helladic pithoi and storage jars bear a variety of rope-impressed and finger-impressed decoration. In addition to storage vessels (some with mat-impressed bases), standard Early Bronze Age shapes such as cups, sauceboats, conical saucers, askoi, portable hearths and dishes are represented, some showing close links with the Cyclades, western Crete and the northeastern Aegean. In contrast to the limited picture of Middle Helladic occupation from the 1968 survey, a quantity of Middle Helladic pottery was lifted in 2009, both local wares and a few imports possibly from Kythera, noting storage vessels with Middle Minoan decoration. Late Bronze Age sherds span the Middle Helladic/Late Helladic transition until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces. Shapes represented include drinking vessels (mainly kylikes and cups), storage vessels (amphorae and alabastra) and vessels for serving liquids (squat jugs, skyphoi and kraters). Several sherds show strong Late Minoan influence; a clay strainer is provisionally dated to LMIB. The site was probably abandoned in post-palatial times. Limited Classical to Hellenistic reoccupation is indicated by fourth- and third-century skyphos and other sherds. Late antique pottery recovered in 1968 and 2009 may also indicate limited reoccupation and local involvement in trade in limestone and iron from the nearby ores at Ag. Elissaios and the exploitation of murex beds for the production of purple dye.

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Messene. P. Themelis (ASA) reports on a further season of excavation in the theatre, the north stoa in the agora and the monopteros. In the theatre, the east retaining wall of the koilon was completely exposed to its lowest course. This is also the north wall of the skenotheke of which the east wall and the stylobate of the south side are preserved (Figs 1-3). Three parallel channels in the floor of the skenotheke allowed the movement of wheeled wooden scenery into the orchestra from the end of the third century BC to the first century AD (Fig. 4). Behind the north wall of the skenotheke lay the sloping floor which led to the middle diazoma of the koilon (Fig. 5). In the 10th to 11th century AD, the east retaining wall was levelled, and workshops and lime kilns built within the foundations of the koilon. Among the building material used is the base of a marble statue of a boxer victorious in the Pythian games and in the Basileia at Levadeia. East of the theatre, beside the spring of Arsinoe, is the Π-shaped stoa which forms the northern boundary of the agora (Fig. 6). The western part was excavated in 2009; parts of the internal Corinthian colonnade had inscribed bases for bronze statues. One base fragment preserves a depiction of a conical helmet in relief. East of the apse of the basilica in the theatre area, and mostly beneath the basilica, lay the stylobate of a round Doric building (10m in diameter) with many of its columns collapsed around it (Figs 7-8). Around and outside the stylobate was a second concentric circle of limestone slabs belonging to an older construction.  A multi-coloured stone and glass mosaic floor between the two foundations depicts several over life-size figures named in black stone captions: one of the male figures carrying a staff is named Atticus, perhaps the father of Herodes Atticus (Fig. 9). An inscribed statue base west of the round Doric building bears a dedicatory inscription from the captains to Capitoline Zeus.

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Ithome. P. Themelis (ASA) reports on excavation within the sekos of the temple (thought to be dedicated to Eileithyia and the Kouretes), which revealed an ivy-leaf shaped statue base. A stone shelf around the sekos was for the placing of dedications (Fig. 1).

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Ancient Thouria. X. Arapogianni (ASA) reports on continuing excavation (Fig. 1). A large polygonal retaining wall (14m long, 3.1m high, oriented north-south: Fig. 2) forms a corner at its northern end, continues east-west for 4m and is continued for 30m to the south by a more recent isodomic retaining wall. (Fig. 3) A stone staircase (Fig. 4) leads up to the platform, on which the north, south and east sides of the large isodomic building A (oriented east-west) were exposed (Fig. 5). Inside were the remains of its Laconian tiled roof above an ash layer. Small cisterns of tile and lime mortar were later constructed around the building. The fourth-century BC building B lay 5m south of building A. The stylobate of its Ionic colonnade is preserved for a length of ca. 10m with three column bases in situ (Fig. 6). At the eastern end was an in situ monolithic engaged column with, beside it, part of the epistyle and other architectural members (Fig. 7). This building also had a Laconian tiled roof: its public function is confirmed by a number of tiles stamped ΔΑΜΟΣΙΟΙ (Figs 8-9). Building Γ (south of building B) had a monumental façade and a two-stepped stylobate supporting a wall of orthostates intersected by Doric half-columns (the northwest corner column is three-quarters fluted) (Fig. 10). The architectural members of this building were covered in light white plaster. The interior floor is of white pebbles, and, on the exterior, colours include black and red. Inside the building, a limestone base (0.6m x 0.82m x 0.14m) contains a void (0.41m in diameter, 0.25m deep) to hold an object now lost. Next to it is the base of an offering table with lion-paw feet (Fig. 11). Finds from building A include Classical sherds and part of a terracotta relief plaque with an armed Athena. In the fill of building Γ is small relief metope of a satyr (Fig. 12). The presence of three monumental buildings on the platform indicates that this was a public area of as yet undetermined character.

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Iklaina. M. Kosmopoulos (ASA) reports on a further season of excavation. The LHII or LHIIIA1 house B was built on the remains of earlier structures (Fig. 1). House Γ had two phases (Fig. 2). The first comprises three rooms, one of which contained a central hearth surrounded by four column bases. In the second, four small storerooms were built in the southern part of the structure, containing many LHIIIA2−B sherds of kylikes, skyphoi, pithoi and rhyta, figurines and animal bones. House Δ had three rooms, one of which contained many sherds and figurines (Fig. 3). Pottery from this structure dates to LHIIIA1 to LHIIIB. Investigation of one of the two rooms of the newly-discovered house E showed it to date to LHIIIA2/B. A conduit originating in that room suggests that the structure was used as a workshop;  here were three further channels (Fig. 7). A long wall on the north side of the excavation area is likely part of a peribolos(Figs 4-5). At the northern end lay a room containing a cup and two kylikes: its walls were built into fill containing LHIIIA1−2 pottery. Below this fill was a deposit of sherds and burnt animal bone, as well as a large pithos set into the hard earth surface. A helmet was found close to the wall in 2008 and, in 2009, the skeleton of a 12−13-year-old female suffering from anaemia was also discovered. An approach route to the site was identified; pottery in the fill dates to the Late Helladic and to the fourth to third century BC, and an 8m x 12m paved area is also preserved. There are the foundations of at least five rooms with LHII−IIIA1 pottery, part of a terracotta offering table and fragments of wall-painting depicting buildings, women and men with a ship. To date, finds from Iklaina indicate a complex destroyed at the end of LHIIIB (Fig. 6).

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Pylos, Palace of Nestor. S. Stocker (ASCSA) and J. Davis (Director, ASCSA) report on the 2009 study season. Human remains from Mycenaean chamber tombs at Kato Rouga in Chora and from a third tomb in the Kokkevis group at Kato Englianos were examined. Study of wall-plaster and floor-plaster continued, and documentation of all painted plaster remaining in situ in the palace was begun. Study of Byzantine artefacts from the Northeast Gateway was completed, as was examination of Middle Helladic pottery from the so-called Petropoulos Trench. Progress was made in the documentation of pottery from the Pantries, while documentation of artefacts from graves is nearing completion.

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Kakovatos. B. Eder (DAI/Freiburg) reports on the first season of renewed fieldwork in 2009, to investigate the spatial extent, building types and chronological span of the Mycenaean settlement on the so-called acropolis (Fig. 1). A geodetic study produced a topographic plan of the Kakovatos area and a terrain model of the archaeological zone (Fig. 2). Geophysical survey aimed both to find evidence for ancient structures and to trace the areas excavated by Dörpfeld in 1907−1908. A geomagnetic survey was made of the entire archaeological zone, with geoelectric tomographic sections, mapping and 3-D tomography then applied in selected areas. Ancient structures appear to be concentrated on the acropolis, with anomalies observed especially in the west part of the plateau (the location of walls M and N partially excavated by Dörpfeld). No evidence for ancient buildings was observed in the east of the acropolis or further downhill. Built structures were documented and systematic fieldwalking of the acropolis and its surroundings undertaken. Walls M and N on the acropolis were cleaned and recorded (Fig. 3). The densest concentration of finds was in the west of the acropolis plateau, and, in general, the find distribution on the hill and its surroundings coincides with the results of the geophysical survey. The pottery, which continues from the Middle Bronze Age via Early Mycenaean to the Early Palatial period (LHIIIA), indicates a comparatively long occupation of the acropolis, covering a much broader spectrum than the finds from the tholos tombs.

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Triphylia. J. Heiden (DAI) reports on the fourth campaign of study at ancient Triphylia. Resistivity survey at Makistos revealed a rectilinear grid which may be the street system of a Classical polis. A main street and a narrower side street are visible. At Samikon, the 1:1,000 plan was corrected and individual buildings mapped at 1:50. Based on a 3D laser scan, elevations of two towers of the city wall were drawn. Tower 6, east of the acropolis, was recorded. No pre-fourth- century BC pottery was found apart from two Middle Helladic sherds below the acropolis. At Platiana, the city plan was completed and building plans at 1:50 begun. The city wall and its towers, a large public building (perhaps the bouleuterion) and the theatre plateau were examined (Fig. 1). No pre-fourth-century BC pottery was found. Samikon and Platiana were apparently new foundations of the Triphylian League. At Lepreon, buildings were recorded at 1:50. Study focused on a tower on the west wall  (Fig. 2) and on the two northern towers on the east wall and the wall between them.     In the ancient settlement near Vrestos, the near circular city wall (with 11 towers) and all visible architecture in the inner city were recorded at 1:1,000. Much coarse pottery, very little fineware and a clay grill were collected. A funerary monument was found outside the city.   In Anilio, work began on a fort-like complex above the modern village (Fig. 3), described by Dörpfeld as a Mycenaean ruler’s seat, but probably much later in date. A large foundation, probably of a temple, was cleared. Surface sherds date from the Late Archaic to the Hellenistic period.

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Olympia, Sanctuary of Zeus. R. Senff (DAI) reports on continuing excavation in the southeast complex and geophysical survey in the area of the ancient hippodrome, undertaken in 2009. In the so-called southeast complex (Fig. 1), the ancient layers immediately adjacent to the external wall were well preserved, had not been washed away by the river and extended east at increasing depth, their slope indicating a shoreline escarpment. The wall, of rough limestone blocks and large river pebbles, shows several building phases. Excavation halted ca. 2m below the surface due to the unusually high water table, although pottery and metal objects indicate that stereo was not reached. There may be an infilled well in the northern half of the sounding, as the area contained a near complete Late Archaic kylix and a complete bronze cauldron lying upside down. Upon restoration, the cauldron proved to contain a bronze Corinthian helmet with deliberately bent cheek-guards (Fig. 2). In sounding Q 08.3, fifth-century BC layers contained fineware and coarseware sherds, as well as many bones, scorched tile fragments and metal objects. The debris covered a large, shallow basin-like pit, its walls reinforced with broken tile and covered with a reddish lime mortar, which may be connected with building work or a potter’s workshop (Fig. 3). Geophysical survey south and east of the stadium was continued, with the additional use of geoelectrics. The visible structures cannot securely be connected with any ancient remains. Five test trenches dug in the locations of anomalies noted in 2008 revealed only natural soil and gravel layers. The exact position and shape of the hippodrome therefore remain unclear. Further profiles were measured south of the Leonidaion, where the agora may be located according to Pausanias. Scant indications of ancient building remains were found. Further evidence of architecture was encountered on the slopes of the Kronion, northeast of the gymnasion. A project to re-erect the north column of the Ptolemaic dedication in front of the Echo Hall was begun in 2009. Specialist reports were completed, and first samples for the cleaning of stones and plaster casts of the broken surfaces on the column drums taken.

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Mygdalia. L. Papazoglou-Manioudaki (National Archaeological Museum) reports on the second season of excavation at the Mycenaean settlement in 2009. Mygdalia is a naturally fortified hill bordered to the east and west by the rivers Philiouras and Xeropotamos (Fig. 1).  Previous discoveries include Geometric pithos burials and a LHIIB−IIIA1 tholos on the west slope of the hill. Mycenaean cemeteries are known immediately to the east at Koukouri (Achaia Clauss) and the west at Krini. Settlement covers ca. 6,500m2 over three terraces (Fig. 2). Terrace 3 is supported from the southeast by a wall of large roughly-cut stones, now partly covered by a dry-stone wall (Fig. 3). Parts of two earlier retaining walls lie beneath it. Sixty metres away on the southwest slope is a collapsed apsidal built grave (Fig. 4). Only tiny sherds and animal bones were found in the mixed fill partly covering it: stones from the tumulus are visible outside. The settlement spans the Early Mycenaean to the end of LHIIIC. Surface finds on terrace 2 include part of a LHIIIC bovine figurine with linear decoration (Fig. 5). A strong exterior wall, incorporating huge boulders, had collapsed in an earthquake: sherds in the fill include LHIIIB and C deep bowls. A pithos in front of the house entrance, plus LHIIICL sherds, date the final destruction and abandonment of the building. Fill inside a large room contained mixed Early to Late Mycenaean sherds, but the floor layers date to Early Mycenaean. Finds include a stone axe-hammer (Fig. 6, a rarity in mainland settlement contexts). Another wall of thin, almost rectangular, stones defines a semi-open space to the south of the building where the cutting back of the bedrock may denote a small courtyard. Abundant transitional MH/LHI domestic pottery in foundation strata, including matt-painted stemmed goblets and amphora handles, dates the construction to the Early Mycenaean period: it remained in use over a long period. A small steatite disc may have been a balance weight or a game piece. Another building inside a strong retaining wall lay 1.5m to the east. Both structures follow the northwest-southeast orientation of the building(s) excavated in 2008. Inside, over the dirt floor, was a LHIIICL destruction deposit containing stones, pithos and domestic ware sherds, a bronze knife, spools, spindle-whorls, loomweights, whetstones and animal bones. The absence of burning or any other sign of violence suggests that the building was abandoned voluntarily or after an earthquake. The building had two main rooms (Fig. 7): the north remained unexcavated but the south was further divided into two by a new cross wall. A handmade cooking jug (Fig. 8) and a pithoid jar were found in situ. Pottery dates mainly to the Early Mycenaean. Finally, Late Geometric sherds (including a pyxis) were found in a trench dug into the building in the eighth century BC. Excavation on the summit exposed three rounded stone column bases (two of which were in situ). (Fig. 9). A number of large, roughly rectangular, stone slabs may belong to a portico or a colonnade. To the northwest were the foundations of a prominent rectangular building (Fig. 10): in the middle of one of the rooms is a flattened stone which may have supported a wooden column. The date of the complex remains unclear (the few sherds collected span the Mycenaean to Geometric period). A few Archaic tile fragments were found nearby on terrace 1 during the 2008 survey.

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Aigialeia. A. Pontrandolfo (SAIA/Salerno) reports on the seventh season of survey conducted in 2009 in collaboration with the Στ' ΕΠΚΑ and the KERA/EIE (Centre for Greek and Roman Antiquity, National Research Foundation). This first season of a renewed programme was focused in the Krios valley, on the upper part of the fluvial basin towards the borders of Arcadia (Figs 1-3). The intent was to combine survey with the excavation record derived notably from the work of the Austrian Institute and the Στ' ΕΠΚΑ around modern Seliana, identified with the ancient polisma of Phelloe (Pausanias 7.26.10−11), noting ongoing excavation conducted by C. Katsarou (Στ' ΕΠΚΑ) around the church of Ag. Vasileios. Extensive exploration of the greater part of the area was undertaken to assess potential variations in surface visibility, and to gain a general sense of the probable relationship between surface traces and buried remains. Prospection covered the ca. 30ha of the territory of modern Seliana as defined by the Evrostina mountains and to the west by the Krios valley. Oral and written testimonia concerning site location were verified on the ground. Despite poor visibility, exploration revealed occupation from the Late Bronze Age to late antiquity.

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Platiana. G. Hatzi (Director, Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) notes the investigation in 2009 on the east slopes of the acropolis, at the site of Aloni Boliari, of a probably public, temple-like structure with few finds. On the southwest slope was a monumental Hellenistic (fourth-third century) tomb, finds within which included a composite female statue with a marble head set onto a soft limestone body.

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Vartholomio, Katsiveri. G. Hatzi (Director, Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a large Mycenaean tholos tomb (10m external diameter, 36m total length including the short dromos), close to the archaeological site of Vartholomio. The tomb was built of partially worked boulders and smaller unworked stones. Upon the stones of the collapsed tomb were the remains of a pyre with animal bones of various species. At the entrance to the dromos were sherds chiefly of kylikes.

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Ag. Nikolaos, Andravida (Staphidokambos). In the course of a report of the work of the Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ in 2009, G. Hatzi (Director, Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) notes a third- to fourth-century AD deposit found during irrigation work. 

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Vryses (Olena), Paliolena. In the course of a report of the work of the Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ in 2009, G. Hatzi (Director, Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) notes a water channel which ended within a semi-circular parapet. While the construction appears ancient, the facility continued in use into the early 18th century (noting coinage of the second Venetian empire).

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Mageira, Olympia. G. Hatzi (Director, Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of four Mycenaean chamber tombs following the extensive fires of 2007-2008. These contained rich grave goods, including large two- and four-handled amphorae, beads of glass paste, gold and faience, spindle whorls, and two beads in the shape of human figures from a necklace. Excavation by O. Vikatou in 2009-2010 revealed two elite chamber tombs of Mycenaean warriors with, in addition to pottery, a pair of bronze greaves, bronze swords, and valuable offerings of gold, semi-precious stones and other materials.

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Vageni, Krestena. In the course of a report of the work of the Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ in 2009, G. Hatzi (Director, Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) notes four large pithos burials found in rescue excavation. The few finds date to the fourth century BC.

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Phigaleia, Perivolia (Diasello). G. Hatzi (Director, Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the continuation of systematic excavation on the property of G. Polydora. The temple (9.9 x 6.6m) was fully exposed. Within it, the stone base of a cult statue of an as yet unknown deity or hero was fully exposed. The altar and offering table with lion-paw feet were restored by Ephoreia conservators on the model of fourth- to third-century examples of Arkadian derivation as at Alipheira and the temples of Athena and Zeus Sotiras at Phigaleia. Due to the wide scatter of building material for some 5m around the building, trial trenches were opened revealing a peribolos or retaining wall on the north of the temple, and a 110m-long stretch of open stone water channel running northwest-southeast.  

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Property of A. Rigou (O.T. 127).  K. Diamanti (5th EBA) reports the discovery of a Roman-Byzantine orthogonal building in the course of rescue excavation in 2008-9. Two successive arched cisterns occupy a large part of the plot, with associated rooms which are to be connected either with the Middle Byzantine church on the neighbouring Rigou plot, or with the olive press of the same period on the neighbouring Philippopoulou property.

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Sparta Acropolis. K. Diamanti (5th EBA) reports on work on the Byzantine church on the south slope of the acropolis, which is in contact with the west side of the curved retaining wall of the so-called round building. Work in 2008 and 2009 fully exposed the exterior of the church. Inside, on the line of the north colonnade of the altar and to the west, was part of a slightly projecting, orthogonal structure; only the foundation of the corresponding structure to the east is preserved. These are parts of the support for the church roof. There are traces of plaster with painted decoration on the interior face of the north wall (the best preserved). The walls, built of unworked stones bound in lime plaster, incorporate architectural spolia, with blocks at the angles. 

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Patras, inner ring road.The 6th EBA reports the discovery, in the course of road construction, of building remains showing continuous use of the area southeast of the Kastro from Early Christian to Ottoman times. Attention is drawn to: a section of the Frankish fortification which circled the city outside the Kastro; Middle and Late Byzantine residential insulae. A large quantity of pottery was recovered, along with many stone items and 48 coins.

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Patras, 28 Pantanassis Street (property of the Demos Patreon). The 6th EBA reports the completion of excavation on a plot.  A secular building or residential complex was partially revealed (a rectangular room with a doorway and tiled roof, plus a small part of a second room) close to the site of earlier building remains. Pottery, coins and architectural style combined to indicate its use from Early Christian to Early Byzantine times (fifth to sixth centuries AD). Finds include a near-complete Early Christian terracotta bread stamp, a large quantity of fifth- to sixth-century bronze coins (94, mainly minimi but also two semifollis coins and a pentanummium of the sixth century), a marble table support, a bronze fish-hook and a long lead net weight.

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Pallantion. S. Fritzilas (ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on results from a series of test trenches opened in connection with the management of Lake Takka, which extend for ca. 500m along the north-south axis of the ancient city on the lower plain. Archaic to Byzantine occupation was confirmed, with most pottery dating to the Hellenistic and Roman periods.  A major part of the city wall (ca. 3.2m wide) was found 500m from the acropolis. Only the foundations are preserved (with cut-stone faces surrounding a rubble core): the superstructure was mud brick.  At the north end lay the remains of a tower destroyed at the end of the fourth century BC and rebuilt slightly to the south.  This likely followed the campaign of Polyperchon in the Peloponnese in 318, when Megalopolis was beseiged and Pallantion also fell. The city wall fell into disuse in Roman times: a Late Antique potter’s workshop was built over it, associated with a kiln, much pottery and masses of clay.   A 24m-long stretch of the central arterial cobbled road (3.6-4.2m wide, with wheel ruts) ran east-west, parallel to the city wall.  Beside it was a Hellenistic public stoa - a Γ-shaped building with north and east wings forming an angle of the agora (the closed north wall faced onto the street). The north wing was 6.1m deep and at least 23m long (it continues beyond the expropriated area) no internal subdivisions. It had a compacted clay floor which bore evidence of the fire which destroyed it in Late Antiquity. On the north side were foundations for a staircase to an upper storey. Remains of the roof included stamped tiles (some marked ΔΑΜΟΣΙΟΣ with a similar stamp to that used in the reroofing of Temple C on the acropolis) and an acroterion. The main entrance to the stoa lay in the north part of the east side, with two subsidiary entrances to the north wing directly from the road.  Marble spolia from the building were re-used in a paved surface in front of the colonnade. A fifth- to fourth-century Archaic-Classical level was located at several points beneath the Hellenistic building, along with parts of five rooms from the north wing of a previous but similar stoa complex. The Hellenistic stoa complex was designed anew above its predecessor and did not reuse the earlier foundations. The Archaic-Classical complex was larger and built of better materials: the comparative decline in Hellenistic times may be attributed to a progressive reduction in the city’s manpower and resources following the foundation of Megalopolis, the conscription of its male citizens, and the sack of 318.  Pottery from the later stoa complex dates from the late Classical to Late Roman periods: during this period, the use of the internal spaces of the east wing changed and in Roman times its colonnade was enclosed to create a new front room with a floor in opus spicatum. Water management on the plain of Pallantion dates back to the Mycenaean period, with evidence of wells for irrigation, and management of sink-holes and of the waters of Lake Takka. Similar installations were found at several locations during rescue excavation for the construction of the Tripolis-Kalamata motorway.  Significant stretches of the road south to Asea and Megalopolis were found at Kalogeriko and Dema, plus parts of its northern extension towards Mantineia on the plain close to Pallantion. Beside the arterial road were tombs of Pallantian citizens. Multiple surface levels confirm the road’s longevity. Close by and above it was a 37m-long stretch of bedding track for the transport of stone from the extraction sites using wooden pallets (chelones).  

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Tegea, Episkopi (property of G. Oikonomopoulou). The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery of an Early Archaic-Early Hellenistic potter’s workshop, pehaps close to a shrine to judge from the nature of the products. Finds include lion-head spouts, basins, marble rooftiles, and Late Archaic-Early Classical fine pottery.     

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Manari. The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery, during the construction of the Asea intersection of the Tripolis to Kalamata motorway, of a Late Roman wine press. The press was preserved intact (fig. 1) with a vat to hold the grapes or must.   

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Megalopolis. The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery, while extending the modern city cemetery, of the foundations of a public building ca. 200m south of the upper diazoma of the theatre koilon. The building was destroyed by fire, probably during the attack of Kleomenes III in 223/2 BC, as happened to many other shrines and buildings in the city. The destruction level contained architectural terracottas from the superstructure (sima, antefixes, etc: fig. 1). On Sophokleous Street, the foundations of houses from the Hellenistic city were revealed, built of undressed stone with brick superstructures now lost.  Finds include rooftiles, black glaze and plainware sherds, animal bones, bronze coins, and an intact bronze spearhead from the destruction level (fig. 2).  In the northern part of the modern city, on Lyktora and Kephala Streets (Ο.Τ. 237, Charalambopoulou property), rescue excavation revealed part of a cemetery. Ten Late Roman tile graves, oriented northwest-southeast, date to the second-third centuries AD. Eight were in cover tiles and two were pits. The area was also used for burials in the Late Hellenistic period (mid-second to mid-first century BC).  

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Veligosti. The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery, during the construction of the Veligosto junction on the Tripolis to Kalamata motorway, of obsidian and flint fragments, and stone tools, indicating prehistoric settlement. Hellenistic buildings were also found, plus a stone-built well, a potter’s kiln, and Roman and Byzantine tombs. 

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Soulario (Agios Konstantinos). The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery, during the construction of the Leuktro-Sparta road, of building remains of the late sixth to last quarter fourth centuries, plus a Byzantine cemetery.

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Paralio Astros, Astra (property of D. Kopsiafti). The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports on rescue excavation undertaken following the discovery of a marble ionic column with a Attic-type base which was removed to Astros Museum (figs 1-2). A probable Late Roman bath has been partially excavated: remains include strong walls of brick and tile, walls of brick and cement, hydraulic cement, part of a hypocaust and terracotta pipes, plus a tiled floor (fig. 3).   

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Derveni. D. Sarri (ΛΖ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a Late Roman public bath in the course of construction of the Kiato-Patras stretch of the new Corinth-Patras railway (fig. 1).  The sites lie barely 120m to the west of an Early Helladic settlement revealed in the same works, in the area of the Spyrouleiko ravine by the motorway junction. The Roman bath was first located in 1981 during construction of the new Corinth-Patras motorway. The new excavation began from the visible remains, investigating a 50 x 24m area. Five rooms were excavated, plus a room or courtyard with a mosaic floor. Later and modern structures were also found. The walls were mostly brick (in the case of the east and west walls, diagonally set brick with an infill of small stones), in some cases with arched openings which were mostly closed during later phases of use: they were clad in local schist or marble. A hypocaust was found (square and round brick pillars 0.55m tall, with an 0.23m-thick layer of cement for the floor of the rooms above). The floor of one room was largely preserved, with traces of grey-green marble paving. Tubuli and tegullae mammatae circulated air through the walls. Since the hypocaust extended under all the excavated rooms, they are likely to belong to the caldarium or tepidarium. Water supply and drainage channels were also found.  A court or room 7.5 x 3.5m had a partially preserved black and white floor mosaic with quatrefoil motifs within a border of rhomboids. It resembles the mosiac from the bath at Isthmia (ca. 150-160 AD): the first phase of the Derveni bath is thus dated to the second half of the second century AD. Later use and alterations are attested, with the general tendency to create more and smaller spaces. A round, plaster-lined structure added to the north side was probably a cistern.  Extension of the excavation westwards, with the aim of tracing the limits of the bath, revealed the stone walls of later structures, plus a water channel. The pottery recovered is mainly second- to fourth-century AD in date, contininuing to the sixth century (and with a very few earlier sherds).

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Skourti Cave.  S. Oikonomides reports scattered Neolithic and Middle Helladic sherds in this partially collapsed, three-chambered cave in the area of Sophiko.

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Cave of Palio-Dryphas, Agios Vasileios.  S. Oikonomides reports that the cave contained Late Neolithic to Late Bronze Age pottery, plus probable Archaic sherds.

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Gkoka. S. Oikonomides reports the discovery of sherds probably dating to the final phase of Middle Neolithic in a multi-chambered cave on the passage above the ravine between Mts Gkaligkouni and Daphnia, at an elevation of 830m.

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Anc. Kromna. V. Tassinos (ΛΖ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the results of new prospection at key sites in the area of anc. Kromna (between Kyras Vrisi, Hexamilia and Xylokeriza). Rachi Boska: in addition to known Neolithic and Bronze Age occupation (when large quantities of Melian obsidian and high quality pottery of both periods, e.g. Bronze Age Cycladic and Aeginetan imports, attest to wide connections), Protogeometric and Early Geometric pottery confirms that activity continued through the tenth and ninth centuries, contemporary with the cist grave cemetery discovered (below Classical graves) at Perdikaria just to the north (see ID2496, 3799). The only grave offering found here was a pair of bronze spirals. It is likely that the focus of settlement through this period was the north slope of Rachi Boska, which had at least one good water source and commanded routes from Kenchreai to ancient Corinth and the surrounding plains.  From the Middle Geometric period onward, the focus moves north to Kesimia, where a cemetery of stone sarcophagi has been found – this should be considered alongside the neighbouring Perdikaria cemetery. Fine ninth- and eighth-century pottery (similar to that e.g. from Ancient Corinth) has been revealed in illegal excavation in the cemetery: a rectangular hearth/altar of the same period, found on a rocky height close to the cemetery, probably belongs to an early sanctuary. The new settlement focus is closer to the major Hexamilia quarry complex, then exploited at least for sarcophagi, and to the sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia. Evidence for eighth- and early seventh-century activity in the area remains minimal, but from the mid seventh century onwards activity reached a peak. Notable quantities of offerings (pottery and figurines) are reported at shrines on the peak of Boska and in the vicinity of the Geometric cemeteries at Perdikaria and Kesimia.  Significant remains of houses, tombs, wells, shrines, irrigation and production facilities have been found in an area defined to the north by the road from Isthmia to ancient Corinth, to the south by the Rachi Boska, to the east by the hill of Agios Dimitrios, and to the west by the long quarry trench. However, graves of the period 650-400 BC were found beyond this area in all directions, chiefly along road lines, and the late Archaic-early Classical cemetery excavated at Perdikaria in 2004-2005 should also be noted (see ID 2496, 3799).  Major routes in the Corinthian road network cut through Kesimia, linking the Hexamilia quarries (to which Kromna likely owed its prosperity) to major centres and ports. From the end of the fifth century onwards remains are notably fewer (materials from earlier buildings were re-used in the Hellenistic trans-Isthmian wall), but dedication on Rachi Boska continued through the fourth and third centuries BC and the quarries continued in use. A revival took place from the first century AD onwards, with individual funerary monuments and pottery noted on and around the Rachi Boska, and at Kesimia and Perdikaria. The main Roman settlement in the area was probably further west, at Monastiraki, just to the south of modern Hexamilia. An Early Byzantine (fifth- to seventh-century AD) settlement of indeterminate size is reported on the Rachi Boska, while the discovery during deep ploughing at Perdikaria of pottery, two marble columns and pieces of Early Christian marble screen indicates the presence of a small church.  From the first century AD onwards, the new stone-paved road from Kenchreai to ancient Corinth passed south of the Rachi Boska, by-passing Kromna: some sections are visible at Hatoupi near Hexamilia, and others at Sophesi were destroyed by ploughing.

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Phaneromeni, Chiliomodi. E. Korka (Ministry of Culture) publishes a monolithic Archaic limestone sarcophagus with a painted scene on the interior of the lid, discovered in situ during the opening of a water channel in 1984, at a site in the territory of ancient Tenea.  The interior walls of the sarcophagus (interior dimensions 1.7 x 0.69m, depth 0.5m; lid 2 x 0.9m, thickness 0.15m) were plastered and had painted decoration of two horizontal red bands separated by an off-white band. The scene on the interior of the lid, set within a wide red border, depicted (in purplish-black and red paint on a white ground) two confronted lions with heads turned back and raised paws, over a central red and yellow palmette. The sarcophagus contained a single inhumation in extended position and two Early Corinthian vases, a pyxis-kalathos, and a pattern pyxis with convex walls (without handles) with warrior group decoration on the body and a ram-bearer on the lid. Although the stratum below the sarcophagus did not contain pottery, sherds collected from the trench around and above it include decorated Archaic Corinthian material such as warrior group aryballoi.

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Agia Eirene, Phlius (property of M. Naki). K. Kaza-Papageorgiou (ΚΣτ’ ΕΠΚΑ) publishes a rescue excavation conducted in 1979-1980 in a settlement on the hill of Agia Eirene (on the left of the road from Nemea to Aidonia, just before the turn to Leontio, 2.5km southwest of ancient Phlius). The site had been severely disturbed by deep ploughing. Late Roman building remains (probably of an extensive farmstead) were located from a depth of 0.5m, in placed founded directly onto prehistoric structures (stones from which were re-used).  Two Late Roman tombs nearby contained respectively two and three contemporary burials.  Fill over the Roman remains contained large quantities of Mycenaean, some Middle Helladic and a very few glazed Middle Byzantine sherds, as well as Late Roman. Beneath the Roman remains were partially preserved house walls and floors, dating from the end of the Middle Helladic period to the end of Late Helladic IIIB. Pure Middle Helladic deposits (over stereo) were identified in five trenches in the lower part of the hill. Small cist tombs were found scattered within and between houses in this area: they contained contracted inhumations with a few vases of the late 17th-early 16th century BC. Middle Helladic sherds and whole vessels are mostly matt-painted, with some unpainted (including burnished wares) and a very few polychrome. Forms include amphorae, prochoes, kantharoi, amphoriskoi, goblets, ring-handled cups and kylikes. Imports of cooking and matt-painted wares are noted from Aegina, with some Cretan import also.  The Middle Helladic settlement was destroyed by fire: among burnt deposits, a quantity of carbonised bird’s vetch (vicia cracca) was contained in a matt-painted amphora found in situ. Early Mycenaean pottery was found in all parts of the excavation, including goblets in Middle Helladic tradition with glossy paint, Vapheio cups, closed shapes with marine style and early stipple decoration, LHII ephyraean goblets, and LHIIIA1 monochrome kylikes and cups plus open and closed shapes with stipple decoration.  Notably more LHIIIA2-IIIB pottery was found, especially in fills by walls in the east of the excavation area (perhaps a storage area). This includes shallow cups with running spiral decoration and kylikes (including monochrome examples). LHIIIB1 and 2 are both represented, the former distinguished by e.g. Zygouries kylikes and the latter by e.g. type B and dotted rim deep bowls. LHIIIC Early can also be distinguished among deep bowls in particular (which include monochrome examples). The site was abandoned early in the 12th century. In general, the Mycenaean pottery is of higher quality than products of neighbouring Argive workshops. Four Pictorial Style vessels are reported, including two skyphoid kraters discussed in detail. One depicts a procession right to left) with a helmetted warrior between two horses (holding a shield in his right hand and the reins of the horse behind him in his left).  The single sherd of the second depicts a similar scene, but here the warrior wears greaves and holds a spear or staff. Both are dated on the transition from the 13th to the 12th century.

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Aidonia. V. Hachtmann (Heidelberg) publishes evidence for the Late Bronze Age settlement associated with the chamber tomb cemetery at Aidonia, discovered in the course of the Heidelberg University survey of the area. Among sites close to the cemetery with Middle Helladic pottery and chipped stone, site Ai 2 also produced evidence of intensive Late Bronze Age occupation. The site covers a spur (400 x 100m) between two streambeds and rises to a 50 x 50m plateau. It was intensively terraced (20 terraces are preserved), with evidence of roads and ramparts which cannot be precisely dated, although Cyclopean masonry is probably from a Mycenaean fortification wall. Further preserved walls indicate extensive building. The surface pottery included a few Early Bronze Age sherds, but Middle Helladic is the earliest to appear in quantity, beginning on the EHIII/MHI transition, and then featuring Adriatic ware, dark burnished ware and grey Minyan. MHIII sherds include heavy goblet stems with incised rings, and cups with rivet imitations also known in LHI and IIA contexts. Mycenaean finewares (notably goblets and kylikes, also decorated sherds) predominate in all areas surveyed. Pithoi, large storage vessels, cooking pots chipped stone tools, querns, pounders and a spindle whorl confirm the domestic character of activity. Imports are present, including Aeginetan tripods and cooking pots as well as andesite millstones (?) from the Saronic Gulf. The absence of decorated deep bowls indicates that the site was abandoned in LHIIIA2 or slightly later, likely before that chamber tombs went out of use. It is therefore proposed that the settlement was relocated (perhaps to Phlius or Agia Eirene).

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Anc. Pheneos. K. Kissas (ΛΖ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on supplementary excavation in connection with site conservation and display.  In the Asklepieion, first excavated by E. Deilaki in the 1960s, excavation established the southward continuation of the retaining wall which served as sanctuary peribolos in the northwest, and the existence of a stone pavement to the west of it (see ADelt 20 [1965] Chr., 158). The wall was built into an opening in a pre-existing pavement, a sequence which dates the wall to the Late Hellenistic period (sherds from the pavement date it to the Early Hellenistic, late fourth- to early third-century). Just west of the retaining wall was a dry stone wall which defined the stone pavement from north-south (while the pavement itself was not preserved to the west of it, destruction deposits were).  The new stone pavement associated with this likely dates to the mid second century BC. The partially preserved fortification around the acropolis was cleaned and planned. The wall, in polygonal masonry stands to a maximum height of 1.6m (four courses) and is ca. 3.2m thick; the circuit includes a probable six towers (four of which were cleaned, while the predicted locations of towers 5 and 6 remain to be investigated). While the date of the fortification cannot yet be securely established, an early Hellenistic date is proposed. At Katevasies on the southern edge of the plain (1.5km north of the village of Mati), a round tower/guard post on a pyramidal base lay on the ancient road from Orchomenos to ancient Pheneos and close to the sink-holes at the base of Mavrovouni. The structure was preserved to a height of 2.8m (the estimated total height is over 20m) and the base to 2.1m (of a probable original 2.65m); the diameter of the base is 16m and that of the tower 10.5m. The tower was first located in the 1990s, but cleaning revealed the unusual pyramidal base (two parallels, at Elliniko and Lygourio in the Argolid, have orthogonal towers). The form of the base should be associated with siege activities of the period, as a means of protection from a ram or siege ladders.  Excavation indicated a construction date in the last quarter of the fourth century BC.

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Ancient Thouria. Ellenika (agricultural property of G. Poulopoulos). X. Arapogianni (ΛΗ’ EΠKA) reports on mechanical excavation at this location, which revealed in the N part remains of a large building built out of large, orthogonal stone blocks.  A large amount of early Hellenistic ceramics was produced.

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