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Dernières notices ajoutées par région : Iles Ioniennes
En 2005 et 2006, les troisième et quatrième campagnes de prospection dans la vallée de Livatho, au Sud d’Argostoli (Sud-Ouest de l’île), ont été effectuées par l’Institut Irlandais, sous la direction de Chr. Souyoudzoglou-Haywood (University College, Dublin), et la VIe/XXIIIe éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques (ΕΠΚΑ) sous la direction de A. Sotiriou. Au cours de ces recherches on a recueilli un lot considérable d’outillage lithique ainsi qu’une abondante céramique s’échelonnant entre l’époque préhistorique et l’époque moderne. La céramique préhistorique date pour la plupart du Bronze Ancien tandis que les époques protogéométrique, géométrique et archaïque sont mal représentées. Un site important a été repéré au Nord du village de Pessada : la céramique recueillie date des périodes mycénienne, classique et romaine ; on y a aussi recueilli plusieurs pièces d’outillage lithique dont des meules et des pilons. Le site le plus étendu, datant des époques hellénistique et romaine, a été repéré à 700 m du village de Kérameiès ; la découverte d’une grande quantité de scories et de fragments de fours suggère l’usage industriel de la région. La prospection archéologique ayant été achevée en 2006, les prochaines campagnes seront consacrées à des prospections géophysiques et à l’étude du matériel.

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En 2005, l’Institut hollandais a entrepris, en collaboration avec la VIIe éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques, une prospection pilote dans l’île de Zakynthos, prélude à un programme de recherche archéologique plus systématique dicté par le fait que l’archéologie de l’île est très mal connue. Au cours de cette première campagne on a visité et tenté de retrouver les 20 sites déjà connus sur l’île afin d’en déterminer les coordonnés par GPS et d’observer les densités de céramique en surface. Seuls neuf d’entre eux ont pu être retrouvés ; six autres n’ont pu être localisés faute d’informations suffisantes et cinq autres avaient été détruits par des constructions récentes ou des travaux agricoles. On a ainsi constaté que sur le site d’Alikanas-Akrotiri ou Alykès, au Nord-Est de l’île, où S. Benton avait fouillé dans les années 1930 une tholos mycénienne, des travaux récents (terrassement, plantation d’oliviers) ont fait disparaître tous les vestiges antiques. En revanche, une intéressante trouvaille a été faite sur le site de Pano Mariès au Nord-Ouest de l’île : une tombe à ciste qui pourrait dater de l’époque mycénienne ou d’une période postérieure. Une prospection intensive a été menée dans la partie Sud-Ouest de l’île, entre les villages de Lithakia et de Kéri ; les abords de la tombe mycénienne découverte en 1966 à l’Est du village de Kéri n’ont produit aucune concentration de céramique notable ; dans la vallée de Palaio-Kéri, en revanche, on a repéré un petit site qui pourrait correspondre à une ferme d’époque hellénistique ou romaine. Une recherche géomorphologique a été menée au lac-marécage de Limni Kériou ; les résultats de plusieurs carottages indiquent que le trait de côte était situé plus à l’intérieur, ce qui rend possible la présence d’un port. Sur les collines qui entourent le lac on a repéré quatre petits sites qui, d’après la céramique, pourraient remonter à l’époque préhistorique. Au Nord-Est du lac, sur la colline de Kaméroti, du mobilier mycénien (céramique, bouton en stéatite) suggère la présence d’une tombe de cette époque et le reste des trouvailles celle d’un site archaïco-classique. À l’Est de Lithakia, à Mouzaki-Brouma, une concentration de pièces d’outillage lithique a pu être datée, en première analyse, du Paléolithique Moyen. Au cours d’une prospection préliminaire dans la partie Sud-Est de l’île, sur le cap Kalogéras (péninsule de Vassilikos), on a collecté un riche matériel de surface indiquant la présence d’un site particulièrement important d’époque préhistorique mais aussi archaïco-classique ; c’est d’ailleurs sur ce site que S. Benton avait partiellement fouillé deux maisons ; des nettoyages autour de la fouille des années 1930 ont en effet mis au jour des vestiges de murs. En 2006, dans le cadre du Zakynthos Archaeology Project (ZAP), codirigé par G. J. van Wijngaarden (Institut hollandais) et A. Sotiriou (XXXVe Éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques), une prospection intensive a été conduite dans trois régions du Sud-Est de l’île ; la méthodologie consiste à comparer les résultats obtenus dans ces trois régions (A, B, C) (fig. 1) dont le paysage et la topographie sont très différents, tandis que tous les faciès géologiques principaux de l’île y sont représentés. Alors que la campagne de 2005 avait été centrée sur la région de Kéri et de Lithakia (A), celle de 2006 a porté sur la péninsule de Vassilikos (C). Cette dernière a livré beaucoup plus de vestiges que la région prospectée en 2005 (A). Une grande partie du matériel recueilli (céramique, outillage lithique dont une grande quantité d’obsidiennes) suggère une activité humaine au cours du Néolithique et de l’Âge du Bronze mais aussi du Paléolithique Moyen. Il faut souligner que toute l’île est riche en matières premières, surtout en roches siliceuses, pour la fabrication d’outillage lithique. La présence de matériel paléolithique est particulièrement intéressante, notamment l’abondance de nucléus et de produits de débitage correspondant aux phases initiales de la chaîne opératoire ; en revanche, les outils finis sont relativement rares, ce qui peut indiquer qu’ils ont été transportés ailleurs.

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Loutro, Same (property of A. Vinieratou).  The 20th EBA reports the discovery of an Early Byzantine house complex with several construction phases, founded on Hellenistic remains. The enchytrismoi of children were found in the west part of the house, one of which contained a golden earring. At Ag. Dimitrios on the western edge of modern Same, an Early Christian basilica was partially excavated in 1995 and 2003. In 2006, the architectural form and external limits of the building were found. It is a three-aisled basilica with a semi-circular apse, narthex, exonarthex, and extension to the south.  A more recent single-roomed chapel was founded over parts of the sanctuary and nave. Different construction phases were detected in the basilica walls. The sanctuary floor was paved, and the nave had a mosaic floor with geometric and plant motifs. In the north transpect was a cruciform pool. Two cist tombs (one bipartite) lay to the north of the apse, and a cemetery with tile graves was found to the east of the extension. Its full extent is unknown. A ceramic layer found to the south of the basilica extended into the neighbouring property of P. Voutsina.   

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Fiskardo (anc. Panormos), Tigania (property of N. Vandorou).  The 20th EBA reports the discovery of the fifth- to sixth-century building, with a vaulted feature (perhaps a hearth), and a storeroom with cuttings in the bedrock to accommodate pots.  

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Corfu – city cemetery (Garitsa). The H’ ΕΠΚΑ reports on excavation of part of the city cemetery (Bouzi property). The area was used sporadically for burial in Archaic and Classical times, and more intensively in the Later Classical and Hellenistic periods.  Thirty-one tombs and concentrations of bone, organised into groups, mostly date to the fourth-second centuries. Monumental tombs were also found.  The oldest grave is a pithos containing nine inhumations and an enchytrismos dating from the late seventh to fifth centuries. Fourth- to second-century burials are mostly inhumations in pits oriented north-south, and with few or no grave goods. During the second century, pits were slowly replaced by tile graves, oriented east-west and with more offerings. Through the fourth century, a large ‘ritual’ pyre (ca. 6-7m2), with largely quantities of pottery, notably 1,400 partially preserved late fifth- to fourth-century plain vessels, probably relates to chthonic cult practice characterised by the consumption of food and drink (fig. 1). A late fourth- or third-century inscribed funerary stele attests to a Macedonian presence.  

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Garitsa, 3rd Parodos Iasonos-Sosipatrou. G. Metallinou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a Byzantine brick and cement wall running north-south, ca. 70m east of the church of Ag. Iason and Sosipater (which shares the same masonry style). Plain pottery was collected.

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Garitsa, Sotiros Hill. G. Metallinou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of part of a pithos on the south slope of the hill, northwest of Kolotrotonis Lane. The estimated height of the vessel is ca. 1.5m, and its discovery in the area of the north cemetery makes a funerary use likely.

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Garitsa, Analipseos Street. G. Metallinou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of two parts of a monumental wall of large blocks on either side of the street. The pottery recovered was mostly plainware, along with a handle-less cup and an iron nail.

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Anemomylos (second property of M. Pierri). G. Metallinou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that the completion of excavation revealed further parts of the two buildings previously discovered. In the southwest part of the plot were two section of wall of the third and latest, Roman, building phase, (10 and 11) built in roughly worked blocks with orange-red cement. On the south edge of the plot a further part of a known wall (8) lay beneath an early seventh- to late fifth-century level (VI). This fill provides the first dating evidence for the structure, placing it in the early Classical period. The wall was one of three (7-9) belonging to a large structure of unknown size and function. At a lower level (-3.25 - -4/25m below sea level, where excavation stopped), an extensive artificial fill of rough stone (plus a well worked piece) represents the earliest intervention. Finds from the plot include 22 oxydised and poorly preserved coins, in the upper levels mainly plain pottery plus a few Roman lamps, and in level VI large quantities of plain and black-glaze pottery, as well as Protocorinthian and black-figure sherds. Part of a large Archaic wild goat amphora and transport amphora sherds are also noted.

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Kanoni (O.T. 631, property of Ch. Simoni EPE – Doukaki). G. Metallinou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of two building complexes to the north and south of an east-west road. The rooms were oriented east-west, four to the north of the road and three to the south, where investigation continues.  Two water channels formed of terracotta rooftiles were found in the north and northeast of the excavated area. Two (possibly three) rectangular structures (one and perhaps a second tile-lined and the other in isodomic masonry packed with mud and tile fragments, with seven steps down into it and an apse as a later addition) are probably storage facilities. The absence of waterproofing of the stone structure indicates that it was not a cistern. A stone-lined well was found in the northwest of the plot. In the southern area, a well of built fieldstones and sherds of large vessels was found inside the angle of two walls. The 1.5m-wide road was defined by walls on either side. Fill from the road included much chiefly Archaic pottery, but excavation has yet to be carried to depth. A poorly preserved tile grave within the road contained a supine inhumation with one very worn bronze coin. The 58 bronze coins recovered include one with a head of Herakles on the obverse and a ship’s prow on the reverse (229-248 BC), one with a kantharos and a ship’s prow (300/299 BC),  and one with a ship’s prow and grapes (300/299 BC). The Archaic pottery consisted largely of skyphoi with wavy line decoration, but black-glazed sherds (some with stamped decoration), skyphos bases with cross-hatching, transport amphora bases and handles, and terracotta figurines were also found among a large volume of finds which confirm the use of the site from the Archaic to the Hellenistic period.

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Kipouria-Vouria, Figareto (property of K. Rokidi). G. Metallinou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a further part of the large fortification walls and harbour works of the ancient city by the Hyllaian harbour. A 70m-long stretch of wall (4.5 - 6m wide) was built of large water-worn stones, lightly worked, with a fill of smaller pebbles, and a mud packing. A projection on the east face was probably part of a staircase. The little pottery collected dates from the Archaic period onwards, with activity reaching a peak in Hellenistic-Roman times but continuing until the wall was dismantled in the Venetian period. The presence of tiles stamped with the names of local magistrates confirms that public character of the structure.  Dismantled sections of this wall and of two further walls parallel to it have previously been located on neighbouring plots. Few finds were made in the eastern part of the plot apart from a further part of the deposit of Roman lamps previous found on the neighbouring Rarri plot.

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Kanoni, Figareto and Nausakas Streets (O.T. 608, Hasapianou property). G. Metallinou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of the foundations of stone structures and part of a floor of small stones and tile. A terracotta water channel, originally defined on either side by bricks, lay on stereo. Finds include a terracotta model base with a stamped palmette, a stamped handle, terracotta figurines, a bronze coin with a depiction of an amphora, and sherds of a Roman relief bowl depicting a battle between armed warriors. While it is difficult to interpret the poorly preserved architectural remains, finds indicate that the site was in use during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.

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Saili, Agios Georgios Pagon (property of M. Petroni). G. Metallinou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a late fourth- to early third-century BC farmstead ca. 1km east of the coast in a valley leading to the bay of Ag. Georgios, ca. 150m from the Megapotamos river. The plot is a similar distance from the Classical farmstead and Hellenistic fortification excavated by Bulle at the start of the 20th century. In the west-southwest part of the excavated area was a pithos store, with the lower parts of three pithoi found in situ and repaired with lead clamps, preserving also a stone press. To the east was a room (2 x 6.8m) containing a semicircular hearth structure with ash: within the room was found a small plain pot containing a hoard of 25 silver coins (11 Corinthian staters, 10 staters of Leukas and one of Anactorium, a silver drachma of Corinth, and two didrachms of Taranto), one gold Silician stater (of Carchedon), and a silver earring.  The coins date to the fourth and third centuries BC.  Pottery so far recovered consists of plain storage vessels and black glaze tableware (plates, skyphoi, amphoriskoi and kantharoi). Other finds include a bronze spoon, a bronze arrowhead, two bronze coins, and 14 lead objects of various forms (including one bearing a seal impression depicting a male form in front of a vessel). These finds, combined with the fact that the Megapotamos river was until recently navigable this far inland, suggests that the farmstead may have been involved in trade.

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Taxiarchis, Ano Korakiana (property of A. Tzaphesta-Nikolouzou). G. Metallinou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a Bronze Age site, with activity focused in the Middle and early Late Bronze Age.  Below the surface level lay a 0.4-0.6m-thick dark brown layer (II) rich in archaeological material. Its base was surrounded by five concentrations of fieldstones and pebbles within and over which were large quantities of portable finds.  The two largest concentrations (1 = 3.2 x 3.9m, and T3 = 2.25 x 1m) were bedded on a layer of sterile red earth.  The three other concentrations, at the south of the plot, were much smaller (2 = 1.4 x 0.65m, 3 = 1.7 x 0.95m, 4 = 2.2 x 0.5m) and were bedded on yellow sandy clay (the natural surface).  Pottery was the largest category of find: 60% of sherds were storage and cooking vessels of Dakaris’ handmade category KII, decorated with plastic bands and impressed patterns. KIII sherds formed ca. 10% of the total, comprising medium and small plain vessels (kantharoi and cups). A distinctive category attested at Hermones is handmade in a clear orange fabric: with the attrition of inclusions, this fabric was also used for storage vessels of the same shape as those in KII as well as small fine vessels. A large quantity of chipped and ground stone was also found, as well as terracotta spindlewhorls and birds, masses of clay, animal bones, and a bone artifact with incised decoration. It is suggested these concentrations of finds may be refuse deposits.

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