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La campagne d’étude du matériel issu de la fouille du terrain Nannopoulos (Anne Pariente, Lyon/EfA & Christos Piteros, IVe EPCA, Nauplie) a permis d’identifier, dans les éléments architecturaux concassés utilisés dans le remplissage et les tranchées de fondation de la base centrale de l’orchestra, de très nombreux fragments appartenant à deux séries de blocs : une élévation ionique en poros stuqué probablement hellénistique et une élévation en marbre d’époque romaine.

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Ancient Tenea. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism reports the seizure of two kouroi recovered in restorable fragments from antiquities’ thieves in the village of Klenia near Chiliomodi. The statues are now held in the National Archaeological Museum. Kouros A is 1.82m high and kouros B 1.78m high. Both are of island marble and were probably made by the same craftsman. A date in the third quarter of the sixth century is proposed. Subsequent rescue excavation at the reported find-spot has so far revealed the right foot and part of the base of kouros A and the right foot of kouros B (the kouroi themselves had suffered extensive damage in the course of the illegal excavation). Nearby are two sarcophagi (on the basis of size, one for a male burial and the other, 1.6m long, for a woman) containing pottery and, in the case of the ‘female’ burial, iron dress pins. Among the pottery is a kylix of the third quarter of the sixth century BC (ca. 530−510). A total of 77 Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic tombs were found (44 limestone sarcophagi, 30 cist graves and two enchytrismoi), plus part of a road (identified as the kontoporia). The twin kouroi were placed over two sarcophagi in the most prominent part of the cemetery, a child burial in a sarcophagus made a decade previously having been moved slightly to the west to make way for them. In August 2011 the kouroi were returned to Corinth Museum from the National Museum for conservation and display.

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Nemea, Sanctuary of Zeus. K. Shelton (Berkeley/ASCSA) reports on the 2010 season of excavation and study. Temple of Zeus Reconstruction. Work continues to restore the entablature at the northeast corner of the temple, over the recently reconstructed columns (K-27, K-28, K-29, K-30). Surface finishing of K-27 above the 8th drum was completed, together with the final fluting on the entire column in place. Finishing was also completed on the krepidoma and stylobate edges. Of the epistyle course, all nine triglyph-metope blocks were patched and joined (Fig. 1), while two of the ten architrave blocks were also restored. A study for reconstruction along the north side of the temple was advanced. Excavation targetted two areas of the sanctuary (D/E-11/12 and E/F/G-19: Fig. 2) with the potential to enhance our understanding of early historic and prehistoric levels, and to produce well-stratified Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic remains that will aid continuing study and publication of material of these periods. Area E/F/G-19. Excavation east of the Heroon wall was undertaken to investigate early periods of use, and to clarify the stratigraphy of the Heroon itself. Initial evidence indicates three major phases: a pre-Archaic (Geometric?), Archaic (sixth-century?), and Hellenistic-Roman. Two semi-coarse vessels found just below the current surface date the Hellenistic-Roman phase. The foundations of the Classical/Hellenistic enclosure wall in places lie directly on top of the Archaic wall, and elsewhere on fill (Fig. 3). The soft limestone slabs uncovered in earlier excavation have disintegrated badly, with only several centimeters now visible. The wall line had been seriously damaged by later action, probably ploughing, and only a fraction of the original construction is preserved.  The Archaic phase is represented by yellow soils with whole vessels. Layers of soil and cobbles were alternately laid east to west and west to east, but always up-slope to the east. The Archaic wall of rounded stones associated with this phase lies in one course on top of a thin layer of fill and a mass of stone. This wall too was damaged by later action including the construction of the Classical/Hellenistic enclosure wall. Cut into the upper Archaic levels was a pit of hard reddish yellow soil, large pieces of carbon, and hunks of burned clay/soil (Fig. 4), but almost no sherds. The pattern of burning on some carbon suggests a textile, while postholes around the pit may belong to a small tent structure. The pre-Archaic phase contained very little pottery but more bone than elsewhere, clumps of yellow ochre, and a dump of burned stones without carbon. The bottom of this phase contained increasing amounts of pottery with greater proportions of Bronze Age and Neolithic pieces. A wide swathe of limestone ‘rubble’ was cleared under the Hellenistic and Archaic walls. This extensive mass of unorganized yet constructed stones, tightly packed with clean soil and clay (Fig. 5), extends to the north, south and west of the later enclosure walls. The small number of sherds recovered indicates a Geometric date for this phase. A further trench was opened to explore the large area of stones (the “rock garden”) found in 1980 immediately west of the Hellenistic Heroon wall and to assess their relationship with the stones noted above and the later enclosure walls. The date and function of this stone packing remain unclear: it may have supported a mound, natural or artificial, or been a buttress against erosion. It contained at least three levels of large stones in a sparse matrix of clean soil and waterproof clay, with almost no pottery. Along the west side of the square, three early use phases were revealed: pre-Archaic (below/before the Archaic wall), Archaic (construction/renewal of the Archaic mound), and Late Archaic/Early Classical (fill/packing over the mound). The latest phase is represented by a little, homogeneous pottery consisting mostly of fine kotyle sherds, plus a number of whole pots (kotylai, miniature kraters, a mug, small bowl, and olpe) deposited together with the clean soil matrix that surrounded them (Fig. 6). This ritual and repeated action is illustrated especially by a kotyle with carbon inside it (two nearby stones likely had been placed inside other examples). Pottery from this phase dates primarily to the later Archaic period with none later than the first half of the fifth century BC. The continuation of the Wall 1 uncovered in 1998 (F/16, 19-19/14) was exposed in a single course of stones (Fig. 7). No diagnostic sherds were found within it or in the layer in which it sits: the layers around and over it date to the Archaic period while those under it are Geometric and prehistoric. Its preliminary interpretation is as a retaining wall. The deeper levels all date to the early historic and prehistoric periods. Few diagnostic sherds were recovered, just a few Geometric and Late Helladic decorated sherds while the undecorated are primarily Bronze Age with a few Neolithic. The primary aim of excavation in D/E-11/12 was to determine the location of the hippodrome. At least two alluvial events were identified in the stratigraphy alternating with periods of human action, primarily cultivation, during the Early Christian and Hellenistic periods (Fig. 8). No positive evidence for the hippodrome was identified, a point confirmed by geophysical survey (see below). Mixed Byzantine and Early Modern material lay just below the surface layers. A ground penetrating radar survey was conducted by A. Sarris and N. Papadopoulos (Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas), with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) applied to map the stratigraphy of the Holocene sediments and address the question of the location of the hippodrome (Fig. 9). An area of 25,000m2 was covered using at least one geophysical technique, pinpointing a few regions meriting closer attention. The data are characterized by increase noise mainly due to intensive past usage as well as geological processes and previous excavations. Iso-resistivity surfaces and bathymetry maps of soil resistivity from the ERT transects identified no specific levelling of the subsurface on the west side of the site where the hippodrome was expected. The different subsurface strata provide no supporting evidence for the existence of the hippodrome in this area. However, a number of anomalies of possible interest were found around the temple. To the south and southwest of the temple a number of GPR reflectors suggest the existence of a compound consisting of a number of features. East of the temple, the GPR produced relatively strong reflections which partially correlate with magnetic or soil resistance anomalies, although their size suggests that they may be related to architectural remains. Similar signals were shown by the GPR data in the area of the car park from a depth of ca. 0.7-0.8m to at least 1.8m. 

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Les travaux sur la colline de l’Aspis (Gilles Touchais, Paris 1/EfA, et Anna-Philippa-Touchais, EfA), qui ont bénéficié comme tous les ans depuis 2005 d’une subvention de l’INSTAP, ont été consacrés d’une part à la poursuite des travaux d’aménagement sur le site, d’autre part à l’étude et à la restauration de plusieurs ensembles de mobilier. Cette seconde partie du programme a porté sur trois ensembles : ­le matériel faunique issu des fouilles de 2001, 2006 et 2007 : ce matériel provient essentiellement de déchets culinaires de l’habitat HM, qui confirment la part quasi exclusive des animaux domestiques dans l’approvisionnement carné, celle des animaux chassés pouvant être considérée comme négligeable. le mobilier céramique : l’étude du mobilier céramique a concerné le matériel d’époque hellénistique, mais surtout la céramique HM I-II (c 2000-1800 av. J.-C.) du dépôt fouillé en 2007 dans le secteur Est, à l’occasion du nettoyage des fouilles de W. Vollgraff. Cet ensemble présente un intérêt particulier à la fois par sa chronologie (1e phase d’occupation HM de l’Aspis, datée de l’HM I-II), par sa situation (dans le secteur Est, dont l’occupation dès cette phase initiale est ainsi établie) et par sa composition, avec un nombre exceptionnellement élevé de fragments de grands pithoi, très rares dans les fouilles antérieures : il suggère un important stockage, donc l’existence de surplus à une phase très ancienne de l'HM. enfin, au Musée National d’Athènes, ont été photographiés les vases mésohelladiques de l’Aspis (complets ou restaurés) issus des fouilles de W. Vollgraff et conservés depuis lors au Musée National. En collaboration avec A. Papadimitriou, il a également été procédé à un réexamen du mobilier non céramique — ors, ivoires, bronzes, etc. — provenant de deux tombes mycéniennes (T VI et T VII) de la Deiras fouillées par W. Vollgraff : apparemment les plus anciennes (HR II) et les plus riches connues à Argos, elles marquent la fondation de la nouvelle nécropole de la Deiras par une élite qui veut se différencier du passé et des valeurs traditionnelles.

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Mt. Lykaion, Sanctuary of Zeus. M. Petropoulos (Director, ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ), D. Romano (Pennsylvania), and M. Voyatzis (Arizona) report on the 2010 season.  Work continued to document all architectural remains, notably the 67m long stoa and the 39m long series of seats to the north of it, the nearby fountain house, the ‘corridor’ in front of the ‘xenon’, and the bath (Fig. 1). A team from the ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ cleared a portion of the ancient Agno fountain, halfway between the lower and upper levels of the sanctuary. Stratigraphic sequences continue to reveal evidence for the earliest activity at the altar (Fig. 2). This includes Late Neolithic and Early, Middle and Late Helladic pottery, most of it mixed with burnt animal bones. Mycenaean material includes large numbers of kylikes, deep bowls, stemmed bowls, cups, askoi, terracotta human and animal figurines and other small finds. Above this level lay Sub-Mycenaean and Dark Age material, and above that, Geometric, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic sherds in an apparently continuous sequence. Bronze tripods, coins, metal objects and miniature dedications were discovered. Finally, 50 m below the altar, to the south of the southern summit, a roadway or dromos was investigated. In the lower sanctuary (Fig. 3), more of the sub-surface open air corridor was exposed northeast of the ‘xenon’, plus more of the front and interior foundations and the western end of the stoa (Figs 4-6). Excavation was also pursued in the vicinity of the statue bases, in the fountain house, and in the area of the hippodrome where part of the surface of the hippodrome floor was found (Fig. 7).  A proposal for a Parrhasian Heritage Park of the Peloponnesos is under discussion. 

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Ancient Corinth. G. Sanders (ASCSA) reports on the 2010 season of excavation south of the South Stoa, in an area previous investigated from 1965 onwards. The Byzantine house investigated in 2008 and 2009 was uncovered as far as its construction phase. Outside it, to the north was a fall of 11th-century roof tiles. Several complete profiles of cover (0.71 x 0.30 to 0.34m) and pan tiles (0.53 x 0.15 to 0.17m) were restored, the first of this period recovered at Corinth. These can be compared with Late Roman and Frankish size modules. The construction of the house is placed in the middle of the 11th century. Finds from earlier seasons indicate that several modifications were made to its form over the course of the following 250 years. A number of activities took place during its occupation, some purely domestic in nature, but others commercial (e.g. catering, crafts and sales) and agricultural. All of the material recovered in the 1960s excavations has now been recorded and re-examined, and study of the new finds is well advanced. Part of the house reused cement and rubble walls of the Late Roman period. No plan for this phase can yet be restored, but a fragmentary opus sectile floor was reused in the Byzantine building. This Late Roman building was probably built in the sixth century and relates to the later walls preserved in Room H and the neighbouring baths in the South Stoa. The building was abandoned at some point in the seventh century, and parts of its walls were robbed in the eighth. This late phase of activity is also characterised by the burial of an infant in an amphora (found in 1965) and by pottery found in 1963 to the west.   Deep soundings were made to locate a west intersection between the decumanus south of the South Stoa and the southern extension (the “Kenchrean Road”) of the cardo maximus (the Lechaeum Road). A late drain built of spolia, the robbed-out south wall of the decumanus, and the broken southwest corner and the lack of any traces further west, confirm that the Kenchrean Road never extended the line of the cardo and always followed the path illustrated in the Corinth volumes. Excavation of the colluvium eroded off Acrocorinth revealed quantities of Late Neolithic, Early Bronze Age and Hellenistic pottery (as in the colluvia in the Panayia Field), thus dating this neogene phase to the third millenium BC. A Hellenistic cellar dug into the colluvium contained a dumped fill of pottery of the early third century BC. Another fill of the mid third century contained sherds of a one-piece kantharos with four lines of an inscription on the interior (Fig. 1). A preliminary reading identifies on line 1 part of a personal name; line 2, ‘a crescent-shaped… [offering? and]'; line 3 ‘a plaque to the hero… [and]’; line 4 ‘fresh frankincense…’.

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Franchthi Cave. K.D. Vitelli (ASCSA) reports. Following C. Perlès establishment of a preliminary phasing of Neolithic ornaments based on the two main Cave trenches, FAS and FAN, the 2010 study season aimed to obtain a more representative sample to further understanding of spatial variation. Shell bags were re-sorted for B/E balk, H2A, H pedestal, L5 NE and Q/R, and all ornaments from these trenches were recorded and studied in detail. Microwear study of all ornaments from FAN and FAS, aimed at discriminating between locally manufactured categories of ornaments and ready-made imports, was completed. Clear associations between raw material, manufacturing procedures and presence/absence of wear traces are noted.The ‘fired steatite beads’ in particular show almost no sign of use, and may have been locally produced. XRF analysis was used to test for the presence of potential glaze, with ambiguous results. Zooarchaeological and taphonomic analysis of faunal remains from FAS units 207-227, representing the Aurignacian and Gravettoid occupations, was completed. This expands the available sample for these cultural horizons from the limited data already obtained from H1B. In addition to providing further information on prey choice, body part representation, and taphonomy, this expanded sample will help to establish whether environmental change from wetter to drier conditions occurred between the two periods. 

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  Isthmia, Sanctuary of Poseidon. E. Gebhard (ASCSA/Chicago) reports. Study was completed for publication of four stelai (probably of 224 and 220 BC) recording interstate treaties between Macedon and various Greek cities. The stelai stood along the Corinth-Isthmus road immediately north of the Temple of Poseidon, and were likely destroyed at the time of an unsuccessful siege against Corinth in 198 BC. The grey limestone used in two of them came from the area of Corinth-Acrocorinth. Continued study of the late Archaic and Classical pottery identified unusually large stewpots and covered serving platters as the vessels likely used for the sacrificial feast at the Isthmian games during the late sixth and fifth centuries BC. Those used for individual servings are slightly smaller: kotylai, skyphoi, and one-handled cups may have fulfilled a dual function as bowls for food and cups for wine. Distribution of the pottery suggests that some meat was roasted at the altar and the remainder was boiled. Feasting itself took place near the great circular reservoir that supplied water to the Archaic sanctuary. T. Gregory (Ohio State) reports. Conservation of the mosaics in the Roman Bath, especially in Rooms VI and XII continued, as did the cleaning and stabilization of old trenches in the areas south and north of the Roman bath and East of Temenos. In particular, the walls of the Colonnaded Building, discovered in 1972, 1978, and 2009, were cleaned farther to the east (Figs 1-2). Investigation of a large Early Roman complex (ca. 25m square) north of the bath continued (Fig. 3). Continued investigation of the Hexamilion Outworks indicated that the long building to the north of the Hexamilion has the appearance of a stoa (Fig. 4). Stamped roof tiles, antefixes, and sima fragments of types not found elsewhere in the sanctuary have now been identified north of the Roman bath, in the Hexamilion Outworks, in Tower 14 of the Byzantine fortress and on the Theatre terrace (Figs 5-6). These locations suggest the possibility of a rectangular courtyard or complex joining these areas of the sanctuary and providing a previously unknown centre of activity at Isthmia.   

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Pylos, Palace of Nestor. S. Stocker (ASCSA) reports on continuing study of finds from Blegen’s excavations. Study of wall-paintings (H. Brecoulaki) was advanced with the restoration of another ship in Hall 64. Part of the rim of the hearth in the Throne Room was cleaned to clarify its flame and running spiral patterns. The stratigraphy and pottery from Tholos IV were revised for publication (S. Stocker and J.L. Davis). J. Hruby pursued study for publication of ceramics from the pantries. L. Schepartz and S. Miller-Antonio collaborated with the ΛΘ' ΕΠΚΑ in studying human remains from the small tholos tomb recently excavated on the premises of the “Costa Navarino” resort at Romanou.

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Kenchreai, Koutsongila.  J. Rife (ASCSA) reports on the study of ceramics from the disturbed chamber tomb 22 on Koutsongila ridge, first investigated in 2004 and 2005. Numerous lamps and vessels were investigated, including cinerary urns, Corinthian lamps, and an assortment of cups and pitchers. Most date to the primary phase of burial during the Early-Middle Roman periods (first-third centuries AD), but a few finds, especially coarseware with incised decoration, date to a secondary phase of temporary occupation during the Middle Byzantine period (10th-12th centuries AD).

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Kouphovouno. W. Cavanagh (BSA/Nottingham), C. Mee (BSA/Liverpool) and J. Rénard (EfA/Montpellier) report on the 2010 study season. Revised plans (Fig. 1) and Harris matrices (Fig. 2) were produced. Pottery studies focused on the Middle and Late Neolithic periods, examining evidence for production techniques and traces of use wear. Pottery from key contexts covering the Middle-Late Neolithic transition was re-examined to define the main characteristics of this phase (Fig. 3). Petrographic analysis of 140 Middle Neolithic, Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age samples (I. Whitbread) identifies fabric groups which indicate that most pottery was locally produced. In the Middle and Late Neolithic periods a number of potters were active at Kouphovouno, whereas there is evidence of greater specialisation in the Early Bronze Age. A sample of the polished stone tools and other implements was examined for traces of use wear (N. Thomas). At a magnification of x30 and x50, evidence of manufacture and use – polish and striations – was identified on a number of the objects (Figs 4-7). Ninety-seven bone samples were selected for isotope and DNA analysis (A. Gardeisen), the former to identify the diet of particular species and address questions of animal husbandry, and the latter to distinguish the wild and domestic status of species like Bos/Aurochs and Pig/Boar. Microwear traces on the teeth of domestic and wild ungulates yielded insights into livestock management and the environments exploited by the wild fauna (F. Rivals, A. Gardeisen and J. Cantuel). Study of the botanical samples (A. Bogaard and A. Walker) has shown that barley grain occurs in most contexts, as does free-threshing wheat. Other forms of wheat identified include one-seeded einkorn and emmer, both represented as grains and chaff. There are also pulses – lentil, common pea, grass pea and probably bitter vetch. An oil-seed and/or fibre crop, flax, is attested in a few contexts. The data suggest that at least hulled barley and free-threshing wheat were deliberately cultivated crops. Other plant categories represented include the fruits and nuts of woody perennials probably collected as food and/or fodder: fig, grape, fruit stone and nutshell fragments. Finally, seeds of herbaceous wild plants could have arrived with harvested crops as arable weeds or by some other route, such as animal dung. An important aspect of the Kouphovouno assemblage is the abundance of free-threshing wheat grain, particularly in high-density contexts in the burnt Middle Neolithic deposit in Area C, where it is clearly dominant over hulled barley grain. Recent analysis of plant remains in northern Greece suggests a regional tradition that emphasised glume wheat, particularly einkorn cultivation. The picture at Kouphovouno is of a more varied suite of crops with a distinctive emphasis on free-threshing wheat. Ancient human DNA has been successfully extracted and characterised from a number of Middle Bronze Age skeletons (T. Brown). The best results are for the skeletons from contexts B0186, B0173/174, B0213, and A0009A and B. 

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Kouphovouno. R. Sweetman (BSA/St Andrews) reports on resistance and magnetometer surveys (carried out by M. Boyd) with the aim of investigating the area immediately west of the excavated Neolithic layers, where test trenches had indicated the possibility of Roman habitation. Resistivity survey to the west of trench G shows a well-defined rectangular area 6m x 3.5m which could be a kiln, oven or furnace (Fig. 1). Other strong magnetic features, roughly circular in shape, may be furnaces or burned features (Fig. 2). The resistivity survey also shows a wide north-south anomaly (10m long x 3m wide) with an attached rectangular area to the east making a square feature 7 x 7m. This feature could be architectural and the apparently very wide walls might be a result of its collapse. It coincides with the very strong magnetic feature described above and could be a built furnace or kiln. Weak north-south features are evident in both survey and magnetometry data and may be interpreted as terracing or roads. Two possible collapsed architectural features were located in the north central and the south central part of the survey area. The northern feature is oriented northeast-southwest and may be collapsed architecture. The southern one represents a square (ca. 7 x 7m) architectural feature. The results of the magnetometer survey concur with these anomalies.

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Pavlopetri. J. Henderson (BSA/Nottingham), E. Spondylis (EEA) and D. Sakellariou (Hellenic Centre for Marine Research) report on the second field season conducted in 2010. The project aims to outline the development of the submerged prehistoric town at Pavlopetri and through a systematic study of the geomorphology of the area, to explain how the prehistoric town and the Strait of Elaphonisos became submerged. Recording of the surviving architectural remains was completed using modern digital techniques. Alongside survey of the structural remains using a shore based Total Station (Figs 1-2), more extensive use was made of the Sector Scan Sonar trialed in 2009, and a new stereo-photogrammetric system of underwater mapping was tested. The Kongsberg-Mesotech MS 1000 Sector Scan Sonar system consists of a sonar operating computer housed on a boat which directly connects through a high tensile weight cable to a sonar head unit hung from a movable stainless steel tripod in the water (Fig. 3). Typical scan radii used for the submerged structures at Pavlopetri ranged from 100m scans of building complexes (covering a total sea floor area of 31,000m2) (Fig. 4) down to very high resolution 5m scans of areas of importance such as cist graves. Radii of 15-30m proved most effective for producing measured scans of buildings in which the individual stones used in the construction of the walls were visible. In order to fully image individual buildings at Pavlopetri at least one scan from within a building was backed up by at least four separate scan locations around the perimeter to eliminate areas of acoustic ‘shadow’ (Fig. 5). 214 drops were carried out in 2010 covering the site in its entirety. All of the upstanding structural elements of the site - buildings, streets, courtyards, walls and graves - were recorded in three dimensions alongside the topography of the seabed. The data produced by the sector scan sonar can be manipulated in 3D environments to produce isometric images of the building complexes. A stereo-vision mapping system designed by the Australian Centre for Field Robotics was used for the first time to survey and record an archaeological site. This consists of digital stereo cameras with LED flashes, a GPS receiver, a multibeam sonar, hard disk and power module attached to a rig which can be manually propelled by a diver over areas of interest (Fig. 6). The stereo-cameras obtain measured two dimensional photo-mosaic maps of areas of the seabed quickly and efficiently. These high resolution mosaics can then be processed using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping software to produce accurate three dimensional models. In addition the multibeam sonar on the diver rig can obtain three dimensional data on seabed surfaces that can be combined with the stereo-photogrammetric data. In 2010, priority was given to recording areas containing structures of the highest archaeological importance. A total of 47 dives were carried out, gathering more than 135,000 pairs of stereo images. Post-processing of such a quantity of data is expected to take at least one year to complete. However preliminary results prove that the technique is sound. For example, in one survey box (15 x 30m) containing Building IX and parts of Street 1, 6,315 stereo image pairs were acquired. Walls can be clearly seen in both the photo-mapped view in Fig. 7, and the depth-coloured view in Fig. 8. Fig. 9 is a detailed view of Building IX. Fig. 10 is an overhead view of another mesh created of Chamber Tomb 1 located on the bedrock ridge to the north-east of the city. The tomb was cut from the surrounding bedrock, producing a structure with large depth variations. Overall, preliminary results suggest that the 3D reconstructions provide a representation very suitable for archaeological interpretation, both as a visually coherent composite view of the site and as a three- dimensional model. The visible architectural remains at Pavlopetri begin some 20m from the shore at Pounda Beach and run over 300m south out to Pavlopetri island (Fig. 1). They are bounded to the east by a bedrock ridge running north to south, and to the west by extensive sand deposits and deeper water (no remains have been identified in depths exceeding 3m). Beyond Pavlopetri island and the eastern ridge the sea is deeper and no artificial constructions can be traced. Nothing to indicate the existence of artificial harbour constructions or jetties could be identified in 2009 or 2010. The town appears as a series of large spreads of stones indicating building complexes, amongst which a network of stone walls can be traced (Fig. 11). Walls are made of uncut aeolianite, sandstone and limestone blocks and were built without mortar. They can survive up to 3 courses high but the vast majority preserve only one course or are completely flush with the sea bed. The submerged remains recorded in 1968 can be clearly identified and survive in approximately the same condition. The existence of the eastern rocky ridge has protected the remains from the full force of wave action over the years; where there are gaps in the ridge, walls have been eroded either completely away or flush with the seabed. In addition to the recording of the 30,000m2 of buildings first identified in 1968, over 9,000m2 of new structures were discovered emerging from the sand to the north of the original remains in 2009, whilst in 2010 a further 5,000m2 of buildings were found to the south of the main concentration of buildings (Fig. 1). This last area consists of the remains of at least 7 buildings clustered along a street running south west to north east. Four new cist graves were recorded in 2010 bringing the site total to 43. The discovery of major new areas of the site in 2009 and 2010 suggest that the town is larger and more important than previously thought. The visible remains now cover almost 4 hectares. Given that there are probably many more buildings hidden under the sand, and that scattered fragments of walling suggest that the town originally extended as a fully built-up area as far as Pavlopetri island, the settlement is likely to have covered at least 8 hectares. The lack of rubble from the site as a whole suggests that the surviving walls represent the ground floor of buildings with stone foundations to around 1m in height and superstructures of mud brick and/or timber frames covered in plaster. Only the very base of the wall was stone, probably to prevent the foundations from being eroded. It is likely that these newly exposed remains had been covered by sand deposits in previous years, a suggestion borne out by the cleaner appearance of the stonework in the new areas compared to the older areas which feature well established marine algal species and encrusting marine organisms. Changes in sand cover could relate to changes in the position and shape of the shoreline over time causing variability in wave action. Equally the map of the bathymetry and topography of the town and the eastern bedrock ridge shows low gaps in the ridge where wave action would pass through and be diffracted and refracted round Pavlopetri Island and the other high points. This would result in a focusing of wave energy at discontinuous points over the town and the adjacent beach, with a pattern of high and low energy determined by the recent wave direction. While this shifting pattern is not yet understood, the discoveries made in 2009 suggest that revisiting the site in future years and at different seasons may reveal further parts of the Bronze Age town which are at present under thick beds of sand. Since the majority of architectural remains were more exposed than in 2009, large amounts of pottery were revealed including almost intact pithoi (Fig. 12). Lifting of archaeological material was undertaken across these areas to recover endangered material and obtain further dating evidence. Seven collections were carried out and a total of 395 artefacts (pottery and stone tools) recovered. The pottery lifted confirmed and refined the dates obtained in 2009. The site was first occupied in the Final Neolithic, as suggested by jars and fruit stands. The Early Bronze Age is largely represented by jars and pithoi, sauceboats, beaked jugs, pyxis (lids), tripod vessels, plates and portable hearths. A relative large number of grinders of various stones have been recovered. along with a phyllite disc with exact parallels from Ag. Stephanos. The Middle Bronze Age is represented by fewer open jars and closed vessels, basins and cups. The majority of lifted material dates to the Late Bronze Age (MB III/LB I to LH IIIB/C) and consists of nearly all known pottery types (e.g. kylikes, pithoi, jugs and jars, cups, goblets and deep bowls, incense burners, tripod vessels and cooking pots, loomweights). The Neopalatial material (pithoi, jugs, alabastron, scoops etc.), both imported and locally produced, shows close affinities with material from Kythera and Crete. Only one LG II sherd with painted decoration was lifted. A few drinking vessels (cups, kylikes) date to the Classical period. An intact Roman lamp was lifted along with several Roman and Late Roman amphora, jar and cooking vessel sherds, and Byzantine transport amphorae. Terracotta architectural elements were discovered, namely roof and drainage tiles, mudbrick and clay settings for rafters.

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Kouroutas, Monastery of Ag. Athanasios. G. Hatzi (Director, Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery, in the course of rescue excavation in the courtyard of the monastery, of a Roman bath complex. Brick walls from an agricultural residence or villa were found in the neighbouring field.  

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Milia, Mantineia (Karali property). A. Karapanagiotou (Director, ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of 11 late Hellenistic-early Roman inhumations, part of the cemetery of ancient Mantineia. Most tombs are rock-cut cists: one built cist (the only grave robbed in antiquity) is a careful construction lined with terracotta tiles bedded in lime plaster. A marble basin with a plastic lion head on the exterior at the lip was reused as a sarcophagus for a child burial: the lid was cut from an older inscribed marble funerary stele. Most tombs date from the late Hellenistic to middle Roman periods. Only one (tomb 2) is dated by the grave goods to the early fifth century BC, the only transitional Archaic-Classical grave yet known from Mantineia. These burials are distinguished by their wealth, with valuable offerings such as jewellery of gold and semi-precious stones, gold danakes, and vases of special function with relief scenes. This picture of opulence, until now unusual in Arkadian cemeteries, concerns tombs of the late second century BC to the early first century AD, which form a group in the middle of the area.  In the remaining Roman imperial tombs there is a preference for glass vessels, mostly unguentaria. The abundance and variety of grave goods confirms that the cist tombs, despite their simple construction, did not belong to poor people. The pottery includes shapes for drinking and wine (the oinochoe, skyphos and lagynos), for oil and other liquids (the unguentarium and askos), and table vessels (the handless skyphos). In two instances, a stone sarcophagus and a cist, the deceased wore schematised golden leaves, a popular category of funerary offering in Greek lands from the fourth century BC onwards but found here for the first time in Arkadia. The woman buried in tomb 5 and the man in tomb 4 both had as gold danakes placed on the mouth fourth-century BC coins of Sikyon with a flying dove. A bronze Talcott type aryballoid lekythos with a plastic head of Medusa at the lip was used in the funerary rites in honour of the man buried in tomb 5 after the tomb was sealed. The basin reused as a sarcophagus contained a child burial with rich goods. Around the disintegrated cranium were 16 leaves of light sheet gold with delicate ribbing along them. The child’s chest was adorned with a gold pendant with a suspension ring and a rock-crystal phallus-shaped insert. At left palm was a gold ring with a cornelian bezel bearing a scene from the Dionysiac cycle. At the child’s feet was a glass-paste figurine of a frog. The image of prosperity presented by the cemetery corresponds with that of late Hellenistic and Imperial Mantineia gained from textual sources and the excavated monuments in the agora of the ancient city.

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  Monemvasia, Lower City. Church of the Panagia Myrtidiotissa (or Kritikia). This large, single-naved church with a dome dates to the second Venetian period (1690-1710). K. Diamanti (5th EBA) reports on research pursued inside the building and out as part of a condition survey. Inside, investigation of the most recent floor revealed no trace of an older surface but rather various makeshift floors at a lower level. Outside, it was determined that the south and east walls were founded on the remains of older constructions. An older wall, in contact with the east wall, owed its preservation to the level cutting of the central part of the semicircular apse of the altar.

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Monemvasia, Lower City. Church of Ag. Anna or the Ag. Akindynoi. K. Diamanti (5th EBA) reports on test excavation made in the ruined south aisle of this two-aisled church in the context of work to stabilize and conserve the building. Part of the south wall was discovered, plus the continuation of the apse of the altar. The apse (2.4m in diameter, preserved to a height of 0.5m) was founded on a levelled, stable surface and bedrock. The floor is destroyed. Below it was a small tholos-like room. The south wall of the church, revealed for a length of 1.3m, has white lime plaster on the interior face. Approximately in the centre of the aisle was a rectangular cist tomb, filled in. Excavation in the north aisle revealed the original floor ( of beaten lime plaster) in the area of the apse of the altar at a depth of 0.6m. In the main church, the floor was later destroyed and a structure erected in the aisle (this has yet to be fully investigated). Research to trace the line of the south and west wall will continue.

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Aigialeia. A. Pontrandolfo (SAIA/Salerno), Z. Aslamatzidou (Director, Στ’ ΕΠΚΑ), and A. Rizakis (KERA/EIE) report on the 2010 survey season in the upper Krios valley, focused in the area between modern Seliana and Perithori (Fig. 1). The area surveyed, a level area formed from natural and artificial terraces plus the mountain slope which closes the river basin to the south, lay on the right bank of the river and was cut by the numerous fluvial actions of its tributaries. It was not particularly subject to erosion or alluviation, partly due to human activity in maintaining the area, and partly due to the conglomerate and solid marl substrate. Prospection concentrated in a well sheltered valley defined to the north by the river, to the south and west by steep hill slopes, and to the east by a saddle marking the transition between the older fluvial terraces on which lies the most viable route between Seliana and Perithori. It is dominated by a modest high point to the north east, named locally Ag. Theodori after the church. Half way up the northwest slope of the valley, investigation revealed scattered small and medium-sized roughly cut conglomerate blocks, and squared blocks of various sizes, mostly finished. Some wall lines can be identified, and the evidence suggests a system of access routes, now disused, connecting the lower valley with the hilltop. Other blocks, not in situ, likely derive from further pre-existing structures. Survey in the area southwest of the hill revealed five accumulations of architectural terracottas together with pieces of stone slab, between which was a Hellenistic pithos fragment with an incised wave pattern on the neck (Fig. 2). The hypothesis that terracing on the south, east and west slopes indicates occupation in antiquity is strengthened by comparison with geomorphology, analysis of aerial photographs, and prospection on the ground. In sum, research on the borders of the communities of Seliana and Perithori explored a valley or basin created by a meander in the course of the Krios and its tributory, which dominates the fluvial terraces to the interior. Archaeological evidence on the upper slopes, ca. 1 km from ancient Seliana and on the junction of routes towards Arcadia and the Krathis valley, suggests another pole of activity from the Early Helladic period to Late Antiquity in this part of the territory.  

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Arachamitai, Agia Paraskevi. B. Forsén (Finnish Institute at Athens) reports on the 2010 excavation season. Between 2006 and 2008, a magnetometer survey and trial trenches at Ag. Paraskevi located a 30 x 11m Late Hellenistic building (Fig. 1) and another 65 x 65m square structure with a central courtyard. The 30 x 11m building is connected to a sacred deposit and a sanctuary of the Late Archaic to the Late Hellenistic period. The courtyard structure, of uncertain function, dates to the third or fourth century AD. In 2010 a new five-year programme of excavation was begun, focusing on the 30 x 11m building and its immediate surroundings in order to understand both this structure and the earlier stages of cult activity at the site. Ca. 60m2 of the western part of the 30 x 11m building were excavated. In addition, the walls were traced further to the east, revealing the outlines of the building for some 11 x 14m. The outer walls are 0.5-0.6m thick and built of head-size stones with soil fill. The 0.35-0.7m high foundation is built of smaller stones: above it lies the socle of larger stones (0.55-0.85m high), and above that walls probably of mud brick now lost. The thick walls and strong foundation indicate that the building had two storeys. Three rooms were excavated: the large rectangular Room III (ca. 9 x 5m), the round Room I (ca. 5m in diameter), and the rectangular Room II, the short side of which is ca. 4.5m long. No doorways leading into the house have so far been detected. None of the rooms was excavated in its entirety. All were covered by a thick layer of Laconian roof tiles (Fig. 2), except in parts of Room III where the collapsed roof was apparently destroyed by later agricultural activity. In Room I, a well-laid tile mosaic was uncovered immediately below the collapsed floor. This room contained few finds except for a Late Hellenistic lamp. Its function remains unclear, although it may have been used for some kind of washing as it was drained towards the west (through Room III) by an open pipe. Room I could be entered through a doorway from Room II to the north. This room was only partly excavated: three floor levels were found, one paved with reused tiles and the others made of packed earth. The room contained large amounts of pottery, including jars, juglets, a pithos and other storage vessels, but also some bowls, plates and cups, two lamps, two fragmentary female figurines, a piece of multicoloured millefiore glass and two coins; most finds were made along the walls. This room was apparently used for storage. Room III, a large rectangular room in the west short end of the building, had a floor of packed earth. It also contained large amounts of pottery and a total of seven coins. The pottery differs from that in Room II in the amount of cooking and fine drinking vessels represented, together with a number of amphorae and kraters. The majority of the Megarian bowl fragments and fine red-slip cups (eastern sigillata B) came from this room, indicating that it may have been used for communal eating and drinking. The pottery and other finds recovered inside the building mainly date to the second to first centuries BC. Two coins (from Laconia and Megalopolis) of the mid-first century BC belong to the latest finds, although some pottery may continue into the first century AD. The building shows two construction phases, with Room 1 belonging to the later phase. Below the floor level of Room III, black-glazed pottery of the fourth and third centuries BC, decorated with ribbing and grooves, represents layers predating the building. A handful of other finds connected with earlier activity at the site was also recovered, mixed into the Late Hellenistic layer. The finest piece is the handle of a bronze mirror depicting a Caryatid in a Doric chiton, holding her skirt in her right hand and a small bird in her left (Fig. 3). It is best paralleled among the Caryatid mirrors of the Sikyon school which date to the 470s BC. Further fragments of Corinthian roof tiles belonging to an earlier building, including part of a painted sima, were also found. The sima can be dated to the sixth century BC, thereby giving a clearer date for this earlier building (a temple?). In addition to the couple of fragmentary female figurines found in Room II, fragments of similar figurines were found outside the building itself, on its south side. Further indication of cult activity is given by the roof tile stamps. The trial trenches produced stamps beginning with ΑΡΤΕΜ… and ΔΕΣΠ… Further examples of these stamps, one reading ΑΡΤΕΜΗ… and another …ΠΟΙΝΑ… found in 2010 strengthen the assumption that the roof tile stamps give the genitive form of Artemis and Despoina, i.e. the names of the goddess(es) worshipped at the site. The central court of the Roman courtyard structure was accessed from the west along a ca. 15m wide passage flanked on both sides by rows of small square rooms. In previous trial excavations it was noted that part of the northern flank of this passage was built on top of the Late Hellenistic building. In 2010 part of one of the square rooms was found along the northern flank of the passage leading to the courtyard. The walls of this room are built of fist-size stones and soil. They are only 0.4-0.5m wide and built directly onto the surface with no foundation, indicating that the superstructure must have been very light and of only one storey.

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Epidauros Limera. E. Mantzourani (University of Athens) and A. Maltezou (Ε΄ ΕΠΚΑ) report on the first seasons of a collaborative surface survey in the area of anc. Boiai and the southwest part of Elaphonisos, conducted in 2008-2010.  Three areas were investigated (Fig. 1). Area Α extends from Viglafia to modern Neapolis, area B covers the southwestern part of Elaphonisos, and area Γ lies south of Neapolis, from Palaiokastro to Koraka. In a short exploratory season in 2008 only areas Α and Γ were investigated: the main sites explored in area Α were at Gerantonia, Viglafia, Ag. Georgios and Neapolis, and in area Γ at Las (Fig. 2), Palaikastro and Miniones. During the first full season in autumn 2009, nine sites were located in area A (mostly dating to historical periods), eight in area B (Early Helladic, Classical/Hellenistic, and Roman), and eight in area Γ (Early and Middle Helladic, Hellenistic, Late Roman, and Early Christian) (Fig. 3). During the second season in autumn 2010, 22 sites were found in area A (Early Helladic, Classical, Hellenistic, and Late Roman), four in area Β (Early Helladic, Classical/Hellenistic, Roman, and early 20th-century), and five in area Γ (Early Helladic, Archaic/Classical, Hellenistic/Roman, and early-mid 20th-century). Surface finds include significant quantities of stone tools (of obsidian, flint and other local stones), much pottery of all periods (but chiefly historical times), and Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine tile. Structures identified include traces of an ancient road in area B (Fig. 4), remains of settlement walls of the historical period, prehistoric, historical and Byzantine graves, and houses, workshops and other facilities of the early and mid 20th century. In parallel with the land survey, an underwater geophysical survey was begun in 2010 by a team from the Geology Department of the University of Patras under the direction of G. Papatheodorou. This aims to map the geology and geomorphology of the sea bed in the area of Neapolis, and between Neapolis and Elaphonisos, using subbottom profiling, bathymetry, side scan sonar, and a remote operating vehicle in order to model the coastal palaeotopography, and to locate submerged structures and portable finds - evidence of human activity - on the sea bed.  

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Monemvasia, Lower City. Church of Agios Spyridon. K.P. Diamanti (5th EBA) reports on work to remove fill from the interior of this two-aisled Byzantine church, revealing a number of features. Rectangular built structures in contact with the semicircular apse probably served to hold the communion altar. Traces of Byzantine wall-painting were exposed in the lower part of the apse on the north side. The templon was a built structure, as confirmed by its foundation wall. A round marble column base found in the centre of the church served as the foundation for the arches which united the naves. The floor, preserved in patches, was of tile fragments set in lime plaster. The church was entered from the north aisle: the marble threshold is preserved. Alterations to the building made under the second Venetian empire include the addition of pediments to the west face, of a limestone geison in the south nave, and plasterwork.

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Monemvasia, Lower City. East wall. K.P. Diamanti (5th EBA) reports on investigation of the wall and surrounding area which revealed new features including cobbled roads, building outlines, and the remains of a single-aisled Byzantine church (8.65 x 3.5m, with walls 0.65-0.75m thick). The east wall incorporated certain older constructions which had defined the defensive circuit of the lower town until the 17th century. The southeast corner of the circuit partially incorporated an older building on this site, while a section of the wall by the gate was founded on the semicircular apse of a ruined Byzantine church and on the east part of a vaulted Byzantine cistern.

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Kastro of Vatika (Mesochori). K.P. Diamanti (5th EBA) reports on cleaning undertaken in connection with a conservation study, and on limited excavation on the top of the hill. The external circuit of the castle was revealed, plus the remains of buildings preserved to foundation level, and a ruined Byzantine church with traces of wall-paintings. Excavation around the entrance to the interior circuit revealed part of a ruined building dating to the first phase of construction of the fortification (13th-14th century). The chapel in the southern part of the internal circuit was built on the plan of an older, Byzantine, building. Surface pottery indicates continuous occupation from Hellenistic/ Roman times until the high Middle Ages.

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Tegea, Palaia Episkopi. A.-V. Karapanagiotou (ΛΘ' ΕΠΚΑ), D. Athanasoulis (25th EBA) and K. Ødegård (Norwegian Institute at Athens) report on the third campaign of excavation in 2010. The most recent documented feature was a flood channel which ran south to north across the site: flooding had in the past seriously disturbed the stratigraphy. The flood layer deepened towards the north of the excavation area, and the bottom had not been reached at a depth of 1m. The stream fill contained pottery, tile and stones probably redeposited from nearby house structures. A post-Byzantine date for the stream is probable as it had over time demolished part of a Late Byzantine wall. A number of Byzantine wall bases were uncovered: these simple, narrow constructions of rough irregularly sized stones are interpreted as foundations for mud-brick-walls. Finds connected to walls in square D17 suggest that the walls were in use in the 12th and possibly into the 13th century, and thus represent the last building phases recorded at Tegea. The walls have the same orientation as the presumed city plan, based on the Norwegian magnetometer survey from 2003-2006. The main axis of the ancient city was thus respected in later periods, including the final phases of Byzantine settlement. A tile-covered surface partly excavated in 2009 and thought to represent the last paved phase of the agora, was reinterpreted as a road surface since it is less extensive then first assumed. The corner of a larger structure built of rough stone blocks runs parallel to this road. This building was probably abandoned in the 12th century, and the road might therefore be contemporary with, and connected to, the Basilica of Thyrsos. A solid, concrete-like floor and a rough north-south wall discovered in the northernmost part of the excavation area in 2009 were further explored. The entire floor was uncovered, together with another wall running east-west which perhaps connected to the north-south wall further east. Pottery from contexts immediately above the concrete floor and connected to the structure (mostly small storage vessels and larger jugs and jars) indicates a Late Roman/Early Byzantine date (from the end of the fourth to the beginning of the fifth century). The concrete floor is likely earlier, perhaps Hellenistic. It was reused in the Byzantine period when the north-south wall was laid across it. To the east of the wall lay an almost square area of soil with pieces of charcoal and several whole vessels, including a Megarian bowl and terra sigillata which date the context to the first century BC. The character of the finds in this area indicates that this floor was in use in the first century BC but was not reused thereafter, unlike the concrete floor to the west.  A trial trench (5 x 10m) opened in the far north part of the field revealed no building remains. However, many cuts and fills may in part be the result of industrial activity (noting remains of charcoal and layers of clayey silt).  The area may have been a clay pit for the production of tiles or pottery. Most of the pottery from this area is Roman, including several Corinthian lamp fragments of the second to third centuries AD. A survey of the standing monuments at Palaia Episkopi was begun.

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Kakovatos. B. Eder (DAI/Freiburg) reports on the 2010 excavation season at the Late Bronze Age settlement on the acropolis, the graves of which were revealed in earlier excavations conducted by W. Dörpfeld. The aim of the excavation is to clarify the plan, function and date of the preserved architectural remains, partially exposed in 1907/08 but never published. At the western edge of the hill crest, two walls formed a corner, inside which a pebble layer was traced in several places, indicating a floor of river pebbles or use levels with pebble pavings (Fig. 1). On this floor lay several vessels, the profiles of which could be reconstructed from sherd. These include a so-called keftiu cup (Fig. 2) discoloured by secondary burning. A series of pits was cut into the floor along the internal wall faces, and two pithoi stood in the corner (Fig. 3). The pottery from this structure is a typical settlement assemblage, with fine, coarse and cooking wares as well as storage vessels. Pieces of secondarily fired clay and burnt pottery on the pebble floor suggest destruction by fire. Pottery from the use phase indicates that this destruction happened in LH II. This assessment matches the use of the three tholos tombs at the foot of the acropolis hill, which are dated primarily to LH IIA. On the western slope of the Kakovatos hill is a wall corner built of several massive blocks with an external face including marl, conglomerate and shelly limestone blocks over 1m long (Fig. 4). The north-south stretch remains recognisable, while old excavation photographs, fallen blocks and washed out fill clearly indicate that it formed a corner at the north end, turning east. Beneath an alluvial clay layer, its fill of small stones was exposed; this contained only one diagnostic sherd dating to the Early Mycenaean period. The wall, plus two parallel, poorly preserved stretches further north, probably served as a retaining wall for structures on the plateau. Its visibility and massive construction underline its symbolic character; its thickness suggests a multi-storey structure, perhaps a tower. It overlooked the entire coastal zone below the acropolis.

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Kleonai.  T. Mattern (DAI/Marburg) reports on the 2010 excavation season, focused on buildings by the agora (a flat area at the foot of the city hill, bounded to the south by the city wall). Fig. 1.  A path or road which crossed the urban area here ran from a pass between the city hills, continuing to the east of the excavated area, and on towards the city wall in the south where there is likely to have been a gate. Building remains lie to the north of the agora, where the terrain rises in steps. Between the agora, these structures and the road, inscribed blocks from exedrae have been recovered. Those found in 2006 include the inscriptions of the sculptors Xenophilos and Straton: a further inscribed block found in 2010 formed part of a larger monument with a multi-line inscription which had been erased. Architectural remains were found in all three trenches opened (Fig. 2). An apsidal structure stretched across a natural terrace onto the agora. At a higher level but on the same orientation, was a terracotta pavement. That paving and the associated walls were cut by cist graves (built of spolia) which contained burials without goods. All trenches yielded mixed pottery. An apsidal building, perhaps a church, was erected here among important roads: the significance of the location is confirmed by the Late Classical-Hellenistic inscribed monuments and statues. That the church was founded on older structures (perhaps a sanctuary) is indicated by the earlier walls and exedrae, by numerous and sometimes well preserved Late Classical and Hellenistic spolia (especially capitals and columns), and by the rise in terrain. The church continued to be used after its destruction: burials were cut through the floor paving, and a chapel perhaps continued in use.  In sum, the unusual location of the agora and the course of the city wall to the north may reflect an extension of the city perhaps related to the integration of new inhabitants after the conquest of Mycenae in 465/464 BC.

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Olympia. R. Senff (DAI) reports. After the condemnation of pagan cults and the destruction of its buildings through earthquakes and quarrying, modest settlement within the area of the sanctuary of Zeus continued until the Early Middle Ages. Thereafter, erosion and flood buried the ruins under metres of sediment. However, protective measures dating back into antiquity prove that environmental factors always had a major impact on the topography of the sanctuary. Several cores and geoelectric profiles were made in the previously unexcavated area southwest of the sanctuary by the ancient Kladeos shore wall (Fig. 1), to the west of the modern Kladeos riverbed (Fig. 2), and in the Alpheios plain, to elucidate the sedimentary history of these areas. A new architectural study of the so-called South Stoa was undertaken. Delimiting the sanctuary towards the Alpheios, the stoa lies at the southern edge of the archaeological zone, marking the limit of the old excavations (Fig. 3). It is open towards the river to the south, with a protruding central section. Built in the mid fourth century BC and repaired at least once during Imperial Roman times, it was excavated between 1875 and 1881 and again in 1937/38 and 1938/39. In 2010, a stone-by-stone plan was made at a scale of 1:50 (Fig. 4). A further aim was to establish whether and how terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is methodologically and economically viable for recording such a structure, and whether the resulting data can be used for reconstructions. The monument was recorded three-dimensionally through TLS: scatter plots of measurements made in numerous locations were then joined digitally (Fig. 5).

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Tiryns. J. Maran (DAI/Heidelberg) reports on the fourth and final excavation season in 2010, focused in quadrants L 51 and L 52 in the western Lower Town. In contrast to accepted notions of the geomorphological development of the plain surrounding the acropolis, the area of the lower town examined was strongly affected by alluviation from a stream channel that passed south of Tiryns in the third millennium BC. Some 4m under the modern surface, an EH II settlement layer was covered by ca. 2m of riverine sediments which appear to have been deposited during EH III and perhaps late EH II (Fig. 1). Features in the settlement layer include a row of medium-sized rubble in the southeast corner: its architectural context remains unclear. The exact date of the settlement deposits in the sounding will only be revealed via C14. Mycenaean settlement remains (Fig. 2) reveal three chronologically close building phases from LH III A2 until the earliest LH IIIB. The erection during LH IIIA2 of the large building (first encountered in 2008) marked a turning point in that it necessitated the removal of all older structures in the area. Robbing pits of former walls were visible in the upper surface of the riverine sediment. Soon after its construction, the large building was almost completely demolished due to building activity connected with the creation of the structure interpreted in 2007 as a pottery workshop. After the third building phase, the area was abandoned in LH IIIB. The use of this area of the western Lower Town, marked by substantial changes within a few decades, resembles palatial planning habits known elsewhere in Tiryns, which appear to affect older structures with no consideration for plots or ownership.  Much LH IIIA2 pottery was recovered from contexts of the first Mycenaean building phase, including vessels which can be almost completely restored (Fig. 3). A lead or silver object in the shape of a truncated cone (0.018m high) may be a fine weight (Fig. 4).   Restoration and study of wall paintings. Tiryns appears to demonstrate the most consistent and architecturally advanced design of all 13th-century Mycenaean palaces. Unexpected new finds, such as the palatial wall frescoes discovered in 1999 near the western staircase, complete our image of the palace over a century after its discovery. These discoveries provide the occasion for reassessment of previously discovered Tirynthian paintings now in the National Museum of Athens (the second phase of the project “Pictorial space and spatial image, Mycenaean palaces as performative space” begun in 2006). Study of the newer material, restored in the project's first phase, progresses. An especially fine example is the image of a lady carrying a little girl who appears to hold flowers. To this core image, recognised during restoration, several further fragments can now be allocated (e.g. the shoulders of at least three further women). This suggests a more complex scene (Fig. 5), tentatively interpreted as an initiation rite and so far without known parallel in the known pictorial canon of its time.

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Triphylia. J. Heiden (DAI) reports on the fifth season of fieldwork.  The 1:1000 city plans of Samikon, Platiana and Vrestos made in 2009 were reviewed and additional detailed records, usually of city walls, produced at 1:50 (Fig. 1).   At Samikon, surface pottery mostly of Hellenistic date, six loomweights and a fourth-century BC Elean coin depicting a horse were found. It seems likely that Samikon was a new foundation of the Triphylian League.    In the fortification above modern Anilio, stretches of the upper wall and a tower in the lower wall were cleaned and drawn at 1:50. A few prehistoric sherds indicate early use of the site: thereafter only Byzantine pottery and a coin were found (Fig. 2). The fortification is more likely medieval than Mycenaean (as Dörpfeld had suggested).   A settlement (possibly ancient Hypana) on a plateau south of modern Gryllos is dated by surface finds from the Mycenaean to Hellenistic periods.   On the summit of Mt. Minthi, at 1221m the highest mountain in Triphylia, an 8 x 8m foundation may belong to an altar of Zeus (Fig. 3).   The site of ancient Epitalion is identified on a large plateau to the northwest of the Zoodochou Pigis monastery, near the mouth of the Alpheios, which is covered in coarsewares, tile, and large quantities of Late Classical and Hellenistic sherds.   Near the church of Ag. Elias in the village of the same name, several large shelly limestone blocks, many Laconian rooftile fragments and Classical fine ware were found. This may be the site of Pyrgos, the southernmost polis in Triphylia, to which the temple of Athena at Prasidaki likely belonged as an extra-urban sanctuary.   Three geological cores were drilled below Samikon to determine the site of the ancient harbour, and whether the Kleidhi hills were islands in antiquity. A core in the large hollow north of the ancient city showed that the sea did not reach so far inland in antiquity. This area cannot have been the town harbour, as indicated by Strabo 8.3.17, but was rather fertile fields. The cores to the south and west of Kleidhi indicated that the hill chain was connected with the mainland, jutting into the sea as a promontory. Geophysical prospection, including ground-penetrating radar, on the acropolis of Platiana revealed the plan of a 6 x 6m structure. At Lepreon, to the north of the gate structure later converted in a hut, the radar revealed the course of the city wall which is not visible on the surface.

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Mycenae. S. Iakovides (ASA) reports on the 2010 excavation season. In the East House (Fig. 1), remains excavated by N. Verdelis in 1962 were again exposed. LH IIIC walls and a built bench indicate that the residence extended further to the north. The west side of the building was also investigated, and Hellenistic incursions into the structure traced, noting differences in wall construction and finds of different periods, including a Hellenistic female figurine (Fig. 2), an LH IIIC prochous (Fig. 3) and a two-handled plate (Fig. 4). Continuing excavation in the lower city (Fig. 5) fully revealed two successive natural fills which covered the archaeological remains and separated them from more recent, Geometric and Archaic constructions. The older and thicker level of flood deposits from the Chavos contained no cultural material: the upper, more recent level was similar but cleaner. A large, strong Mycenaean wall discovered in previous excavation was traced for a further 20m. At the north end it forms an angle to the southwest, and continues for a further 12m. At the south end, it defined a prominence to the east within which was cut the Geometric (ninth-century) grave found in 2009. Fills west of the wall contained pottery from the later Mycenaean to Archaic periods. The wall was extended to the south, probably during the Archaic period, taking a westwards turn. A further large Mycenaean wall, preserved to a height of 1.8m, was completely uncovered (revealing a length of 14m). Pottery from within the structure dates it to LH IIIB.  Finds from the lower city comprise Mycenaean and Archaic figurine fragments, obsidian and flint tools, fragments of stone vessels, jewellery and sealstones, coins, lead weights, metal sheet, iron nails, chisels and hooks, arrow heads and sling shot, terracotta loomweights and spools, sections of plaster and wallpainting, remains of pigments, bones, and numerous Mycenaean, Geometric and Archaic sherds.

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Ancient Thouria. X. Arapogianni (ASA/Director, ΛΗ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the second season of excavation in 2010. Building Γ, partially excavated in 2009, was exposed almost in its entirety (the southeast corner excepted) (Fig. 1). A rectangular structure (4.25 x 7.9m) oriented south-north, it had a doric column in each corner with engaged half-columns on the walls (two on the short walls and four on the long). The lower walls between the columns were built of orthostats, and the upper of unfired brick. The entrance was on the south side, with part of the ramp characteristic of Peloponnesian temples preserved. A thick wall divides the interior into a prodomos (2.4m deep) and a sekos: the threshold between them is partially preserved (Fig. 2). The floor was of fine pebbles laid over a cobbled layer: a pebble surface also surrounded the exterior of the building (Fig. 3). In the inside northwest corner was a treasure-receptacle in situ (Fig. 4). This is a block 0.81m square with a rounded hollow in the centre (0.41m in diameter) around which is a sill to support a metal cover (as attested by two lead clamps on opposite sides, aligned northwest-southeast). The cover may have had a slot cut into it to allow coins to be added to the treasury. On the upper east face of the receptacle was an inscription of the late fourth to early third century BC, which likely serves to date the entire building. Ἐπὶ ἱεροθυτᾶν ἐποιήθη Ἁγία, Ἀρικλείδας, δαμιουργῶν Θίω- νος, Ἀλκάνδρου, Καλλικράτης. ἀρχιτέκτων Θεόδωρος In 2009, two feet from a marble offering table were found in this same area. In sum, the evidence combines to indicate that the building is a temple and the work of the architect Theodoros. When the building fell into disuse (in antiquity), a round cistern of tile and lime mortar was built in its southwest corner (external diameter 2.35m, interior 1.3m, depth 1.2m).

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Iklaina. M. Kosmopoulos (ASA) reports on continuing excavation in 2010. In the south part of the excavation area, a complex of small dwellings was excavated (Fig. 1). The north building has three probable storerooms dating from LH II-LH IIIA1. Fragments of wall painting found in the fill within the rooms include depictions of part of a ship with rowers and dolphins beneath (Fig. 2), parts of female figures, and other subjects. The paintings likely decorated an upper-floor room. South of this complex were a further two rooms with curved walls (perhaps to facilitate circulation). One, containing part of a round hearth, was dated to LH IIB-IIIA1 by pottery which included an early Mycenaean skyphos. Other rooms to the east, include one in which a roughly-made stone staircase is partially preserved. These rooms are dated by pottery from the end of the Middle Helladic period until LH II/LH IIIA1. One large open space to the east and south of the building complex was perhaps a garden or court. Small parts of other rooms were excavated further to the east and northwest: these seem to have been bordered by a road with water channels. In the north sector of the excavation area, large parts of two rooms were revealed to the east of House B (Fig. 3). The southern one contained a deposit with plentiful LH II/IIIA1-LH IIIA2 pottery and a fragment of a Linear B tablet inscribed on both sides (Fig. 4). The excavator thus dates the tablet to LH IIIA2. Further rooms were uncovered in the east part of Megaron Γ (Fig. 5), and to the south a new complex, House E, was discovered (Fig. 6). This consists of rooms characterised as workshops, one of which contained fragments of human and animal figurines (Fig. 7).

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Messene. P. Themelis (ASA) reports on continuing excavation in the theatre and in the east part of the agora. Restoration work was undertaken on the east side and in the southeast corner of the retaining wall of the koilon, where extensive repairs had already been undertaken during the first and mid-second centuries AD (Figs 1, 2). Ancient builders’ marks had been engraved in the blocks to facilitate their placing. In the east part of the skene was a bronze fibula from a northern Italian workshop of the first century AD, inscribed Aucissa. This fibula is characteristic of Roman legionary uniform: similar examples have been found wherever Roman forces were in action. Restoration was also undertaken on the fourth-century doric peripteral temple of Messana (Fig. 3), architectural members of which were found built into nearby field walls. The columns of the pronaos and opisthodomos were probably ionic and not doric as previously believed. At a tomb east of the Bouleion (Fig. 4), part of a stele was found bearing the text of a third-century alliance between Messene and five Cretan cities. The names of only four of the Cretan cities are preserved – the poleis of the Apteraioi, the Eleuthernaioi, the Sibrytioi and the Anopolitai. The fifth city may have been Phalasarna.

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Ithome. P. Themelis (ASA) reports on the 2010 excavation season at the temple of Eileithyia. On the south slope of Ithome, northwest of the temple of Artemis Limnatis, the remains of a tetrastyle prostyle ionic temple were investigated. This had an almost square sekos (5.15 x 5.45m) and a prodomos (1.8 x 5.15m). The base of a marble cult statue was found in situ in front of the west wall of the sekos (Fig. 1), and the torso of the statue outside the south part of the temple. Three rooms behind the ruins of the temple are ascribed to a shepherd’s hut of the fourth century AD (Fig. 2).

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Agios Vasileios (Xerokampi). A. Vasilogamvrou (ASA/Director, E’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the first full excavation season in 2010 (Fig. 1). In sector I lay building A, with a mud brick superstructure, which had been destroyed by fire. Seven rooms were identified (Fig. 2), one of which contained a large quantity of arms and armour (16 bronze swords, a dagger, a knife, spearheads, a bronze helmet and the remains of a boar’s tusk helmet: Fig. 3) the position of which implies that they were placed in a chest. In a neighbouring room, objects found below the collapsed roof include the neck of a stone vessel (Fig. 4), a bull-shaped rhyton (Fig. 5) inlay from the upper part of a sword handle (Fig. 6), an Egyptian scarab (Fig. 7), and gold sheet ornaments (Figs 8-10). Associated pottery (including almost intact vessels) dates the complex to MH III – LHI/IIA. Just to the north of building A was an MH III - LH I cist tomb cemetery (Figs 11, 12). Ten tombs were found at different depths and with different orientations (east-west and north-south). Several had large cover slabs while others were uncovered: they were used for one to three burials. Similar but appreciably smaller tombs were used for child burials. Goods consisted of a few pottery vessels. One child burial held an LH I cup, and another an askos and a kantharos (Fig. 13). Building B: within the building (Fig. 14) was a quantity of fragments of wallpaintings, including depictions of human figures as well as ornament. Depictions include a lower leg clad in a greave on a blue background (Fig. 15), a female head set within a banded border (Fig. 16), and part of a chariot wheel (Fig. 17). In sector II, to the south, was a group of chamber tombs built in LH I - II and used until LH IIIA1, to judge from the pottery which included restorable vessels (Figs 18, 19). One tomb was used as a rubbish dump after the collapse of its roof. The upper layer of this contained a large quantity of broken vessels, pieces of wallpainting, terracotta figurines and an amulet.

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Patras, 135 Kanakari Street (property of M. Kaligosphyri). The 6th EBA reports the discovery of part of the northeast cemetery of the city (Fig. 1). The corners of two first-century subterranean funerary monuments with a stone krepis and façade onto the cemetery road (Fig. 2). The funerary peribolos which surrounded them also contained 12 cist graves with a large quantity of coins which confirm the continuous use of the cemetery from the first to the sixth centuries AD. In the eastern part of the plot was a workshop with storage pithoi (Fig. 3): many Early Byzantine bronze coins were collected.  The water supply system had at least three phases, the principal of which dates to the Early Christian period.  

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Argos. The 25th EBA presents a review of Late Antique and Byzantine finds from rescue excavations in 2000-2010. On Papanikoli Street (property of K. Beleri) a bath complex was found between the Roman agora and the Late Roman insula in the south of the city. Part of the caldarium was found. The floor of the alveus was paved in marble, and the bench round the bath was marble-clad (above this was mosaic decoration in green, black and turquoise). The hypocaust and the water su0pply system were preserved intact. Aound the praefurnium was a covered corridor. Both the pottery and the wall construction indicate a fifth- to sixth-century AD date: the area was re-occupied in the 12th century.   A major part of the north cemetery was revealed in two rescue excavations on neighbouring properties on Diomedous Lane, Ο.Τ. 14Γ. On the Denezi Tentzeri property, large tiles were used for the tile-graves (four for adult burials and two for children). The long period of use of this extensive cemetery is confirmed by the existence of two layers of burials. Very few grave goods were found (tomb 14 alone contained a pair of earrings). Child and infant burials constituted some 20% of the total. On the Dedousi-Kirsanof-Karakitsou-Kotronaki property a total of 64 tile-graves were excavated, of which 24 contained child burials. Grave goods comprise a pair of bronze earrings, a gold earring, an iron dagger, a cup and a bronze pin.  To the west of, and below, the tombs was a four-sided underground structure with stairs down its narrowest side, built of undressed stone and lined with hydraulic cement. There was a four-sided basin in the middle of the floor and the angles of the structure were rounded inwards, creating the effect of a cross set in a four-sided frame. The structure is identified as a baptistery which predates the establishment of the cemetery.  An Early Byzantine (sixth- or seventh-century) house with pebble floors was found on the property of A. Roussou (Kallergi Street, Ο.Τ. 159). A floor mosaic was later laid in the northwest room (the underlay of tile fragments is preserved with traces of light and dark tesserae).  A second room, with a floor of hydraulic cement leading into a drainage channel, was probably a wine-press. South of the house was a road with a central storm drain covered with stone slabs. South of the house was a road with a central storm drain covered with stone slabs, to which the house was connected, and south of that, another house of the same period.  Excavation on the property of I. Peredé (Kapodistriou and 28th October Street, Ο.Τ. 14Γ), revealed Early Byzantine drainage channels and building remains, and part of a road running east-west. In the fill were cannon balls, Ottoman tobacco pipes and coins of the second Venetian period. An area for clay preparation was found, related to two round cisterns lined with hydraulic cement. The fill contained three tripod-supports and pieces of fired clay, but no evidence was found of the kiln that would confirm the presence of a potter’s workshop. An Early Byzantine complex on the property of Th. Papathanasiou may relate to the neighbouring baptistery found on the Perdikari property, and perhaps also with the basilica on the Phlorou property to the southeast.   

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Nauplion.  The 25th EBA presents a review of Late Antique and Byzantine finds from rescue excavations in 2000-2010. Two Ottoman houses were discovered. Only the basements and foundations survive of the first, on the property of D. and I. Dioili (Kapodistriou and Evthymiopoulou Streets, Ο.Τ. 187Β). The second (residence of Κ. Κanellopoulou, Ethnikis Antistasis and Zygomala Streets, Ο.Τ. 192Β) is near the Sagredou gate leading to Acronauplia. It is also near a house identified with that of the Aga of Nauplion during the second Tourkokratia, the owner, by tradition, of the large mosque (known today as ‘Vouleftiko’) on Staikopoulou Street and of the  Christian church (later turned into a mosque) now known as the Frankoklisia. Excavation revealed adjunct rooms and a large quantity of Ottoman tobacco pipes of very fine quality (one of which was gilded). In deeper levels, a small kiln with Late Byzantine pottery probably belonged to a small workshop extra muros. Excavation on the property of L. and G. Mastorakou (Syntagma Square, Ο.Τ. 130Α) revealed a paved road which led towers the area of the Square (the Sagredou armoury). Before the pavement was another road identified as that leading to the Porta della Piazza.  Three rescue excavations in the area of Rodi revealed sections of the conduit of the first Venetian period which brought water to the city of Nauplion from the spring of Kanathos (in the Byzantine monastery of Aria).  

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Helleniko (Teicho, anc. Eva).  G. Grigorakakis publishes an intact Late Classical female burial excavated in 2008 by the ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ in the vicinity of ancient Eva.  The tomb lies to the west of the previously identified city necropolis B, on the property of the Kapsali brothers at Plaka (or Plakakia). Oriented northeast-southwest and with dimensions of 0.5 x 2.4m, it is partly dug in the ground and partly cut into the soft rock. In the lower, rock-cut part, the body was laid supine, head to the east: this part of the grave was sealed with limestone slabs. The upper part was covered with two heavy limestone slabs seated partly in a niche cut in the rock and partly supported by stones. The grave form is unique. While bipartite graves are known at ancient Theisoa, there the partition through a stone grill served a ceremonial purpose, intended for the re-use of the grave. There was no such indication at Helleniko, nor any sign of a later burial on top.  Outside the grave, at the southwest corner, a ditch contained two drinking vessels. Within the grave were ten vases, the discus of a bronze mirror decorated with concentric circles, and underneath it a shield-shaped button of gilded clay depicting a gorgoneion in relief (an attachment from the funerary clothing, an imprint of which is preserved on the bronze mirror). The vases are: two skyphoi of Attic type, an olpe, two one-handled skyphoi, an aryballoid lekythos, a Type IV lamp and a small bowl (all black-glaze); an askos/strainer, a skyphos of Attic type, a lekythos, and a Bulas Group lekythos (all red-figure). All are local products, and as a collection date no later than 340 BC.  The tomb and necropoleis A and B sit along an east-west line on the slopes of Teicho, in an area cut by ancient roads to Argos, Tegea and Sparta. In 2010, rescue excavation on the Kapsali brothers’ property revealed a further two graves from the city cemetery, both cut into the bedrock and containing late fourth-century BC pottery.  

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Ambelaki. The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery of an Early Helladic I-II settlement on the Klaraki hill. Slight remains of walls, stone mounds with large quantities of pottery, pyres and stone structures were found. The pottery consisted of plain domestic ware (pithoi, pithoid amphorae, stamnoi), fine open and closed shapes (phialae, cut-away-necked prochoes, oil jugs, two-handled cups). Other finds include stone tools, obsidian cores, blades and flakes, terracotta figurines, and loomweights.  

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Perivolia. The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery, during the construction of the Megalopolis junction on the Tripolis to Kalamata motorway, in the area of Potistika northeast of the village of Perivolia, of a planned settlement. Residential insulae were organised around a regular grid of streets and stone-paved roads. The town reached its peak in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, with the oldest phase of settlement in the Geometric (eighth century) and Archaic (seventh and sixth centuries) documented mainly through pottery (fig. 1). The site, which lies outside modern Megalopolis, was identified before excavation with ancient Aimonion, mentioned by Pausanias.   

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Petrina. The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the following discoveries. At Ag. Irini, Velona Petrinas, a Late Roman (second- to fourth-century) workshop complex was found, with two apsidal buildings, water supply and drainage channels, a well and a potter’s kiln.  Finds include terracotta wedges, rings and vessel supports, vessels, figurine moulds, and masses of vitrified clay, all related to the operation of the workshop. The complex lies at the junction of two streams of the Evrotas, from which it obtained its water supply. Architectural remains of a Hellenistic settlement were found on the same site, as well as Early Bronze Age pottery.  At Monastiriako rema Ambelakiou Petrinas, Early and Late Bronze Age, and Late Roman architectural remains were found. Obsidian blades, stone tools, and pottery with painted and relief decoration date the settlement to the Final Neolithic-Early Helladic II period.  On the same site is a Mycenaean roadside altar and votive deposit, with many finds including Φ, Ψ and bovine figurines, terracotta and stone beads, and decorated sherds (kylikes, skyphoi and phialae) dating from LH IIIA1 to LH IIIC.  Nearby, was an agricultural facility and workshop, as well as tombs of the third to fourth centuries AD.  

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Agios Andreas, Nisi (property of D. Arachoviti). The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery of an extensive stretch of ancient fortification, including a tower. Built in high-quality, well-fitted polygonal masonry, it is dated stylistically to the end of the fourth century. The coastal stretch of the wall has been quarried out to a significant extent, probably to feed the two old lime kilns in the immediate vicinity.   

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Leonidio, Plaka.The ΛΘ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports that cleaning of the ancient city wall at Ag. Athanasios revealed the full length of its northern branch. Inside the fortification, the area was terraced with strong retaining walls with occasional tower-like projections. Building foundations are visible.  The wall suffered from destruction on the south and especially the east branch where only the lowest course is preserved.  Trial excavation at Eurias, north of the wall, confirmed activity during the Archaic period (sixth and early fifth centuries), noting a strong presence of sixth-century Lakonian pottery (mostly black glaze but with distinctive kraters, lekanes and Lakonian kylikes) as well as some Late Corinthian sherds.   

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Ancient Corinth. Olympia Odos. The ΛΖ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery, during the widening of the national road from Corinth to Patras, of an ancient quarry north of Ancient Corinth (figs 1-3). The few portable finds indicate that the quarry was used during the Archaic period, probably for the manufacture of sarcophagoi for the neighbouring Archaic and Classical cemetery, and for the Archaic city wall, part of which lies further to the west. West of the quarry, excavation for a bridge revealed an Archaic cemetery (figs 4-5). Thirty tombs were excavated, four of which were child burials: nine larnax burials, seven cist graves, 12  pits with limestone cove slabs, and two pits without covers. Twenty-four graves were oriented south-north, five east-west, and one had been moved and its original orientation could not be determined. On the north side of this plot lay tomb 71 of the ΕΡΓΟΣΕ excavations, confirming that the entire ca. 50m-deep area between the road and the new high-speed railway line has been investigated.    

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Mavra Litharia, harbour of anc. Aigeira (Nachmia Iakovou property). The ΛΖ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery of part of the harbour mole oriented east-west (figs 1-2). The 17.4m-long stretch revealed three levels: the superstructure was built of cobblestones of varying sizes set horizontally and vertically in cement; the middle level was of courses of dressed masonry of local stone (mostly sandstone), most of which were in secondary use; the bottom layer consists of sand, shell and cobbestones in a natural conformation. On the west side of the plot was a large natural rock which probably closed the harbour basin on the west side. The finds, especially pottery, show that the harbour was built in the second or first half of the third century AD, coincident with the construction of the theatre at Aigeira in the reign of Maximinus Thrax (235-238 AD). The abandonment of the harbour should be related to the general abandonment of the city after an earthquake in the mid-third century AD. A synthetic study by P. Micha (EMA) draws together evidence for the harbour works as a whole, and notes the conclusion of a 2007 inspection by the ROMANCONS (Roman Marine Concrete Study) team that hydraulic cement was not used in the construction of the harbour wall.  

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Anc. Sikyon. The ΛΖ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery, in the course of motorway construction, of a Middle Geometric-Hellenistic cemetery (fig. 1). Fifty-five tombs were excavated, most of which were fifth-century pit tombs with cover slabs. Larnakes also contained single and multiple burials. South of the cemetery was a 13m-long stretch of wall running west/northwest – east/southeast, built in the late sixth or early fifth-century. A 10.5m-long stretch of wall built of fieldstones and reused grave stelai is probably a continuation of the previous wall which forms the boundary of the cemetery.   

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Corinth, Diolkos. The Ephoreia of Maritime Antiquities reports on underwater survey conducted in 2010 to locate architectural members and features of the Diolkos and finalise the general plan of the monument for future conservation (fig. 1).   

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Anc. Corinth. The 25th EBA report the discovery of two Early Byzantine cemeteries, one on the lower slopes of Acrocorinth, south of the Hadjimoustapha fountain and the other at Agai Anna,  the entrance to the modern village, 90m southeast of the Quadratus Basilica (fig. 1).   P. Meleti (25th EBA) presents a study of the Agia Anna cemetery, where a group of 40 graves was excavated in 2004 and a further 168 in 2009. All but 23 were oriented west-east (the exceptions being north-south), and most were robbed and in disarray. They were largely simple, homogeneous cist graves covered with multiple slabs, some in secondary use (with rare cases of slab lining and one instance - tomb 15  - of a partition between two burials). The simplest tombs had plaster floors (just three retained bare rock), but in most cases floors were carefully made of terracotta and marble tiles and re-used materials, with built head supports. Most tombs contained multiple, contemporary or successive, burials (up to nine), although the skeletal remains have not yet been studied. Very few fragments of inscribed stele were preserved. Around 1/3 of the graves contained offerings: most were domestic pots (60 vessels in total), usually one-two per grave (up to five in rare cases). Forms represented include round- and oval-bodied prochoes, oinochoae and lekythoi, cups and lamps. Glass vessels include three unguentaria. A small collection of personal items include rings (one with traces of textile), chain links, earrrings, a pendant, a spoon, belt clasps, bone and bronze pins, and nine coins. The few finds in the fill between graves include domestic pottery (amphorae and chytres), lamps, fragments of inscriptions, and pieces of iron objects including nails. Pottery from the cemetery is typical of Corinthian Early Byzantine burials of the fifth to seventh centuries, and lamps (from Crointh, Athens and Argos) are of similar date.  The dense and tightly planned array of graves is probably part of a large extramural cemetery (the full extent of which is unknown), broadly dated to the sixth-seventh centuries and connected with the funerary Quadratus Basilica.   A particular concentration of remains at Kraneio, an area of 8.6ha east of the archaeological site of Corinth and northeast of Acrocorinth, includes one three-aisled basilica of the first half of the sixth century and what may be the remains of second. Excavation to date has revealed part of the fifth- or sixth-century Early Byzantine city wall plus part of the ancient city wall, and a further extensive cemetery immediately outside it. Inside the wall was a large bath complex: its halls (one apsidal) have marble wall revetments and marble clad benches around the walls. Early Christian architectural spoila were collected. After the abandonment of the complex, cist tombs were cut into the floor. A silo and walls above the floors indicate continuity of activity. The pottery consists mostly of Early Byzantine plain household ware, with some glazed wares of the 11th and late 12th-early 13th centuries. A smaller Early Byzantine bath complex presents a similar picture (fig. 2). The octagonal caldarium contained individual bath tubs in niches. In the Middle Byzantine period a new brick structure, probably a public building, was erected on the site. Pottery, architectural members and coins indicate a medieval phase which lasted into the 14th century (fig. 3).  The finds from Kraneio confirm the size and wealth of Early Byzantine Corinth. They reveal a previously unknown neighbourhood of the medieval city which is considerably more extensive than that excavated in the area of the ancient agora. Finds indicate continuity of activity from the Early Byzantine into the Middle and Late Byzantine periods.  

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Triantaphyllia. The Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery and excavation by G. Hatzi and O. Vikatou, following the fires of 2007-2008, of a Mycenaean tholos tomb (maximum diameter 3.83m) containing burials, in pits, which date from LH IIA to LH IIIA2 (figs 1-2). Two further tholoi are noted. These are the first Mycenaean tholos tombs to have been found in Elis north of the Alpheios. Research in the associated settlement on a neighbouring hill began in 2010.  On the same site were found a large fourth to third-century BC agricultural residence and graves contemporary with it.     

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Sparta. The Ε’ ΕΠΚΑ presents an overview of the results of rescue excavation in the decade 2000-2010.   Early Helladic settlement has been found in the southwest part of the modern city and in the neighbouring area of Ag. Irini, close to the modern Magoulitsa stream. Levels rich in pottery and with a few remains of buildings have been revealed below Hellenistic and Roman constructions on the Laphogianni, Mavridi-Katsari, Dimitrakopoulou-Zachariadi and Sokou-Koutakou plots, among others.  These remains are of particular significance in demonstrating that Sparta was occupied by the middle of the third millenium BC, with a particularly dense network of Early Helladic settlement in the Evrotas valley.   On a plot next to the so-called altar of Psyche, on the southeast edge of the city and very close to the west bank of the Evrotas, are Middle Helladic tombs and a chamber tomb of the period of Grave Circle B. The latter is orthogonal in plan with a side entrance, and corbelled walling. It contained bones from displaced burials and grave goods comprising pots, beads of semi-precious stones, and worked tusk from a boar’s tusk helmet (fig. 1) (indicating an elite grave). Protogeometric, Geometric, Archaic and Classical pottery, architectural remains, and a significant number of tombs have been found in many parts of the city, but especially in the area of ancient Limnai and in the area south of the acropolis. Votive deposits also confirm the location of a number of Archaic and Classical sanctuaries. Hellenistic remains are much denser. In the area of ancient Limnai, part of the city wall, with two orthogonal towers, lies north of the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia. An orthogonal multi-roomed building was excavated on the Georganta-Petrakou property, south of the acropolis.  For the Roman period, the large number of rescue excavations undertaken over the past decade has revealed luxurious residences with mosaic pavements, baths, workshops, and sections of roads and of the water and sewage systems.  Excavation of the Panagaki property and the adjacent Markou and Kourkouli plots revealed part of a large, luxurious villa urbana and a sanctuary deposit (fig. 2). Seven rooms are preserved, plus part of the internal colonnaded garden: several rooms had wallpaintings, and all had mosaic floors of the second half of the third century AD with prototypes of Spartan (and wider Greek) geometric compositions and figure scenes. The triclinium mosaic, depicting a revel with Dionysos between a Maenad, an actor, and followers of the god’s mystery cult, remains unique. A deposit beneath the house contained miniature vessels, terracotta female protomes (rare in Sparta and probably from acrolithic figures), and terracotta figurines of kourotrophoi, symposiasts, standing male and female figures (naked and clothed) and Artemis as huntress, several of which bear the coroplast’s signature. These finds suggest the existence in the area of a cult of Artemis from Archaic to Early Roman times.   Part of another villa urbana discovered on the Katsari property (fig. 3), has rooms arranged around a large courtyard. Both the rooms and the courtyard have floor mosaics with geometric motifs and figure scenes (Medusa and erotes riding dolphins). These floors were used for long periods, either with frequent repairs or with the insertion of parts of older floors when rooms were reconstructed or extended.   The discovery of parts of two organised cemeteries on the boundaries of the Roman city was important for the reconstruction of Spartan topography. Large parts of the north cemetery were revealed during the widening of the Sparta-Karava road, beside the line of the ancient road to northern Arkadia on the west bank of the Evrotas. A large number of tombs and underground funerary naiskoi (fig. 4) were excavated: around half have steps leading from the prothalamos to the main burial chamber, on the floor of which were built burial containers.The second cemetery was uncovered in the southwest part of the modern city in the course of rescue excavation in the Mavridi-Katsari and Dimitrakopoulou-Zachariadi plots and in public works on Vyzantiou Street (fig. 5). It was organised in two areas on either side of a road set on bedrock. Some 700 tombs were found. Pits, built cists, enchytrismoi of babies or infants, and underground funerary structures were found resting on or cut into bedrock. A quantity of successive burials, mostly tile graves, simple pits or enchytrismoi were investigated in the north part of the cemetery, inside the previous course of the Magoulitsas stream. The cemetery was used from the Late Hellenistic period until the fifth century AD, but the majority of graves date to the second and third centuries AD.   Tombs were also excavated in the area of Limnai, on the northeast edge of the modern city, and between settlement remains in various parts of the city. On the Sotiriou plot in the Limnai area, a Roman tomb contained the burial of a doctor together with his medical equipment.     

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Sparta, Polydendro. The Ε’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery of a Mycenaean cemetery with tholos and built cist tombs.  

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Gytheion. The Ε’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery of a Roman bath on the Kapasouri, Agrappidi and Vasilouni-Stathakou properties (the last also produced remains of a public building and of the Hellenistic city wall (fig. 1). Remains of an important public building were found on the Kostopoulou property.  

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Peristeri, Skala. The Ε’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the excavation of a Mycenaean chamber tomb containing interments and displaced burials dating from LH IIA to the Early Protogeometric period.   

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Epidauros Limera, Acropolis. The Ε’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the excavation of Roman tombs.  

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Oitylo. The Ε’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the excavation of part of an Early Helladic settlement and a Roman installation.  

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Lakonis Cave. The Ephoreia of Palaeoanthropology and Speliology for Southern Greece report the completion in 2010 of a decade of excavation which revealed rich evidence of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic activity (fig. 1). Finds include stone tools (fig. 2), animal bones, hearths, and a Neanderthal tooth (the only such find yet published from Greece). The tooth was found in stratigraphical association with early Upper Palaeolithic material, a phase normally linked with the appearance of modern man in Europe. According to the excavators, this casts doubt on the traditional connection made between anatomical and cultural development during the Pleistocene. Specialist analyses of the tooth also give the first direct evidence of Neanderthal population movement, as they show that the tooth belonged to an individual who grew up in the interior of the country but moved to live in a coastal ecosystem. The Mani peninsula, which has many Palaeolithic sites, seems to have been one of the final refuges of the Neanderthals in Europe.  

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Mousga, Kyparissia. The ΛΗ’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery of a large Late Roman villa (fig. 1), with three construction phases in the first century BC, the third century AD, and the late fourth-early fifth century AD when the baths were extended. The extensive complex, which was not fully excavated, comprises the villa and a residential complex which forms part of the fabric of the city (which probably extended out around the agora). Finds include large quantities of sherds, especially domestic wares for transporting, storing and consuming water, bronze coins, fragments of decorated lamp, loomweights and animal bones.  Rescue excavation on the western slopes of the kastro revealed the foundations of a Late Hellenistic-Early Roman house (first century BC-first century AD) occupied into Late Roman time (third-fourth century AD). Rescue excavation on the shore at Kyparissia revealed an extensive residential complex, perhaps part of a coastal suburb, occupied from the Late Hellenistic (second century BC) until the Late Roman period (fourth century AD) (fig. 2). Finds such as anchors and netting needles confirm that fishing was the principle activity of the local economy. Large quantities of pottery, coins and other small items were found.  

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Π.Ο.Τ.Α. Romanou, Pylias. The ΛH’ΕΠΚΑ reports the excavation, in the area of the golf course, of an extensive Early Helladic settlement (2700-2250 BC) (fig. 1), with a road dividing the western part (fig. 2). In the eastern part were workshops for obsidian and bronze working. A 3m-deep well with surround of fieldstones contained a dump of EH II pottery including more than 200 almost intact vessels (fig. 3). In the southwest of the plot was a damaged and looted Mycenaean tholos tomb containing human and animal bone, and a few surviving offerings (notably a small bronze pyxis). The construction of the tholos, its short dromos, and the surviving pottery indicate an LH I date (fig.4). In another part of the plot, a large Protogeometric funerary pithos contained a single burial with ten intact vases (fig. 5). In the same area, a long Archaic building (probably a temple), oriented east-west, had an internal colonnade and an undisturbed destruction deposit. The building remained in use into the Early Hellenistic period (fig. 6). Just to the west of the temple was an open air shrine with a large quantity of seventh-century BC terracotta figurines of Potnia Theron type. Excavation in the northwest of the plot revealed a large Hellenistic rural residence with a central court surrounded by rooms. A rectangular hearth was found on the west side (fig. 7).  

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Petalidi (anc. Korone). The ΛH’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the following discoveries. At Loutro, 3.5km west of Petalidi, an extensive Roman complex (fig. 1) was found close to the Late Roman baths previously discovered. The area investigated extends along the shore and includes baths with hypocausts, furnaces for glass and metalworking with adjunct rooms, and a peribolos (fig. 2). Among the Roman buildings was a Classical structure preserved as a monument in later times.   On the acropolis of Petalidi, rescue excavation revealed baths with floor mosaics and the foundations of large Late Roman buildings (fig. 3). On another property on the acropolis, were the foundations of houses or workshops and a Roman cemetery (fig. 4). A damaged tomb contained very rich finds of the first century BC to first AD.    

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Koroni. The Ephoreia of Maritime Antiquities reports on underwater excavation undertaken in 2010 to investigate the harbour constructions of medieval Koroni.  

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Christianoupoli, Church of the Metamorphosis of the Saviour.  The 26th EBA reports on excavation at this 11th- to 12th-century complex which includes an octagonal church and an episcopal residence (originally two-roomed). The church had previously undergone extensive restoration completed in 1951. It preserves a large part of its sculptural decoration and a little wallpainting dated to the 12th century.   Ten trenches were opened with the following results: 1: in the episcopal residence and in contact with the southwest corner of the church. Finds: a marble trapezoidal epithema, metal and glass items; a section of floor. 2: in the northeast corner of the church. Two graves were found with complete skeletons, plus scattered bones, and a broad wall between the central and north apse. Also a bronze rind and coin and a pot (figs 1-2). 3-4: in the northern part of the junction between the church and the episcopal residence. A cist grave with a tile cover was found, also a metal clasp, a pot, and a stone cross (figs 3-4).  5: west of the main entrance of the church and in contact with the south wall. Finds: a monolithic column and a large limestone structure; pieces of sculpture, parts of a stone column and kioniskos, a rectangular slab of marble and a pot (fig. 5). 6: in the northeast corner of the central nave: a child burial covered with stone slabs, also metal items and a decorated metal sheet.   7: within the sanctuary and in front of the south gate. No finds listed. 8: in the sanctuary niche. No finds listed.  9: in the southwest corner of the episcopal residence. A second-century AD bronze coin was found, depicting on the obverse the head of the emperor with the legend ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΣ, and on the reverse a winged thunderbolt with the legend ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ. 10: between the central and south apse of the sanctuary. A low wall was found.   

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Metamorphosi (formerly Skarmingas). Church of the Metamorphosis of the Saviour. The 26th EBA report on excavation conducted in advance of conservation work.  Following removal of a recent altar structure, excavation in the altar area revealed only a cutting in the bedrock which is probably connected with the collection of spring water which then drained into a water channel south of the church. Plain and glazed sherds were found in the fill (fig. 1).  In the nave, removal of recent flooring revealed an older cement floor on a stone bed. This was interrupted where one would expect to find a wall dividing the nave from the narthex, and here a trial trench revealed an older terracotta tiled floor. In the west transept was a cist grave (figs 2-3) which extended into the nave below the position of the dome: it is unclear whether the grave was contemporary with the original floor or a later insertion. It contained one burial in situ and one displaced. Below 0.5m the water table was encountered, complicating excavation, but the upper levels of fill contained much glazed pottery (figs 4-5), metal sheet, and numerous fragments of glass vessels. Around the skeleton of the main burial were 50 bronze coins, mostly of Manuel Komninos and Isaac II Angelos (figs. 6-7), which do not seem to have been deposited as a hoard as they are scattered throughout the fill. No intact vases were founded.  Excavation in the narthex (fig. 8) revealed three crudely built tombs without grave goods (figg 9-11). In the fill below the more recent paved floor were numerous  plain, glazed and decorated sherds (fig. 12), a lead pectoral cross, metal sheet and fragments of glass vessels (fig. 13).    

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AVERTISSEMENT
La Chronique des fouilles en ligne ne constitue en aucun cas une publication des découvertes qui y sont signalées.
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