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Dernières notices ajoutées par région : Attique
Theseio. A section of the tricilinium of a second century AD villa was discovered at this plot containing a floor mosaic depicting in its centre the abduction of Ganymede by Zeus, transformed into an eagle. Frescoes decorated the walls of the room, one course imitating marble with floral designs above.

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Kallithea. The Long Walls. Work by the ΚΣτ' ΕΠΚΑ during replacement of the Metro track between Kallithea and Neo Phaliro stations uncovered two sections of the Long Walls, each some 40m long, found more than 2m below the train tracks a short distance from Piraeus Street in an excellent state of preservation. In the first and better-preserved section, between Kallithea and Moschato stations, the wall is preserved to 1.8m high and is made of cut blocks, 0.8m wide on each face. A flight of three steps was located here. An opening was also revealed in the wall, probably for one of the small gates placed at regular intervals all along the walls, and nearby was an inscribed boundary stele (ΟΡΟΣ ΜΝΗΜΑΤΟΣ). At this point, the Long Walls were 3.5− 4m wide. The second section was ca. 500m away near the bridge over Thessaloniki Street. A small building was found next to it and an infant pithos burial.

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Argyroupoli. At the east entrance to the Argyroupoli Metro station a section of the ancient Astiki Odos (40m long, 4.7−5m wide) came to light. This was the main highway west of Hymettos which runs parallel to modern Vouliagmenis Avenue. Traces of wheel ruts ran along the street; other finds include dozens of nails and metal parts of wagons, coins, small vases and fragments of beehive. The road led from the city through the Diomean Gate, southwest of the Olympieion to Sounion and the Lavriotiki. Workshops, including a dyer’s shop, cemeteries and individual burials have also come to light during  excavations undertaken in the last three years in the municipalities of Argyroupoli, Ag. Dimitrios, Daphni and Nea Smyrni.

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Alimos. A Classical dye works was uncovered during work at the east entrance of the Alimos Metro station. The site included troughs dug into the bedrock, square shallow tanks used for washing, four wells carved in the rock, postholes indicating stakes for tents or other structures for drying washed or dyed fabric, and shallow pipelines for water supply. A large building near the dyer’s shop contained punches, millstones, more than 100 loomweights, spindle-whorls and coins (including two Athenian silver tetradrachms). A foundation deposit underneath one wall contained 23 vessels of the late fourth century BC.

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Zea Harbour Project. B. Lovén and M. Møller Nielsen (DIA/University of Southern Denmark) report on the 2010 campaign in the two ancient naval harbours of the Piraeus: Mounichia (modern Mikrolimano) and Zea (Pashalimani).   At Mounichia, investigations focused on shipsheds in the northern and north/northwestern part of the harbour, and on the ancient harbour fortifications, especially the northern ancient fortified mole and the remains of a large square tower (M-T3) in the southern fortified mole (Fig. 1). Group 1 Shipsheds (M-G1, Fig. 1). Survey dives on the northern side of Mounichia located the remains of a side-wall and four colonnades, structures tentatively identified as the remains of at least six shipsheds belonging to M-G1. Large areas of worked bedrock, several architectural elements and an unidentified built structure (M-G1/U:1) were also found. Surface cleaning exposed the structures for digital surveying. The colonnades stand on a foundation fill containing a small quantity of diagnostic ceramics (Fig. 2). The superstructures of these shipsheds extend at least 35m from the modern shoreline and to a depth of more than 2m. This area will be crucial for understanding sea-level change since antiquity, and thus the harbour-front topography of the ancient Piraeus. Large areas of the modern harbour in this area were also surveyed in detail, providing data useful for understanding the impact of its development on the ancient harbour. Group 2 Shipsheds (M-G2, Fig. 1). An unidentified structure (M-G2/U:1) was located in the area of M-G2. M-G2/U:1 consists of four re-used column drums laid side-by-side. A similar construction has been observed in the ramps of the Phase 3 shipsheds in Area 1 at Zea Harbour, suggesting that M-G2/U:1 may belong to the M-G2 shipsheds. The structure awaits more detailed documentation next year. The Northern Fortified Mole (M-FM1, Fig. 1) has been mostly overbuilt and/or destroyed by modern harbour works, but a substantial section of the west inward side of the structure, alongside and under the modern quay, is preserved to a height of two courses and over a length of 12.7m (Fig. 3). The fortified mole is constructed on a rubble foundation containing large quantities of pottery. Excavations here, continued from 2009, aimed to define and date these foundations. They were found to be destroyed about 2m to the west of the inward side of the fortified mole. The preserved rubble foundation layer excavated west of the mole (found at a depth of ca 0.3m) consists of large irregularly-sized stones set in white-grey medium- and fine-grained sediments, frequently with a more compact clayish texture mixed with pebbles and ceramics. Fragments of several large rectangular limestone blocks were found in the fill, suggesting either a collapse of the upper courses of the mole or its destruction during modern harbour works (which is perhaps less likely as no modern material was found in the layer). Fragments of ashlar blocks covered nearly the entire trench; they protected the foundation fill but made further excavation and survey impossible. Patches of the original bedrock were visible between the ashlar blocks. Excavations in 2009 and 2010 in the accessible areas of the fill have yielded diagnostic pottery that could date the construction of the mole. In 2011, the project plans to remove the ashlar blocks and excavate the foundations. Tower 3 (M-T3; Figs 1, 4). Survey dives outside the modern harbour in the area of M-T3 investigated the foundations of the tower and the fortified mole to the northeast and west. Remains of the fortified mole to the west of M-T3 are preserved in situ to a height of three courses of limestone ashlar blocks. The tower foundations and the fortified mole extending northeastwards between M-T3 and M-T2 are preserved to three or perhaps four courses. A test trench was opened to the west of M-T3 to determine whether further remains of the fortified mole were preserved here. Only one layer was found, consisting of a uniform matrix of rounded stones mixed with pebbles/gravel of varying size, and loose fine sand. The sediments contained very little organic material. The trench was excavated to bedrock and contained no finds. It is possible that the bedrock was used to accommodate structural elements, but no associated features were recognisable.   Investigations in Zea Harbour focused on the shipsheds and other ancient structures in Area 2 (Fig. 5). The primary objective of this ongoing work is to obtain a better understanding of the critical junction of shipshed Groups 1 and 2. Extensive surface cleaning was conducted in the presumed area of the colonnade dividing Shipsheds 34 and 35. Two well-preserved, rock-cut colonnade foundations were found. The surface of a large built structure, believed to be the foundations of Shipsheds 30 and 31, was cleaned. A test trench was opened east of this structure to identify any remains of a side-wall or colonnade dividing them. No features were found.  The project is supervised by the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities (represented by Dr. D. Kourkoumelis).

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Athens, Ancient Agora.  J. Camp (ASCSA) reports on the 2010 excavation season. In Section BH (Fig. 1) clearance continued of the late fill overlying the east end of the Stoa Poikile, much of which was depos­ited when the back wall was robbed out. Soft dark earth removed in the line of the wall produced pottery as late as the 10th century AD. A cross-section of the foundations was exposed (Fig. 2). The orthostates rest on a broad euthynteria 0.92m wide and 0.255m thick, which in turn rests on a foundation of squared blocks set side by side longitudinally, creating a course ca. 1.17m wide x 0.38m high. The bottom course of foundations was formed of blocks 1.2m (ca. 4 ancient feet) long, set as headers. The top two courses were clamped: there are no traces of clamps in the two foundation courses. No dowel-holes have been recognized. The blocks are all of soft limestone. An intact lamp decorated with a cross (BH 285 = Agora VII, no.2553 etc.) indicates the use of the building at least into the fifth century AD. Also recovered were fragments of the terracotta aqueduct which runs along the back wall of the Stoa, believed to be that built by Kimon to bring water out to the grove of the Academy (Plutarch, Life of Kimon 13). Two Byzantine wells inside the building were left largely undug for the present. A Hellenistic cistern (J 2: 6) was found in the area directly behind and north of the Stoa Poikile. The 2.8m deep shaft, lined with assorted stones at the top, was 0.80m in diameter widening to 1.55m as it went down, lined with waterproof cement, and with hand-holes set on opposite sides in the usual manner. At a depth of just over a meter, a mass of fragments of painted wall plaster was found, which fell into two groups, one red, the other pale blue. No figures or vignettes were recognized. Lower down, additional debris, some of it architectural (a terracotta sima, pieces of rooftiles, and fragments of pebble mosaic set in lime mortar) was not enough to suggest the demolition debris of a whole building. Parts of the terracotta puteal set over the mouth of the cistern were also recovered. Pot­tery consisted of Megarian bowl sherds, west-slope kantharoi with both spur and strap handles (the latter decorated with heads of satyrs in relief), unguentaria, small bowls, pyxides, lids, and lead and terracotta loomweights. The cistern was abandoned in the late third – early second century BC. Also recovered was a silver coin of Histiaia (Fig. 3). No clearly associated architecture was found in the immediate vicinity. Section BZ (Figs 4 - 5) lies north of the west end of the Stoa Poikile, and just east of a north-south road leading out of the Agora square. Throughout antiquity (fifth century BC – fifth century AD), this street was lined along its eastern side by a series of shops. Excavation was conducted in the northern parts of the Classical Commercial building to clarify its plan and complex building history. Levels which preceded the building’s construction late in the fifth century BC were encountered. Below the floor in Room 6 were several dozen ostraka, most cast against Xanthippos, son of Arriphron (father of Perikles), who was exiled in 484/3 BC (Fig. 6), though Lysi­machos and Habron are also represented. Towards the north end, a well-preserved double-tanged bronze arrowhead was uncovered (Fig. 7). In an area which should lie just outside and east of the building was a hard-packed surface into which was cut a small shallow pit lined with red clay. Within the pit were assorted stones and a few black-glazed sherds, several of which give the full profile of a small bowl with straight sides and a slightly rounded base, decorated with glazed stripes, a shape and deco­ration not previously recognized in the Agora and rare in Attica (Fig. 8). A rare parallel from the Kerameikos excavations seems to be a Euboian import. From the associated pottery in the pit, this shape should date to the sixth century BC.   In Section ΒΘ (Fig. 9), overlying the western half of the Stoa Poikile, exploration continued of the Byzantine, Frankish, and Ottoman levels which covered the Classical remains after their abandonment in the sixth century AD. At the west, numerous animal bones were recovered, many from large animals such as horse and cows; preliminary study also indicates sheep, goats, and pigs, plus the occasional rabbit. The pit, which also contained quantities of lime, seems to date from the 15-16th century AD and was outside the town limits at that time. The occasion of this large deposit is not clear, though the rarity of butchery marks make it unlikely that it represents the simple disposal of animals slaughtered for food. Lower in this same area, a scatter of about three dozen 13th-century Frankish bronze coins date soon after the Frankish capture of Athens was taken in 1207. To the east lay more walls of the Byzantine settlement which devel­oped in this area in the 10th-11th centuries. Several walls were exposed, of field stones set in clay: many ancient blocks were reused, several of them of marble. Two adjacent rooms were largely exposed: at 7 x 3.6m and ca. 6.5 x 2.2, these are larger than the usual rooms of this period in this area. A footing trench and a well-defined robbing trench for the west end of the dividing wall were cleared. In the southwest room a deep fill or large pit was uncovered, with extensive traces of burning in the form of fine dark ash. No debris or large chunks of carbon were found, thus excluding the possibility that this represents a destruction layer or industrial debris in primary deposition. Lower down, this fill produced ca. 850 goat horns, most with signs of sawing usually close to the tips (Fig. 10). Such limited removal suggests dulling the horns rather than a manufacturing process. Lower down in the pit were several largely complete Middle Byzantine pots (Fig. 11) of different shapes, three of coarse fabric and unglazed, and one green-glazed. The general sequence of later remains in this area is now clear: this is the edge of the city, and, depending on its fortunes, Athens expanded or contracted across the area of the excavations. In the seventh to ninth centuries AD, the area was largely abandoned, with the town clustered around the base of the Acropolis, east of the Stoa of Attalos, and within the limits of the post-Herulian wall. When life in the Byzantine world improved in the 10th to 12th centuries, the town expanded out this far and the area was densely inhabited, as indicated by the walls of numerous rooms, the many pithoi and other provisions for storage suggesting a fully urban settlement, and the construction of small churches nearby. With the arrival of the Franks in the 13th century, the area was abandoned once again and used as a dumping ground, hence the large deposits of very fragmentary glazed pottery of the 13th and 14th centuries. The use of the area as a dump continued with the arrival of the Ottomans in the mid-15th century, with the addition of the large deposit of animal bones. Pig bones suggest that the Greek residents of Athens contributed to the debris. From early drawings, it seems that the town expanded out to this area again in the 17th or 18th century, and the dumping ground was pushed farther to the northwest. When Edward Dodwell drew the town in 1805, the area is shown covered with houses and the dump (two large mounds labelled staktothiki, i.e. ash heaps) is shown outside the city wall built in 1778, in the area of the present Kerameikos. In the north scarp of the goat-horn pit, a large sculpted fragment of marble (Fig. 12), measuring up to 0.75m on a side, began to be uncovered. The block requires further study, but it clearly represents a pile of military equipment, and served as the base for a trophy or a statue. So far, four or five shields (one with a relief club device), part of a cuirass, and the handle of a sword are identified. Several parallels are known from Delos, including shields decorated with clubs, associated with the Macedonian dynasty established after the death of Alexander the Great. This block, too, should probably date to the Hel­lenistic period (323-146 BC). The weaponry presumably indicates a military victory, but it remains to be seen which dynast or general occupied the base. Anathyrosis at the back, if original, suggests that the block may be part of a larger monument, perhaps therefore a trophy rather than a statue. Its large size and excellent preservation suggest that it had not travelled far and it may well originally have been set up immediately in front of the Stoa Poikile (a favored place for the display of military success). In Section Δ (Fig. 13), west of the Middle Stoa, investigation continued into the use of the area in the Classical period, to ascertain whether its primary function was civic, commercial, or domestic, or some combination of the three. It seems that this area was used largely for private pur­poses, despite its proximity to the Agora square and the adjacent public buildings. This same crowd­ing-in of private establishments can also be seen to the east, under the Library of Pantainos, and to the northwest, behind the west end of the Stoa Poikile. South of the area explored in 2009, shallow fill was excavated, much of it hard gravel showing few signs of human activity. This southern area is surprisingly empty, given its central location, with few signs of Classical activity, although several low retaining walls, one of nicely squared blocks, suggest some landscaping of the area. In the Hellenistic and Ro­man periods the area was crisscrossed with small terracotta drains, presumably distributing overflow from the southwest fountainhouse which lies only a few metres to the southeast.  

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Saronic Harbors Archaeological Research Project (SHARP). D. Pullen (ASCSA/Florida) and T. Tartaron (ASCSA/Pennsylvania) report on the 2010 study season. Architectural documentation was completed at Kalamianos (Fig. 1) and Stiri (Fig. 2), along with analysis of Mycenaean terrace walls in the survey area.  Architectural features beyond these sites were revisited (Fig. 3) to clarify their morphology, chronology, function, and relationship to the wider landscape. Certain small, elliptical stone features were dated to the Early Bronze Age, a period now characterized by three main types of architecture in the survey area: settlement structures, elliptical stone enclosures, and stone cairns. For the Mycenaean period, settlement structures, large walled enclosures, and terrace walls are recognised. Some 3,040 items (2250 sherds, 730 stones, 60 shell and other materials) from the 2007-2009 field seasons have now been fully documented: 13,600 items were documented in the field. Study of the spatial distribution of calcium carbonate concretions on over a hundred sherds from buildings at Kalamianos and Stiri will aid in the determination of the buildings’ life histories, exposed to the elements. Much of the shell collected during the survey comes from the rubble cores of Mycenaean walls; along with sherds and ground stone, it was included in the gravel used to fill the interior of the walls. The limited number of species represented were mostly collected dead. Raw nodules of Melian obsidian were imported to Kalamianos, processed on site near the shore, and subsequently distributed to interior locations mainly as flakes and blades. L. Tzortzopoulou-Gregory continued research in oral history by interviewing residents of Korphos and Sophiko. A focus this year has been maritime life in Korphos and the relationship between the Korphiotes and those dwelling on the islands and shores of the Saronic Gulf.

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Lazarides. Ν. Polychronakou-Sgouritsa (University of Athens) reports on continuing excavation in the Mycenaean settlement south-east of the cemetery in 2009 and 2010. Work in 2009 focused on a complex (approximately 10.5m north-south x 4m east-west) comprising three adjoining small rooms and a fourth which gave external access to them. The stone walls of these rooms are preserved to a height of 1.4m and an average thickness of 0.7m: in two rooms low stone benches are set against the walls. The monolithic stone thresholds show particularly careful workmanship (Fig. 1); in one case a drainage channel is cut into the upper surface. The architectural remains and portable finds indicate two or three construction phases, although no destruction level was found.  Three of the four rooms were used for storage (noting numerous sherds chiefly of pithoi with incised and impressed decoration) and for craft production as indicated by stone and metal tools, steatite spindle whorls, and raw materials such as a lead ‘talent’, flint cores, and pieces of kaolinite and quartz. In addition, a quantity of sherds was found with a variety of potters’ marks, plus three terracotta discs (Fig. 2) one of which had an incised sign, and a sherd with incised numerals (?). Many pot-stands, fewer fineware sherds (mostly of drinking vessels), and a quantity of animal bones and shells, confirm that food preparation took place in the same rooms. Work in 2010 was undertaken in an area 10m southeast of the rooms excavated in 2009. A second complex of seven rooms and open areas covered an area of 130m2. Only a small part was excavated, not least because of the accumulation of large mounds of stones which had fallen into the rooms from the upper courses of the walls and the roof. The northern exterior wall of the complex (13.7m long) contained a 1.7m wide entrance with impressive monolithic pilasters on each side. A large quantity of pottery was found in one 7.2m x 1.5m room in the eastern part of the excavation. Many Middle Helladic sherds were found, comprising matt-painted of good and medium quality, Minyan, and red polished (red-slipped “Aegina-type” or red-slipped-and-burnished), as well as Mycenaean (LHΙ/ΙΙ – LHΙΙΙC Early) of all categories – coarsewares, especially kitchen vessels (mostly chytres), standard wares, and fine wares including several LHΙ/ΙΙ decorated with ripple pattern (FΜ 78:2, 3) and one LHΙΙΙΑ1 with stipple pattern (FΜ 77:2). Other finds include the greater part of a bovine figurine, steatite spindle-whorls, a bone item analogous to a stylus, stone tools and vessels (mostly grinders and rubbers), bones and shell. From this area, and below a small stepped construction, a small mould-made lead weight (ca. 20g) in the shape of a duck (Fig. 3) was found with LHΙΙΙΑ2 and LHΙΙΙΒ1 sherds. This is comparable to Cypriot finds from settlements such as Ag. Dimitrios and Kalavasos, and from a funerary peribolos at Enkomi.  The neighbouring small semi-basement space (2.7m x 2m wide as preserved) produced finds similar to those in the previous room. Other finds include pieces of wood and lead hinges probably from a chest which seems to have contained an almost complete and very well-preserved bronze spiral (Fig. 4), steatite whorls, a terracotta bead perhaps from a small necklace, and a bone needle.  In the open-air area west of the above-mentioned rooms, a child grave was found just above bedrock, set among stones and containing 58 beads of faience, glass paste and semi-precious stones (one of cornelian and three of sard). Analysis of lead and bronze objects at the NCSR Demokritos indicates that the lead objects at least were produced locally from metal imported from Lavrion. The structures and portable finds from the settlement indicate that complexes of rooms were spread over the plateau and the slope leading to it. The settlement was abandoned with no evidence of fire destruction at the beginning of the 12th century BC, after some four centuries of occupation. There is no evidence for later activity.   

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Kythera Island Project (KIP). E. Kiriatzi (BSA) and C. Broodbank (London) report on the 2010 study season (with contributions by A.J. Johnston [Geometric – Classical], K. Slane [Roman] and J. Vroom [Byzantine – Recent]). KIP has at present 198 designated sites: study of 144 is complete, as is that of all tract material (Fig. 1). Provisional period distributions of diagnostic sherds are as follows. Some 46.3% of the tract pottery is dated to the Recent (19th-20th century) phase. Another 12.6% date to a single pre-Recent period, as follows (Fig. 2): Final Neolithic – Early Bronze Age I 8; EB II 121; First Minoanising (EM II-MM IA) 23; First Palace 0; Second Palace 517; Third Palace 19; Postpalatial to Geometric 0; Archaic 4; Classical 149; Hellenistic 12; Early Roman 14; Middle Roman 23; Late Roman 140; Early Byzantine 1; Middle Byzantine 8; Early Venetian 2; Middle Venetian 59; Late Venetian 38. The peaks of activity in EB II, Second Palace, Classical and Late Roman stand out, noting especially the Second Palace phase (Fig. 3). Second Palace tract material was mainly identified by sherds in a distinctive red micaceous fabric (some 95% of all Second Palace diagnostic sherds) including handles, cooking pot legs, rims of pithoi, jars and other shapes, decorated body sherds (mostly plastic and/or impressed, but a few dark-on-light painted sherds in buff non-micaceous Neogene fabrics). The four major chronological spikes reflect real peaks of presence in the landscape, although they are also easiest to recognize due to a strong suite of period-specific diagnostics. The inclusion of sherds that could also date to one of the surrounding phases (well over a quarter of the remaining pottery) fills some gaps. For example, a further 59 sherds must be either First Minoanising or First Palace, and 167 sherds either First or Second Palace. Other extended periods are boosted in this way: an additional 398 sherds definitely belong within in the Roman period, and the 865 sherds attributed a firm Late Venetian to Recent date better reflect the surge in island demography from the 18th century onwards than the mere 38 confirmed Late Venetian sherds. Study of material from Ag. Georgios (KIP Site 111) was completed. In addition to the standard tract-walking of the entire mountain, a more closely spaced (5m) tract-based walking collection was undertaken in 2000 up to the limits of the area excavated by Ioannis Sakellerakis and his team (Fig. 4). Although this sample cannot match the quantity or quality of the excavated material, it provides insights into the overall phases and fluctuating intensity of activity at the site, from the transition to the 2nd millennium BC to the present day. 665 diagnostic sherds predominantly date to the Roman (ca. 1/3) and Middle Byzantine-Recent (just above 1/3) periods, while the prehistoric material comprises almost 1/6 of the assemblage. Prehistoric material is concentrated mainly on the south and south-west slope (tracts 9517, 9518 and 9523), immediately below the terraces excavated (the reserved area in Fig. 2). Second Palace material is abundant in these tracts, consisting mainly of cooking pots (tripod legs and rims) as well as trays in the local red micaceous fabric (Fig. 5 left), cups (plain conical and dark slipped straight-sided cups in fine local fabrics, Fig. 5 right), and medium to large vessels such as pithoi, basins, and ewers in the local mudstone-tempered fabric (Fig. 6 left). A fragment with applied curvilinear bands on its concave side may reflect a clay model of landscape representation, as those found at the excavation and studied by Emilia Banou (Fig. 6 right). Imports are very rare and seem to relate to fabrics known on Antikythera and west Crete. All of this pottery seems to date to the Second Palace period, mainly LMI, although there is an earlier component. For example, pithoi in mudstone-tempered fabric are a feature of MM III-LM IA deposits at Kastri and a few of the cup bases may belong to carinated cups that can be even earlier. Among the large number of tripod cooking pot legs recovered from tract 9517, one is in mudstone-tempered fabric, a typical feature of the First Palace period based on the Kastri fabric typology. It therefore seems that there is evidence further downslope from the main area of the peak sanctuary (covered by the excavation) to confirm activity from the First Palace period, a possibility already raised by the excavators and by Iphigeneia Tournavitou who has studied the pottery. Further significant finds came from tracts to the west and north of the Ag. Georgios peak where the density of prehistoric pottery is very low. Four sherds in sand-tempered fabric, with parallels in Kastri deposits Β (EM IIB-MM IA), Γ (MM IA) and less possibly Δ (MM IB-MM II), were collected from tracts 9515, 9520, 9522, 9523 (Figs 4 and 7 left). They raise the possibility that late prepalatial (local Minoanising) pottery exists on the site. The tiny amounts of prehistoric pottery collected from the west slopes of the peak include a possible kylix stem (tract 9521, see Figs 4 and 7 right) which, together with other possible Third Palace period sherds, may testify to continuing activity on the peak for some time after its acme. Thereafter, no material securely predates the Classical period. A small number of possible Classical-Hellenistic sherds, including tiles, a kantharos and a few basins, cooking pots and amphora, indicate some form of activity during this period. As noted, Roman pottery forms the second most important component of the assemblage, with the vast majority dating late in Late Roman. Only some body sherds of Early Roman African amphorae have been identified in tracts 9519 and 9523, and there is no identifiable Middle Roman pottery. The Late Roman pottery is similar to that at Kastri, with ARS forms 104 and 105, LRC form 10C, many sherds of LR Amphora 1 and 2. The few Late Roman-Early Byzantine pieces include fragments of Kastri - Omega 330 type amphora and a possibly eighth-century cooking pot with simple concave rim. After another long gap in the material evidence, pottery of the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries AD appears frequent, mostly comprising amphorae, cooking pots and a few sgraffito bowls. The high density of Middle to Late Venetian and Recent ceramics reveals continuing activity on the site. This evidence offers valuable points of comparison and contrast with the history of Kastri as recently reconstructed through the combination of old excavation and new survey data. In the same way, the current survey data on Ag. Georgios complement the main body of material from the Sakellarakis excavations, and the in-depth studies of his collaborators which are shortly to be published.   Seven further new sites were studied in 2010. Sites 119, 120A, 120B, 124 (A and B), 126 and 128 are shoreline scatters around the small creeks in and around the promontory of Avlemonas, below the Ag. Georgios mountain. They are mostly generated by passing shipping, with little evidence for habitation (see Fig. 8). They represent the greatest concentration of such sites in the survey area: other examples are 137A and 137B further north around the headland on Diakofti islet and Site 103 around the Venetian fort at Avlemonas itself. As a group, these sites can be compared to more heavily settled harbour sites, primarily Kastri, but also its neighbour Site 068 and others in southern Paliopoli around the now alluviated embayment. Characteristic of these shoreline scatters are poor preservation due to high levels of surface attrition and alteration, very high proportions of amphorae (including a dramatically higher incidence of long-range imports from, variously, Africa, the western Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Levant), and the presence of small numbers of decorated bowls of types otherwise rare or unknown in the survey material, which may be cast-off ships’ equipment rather than normal imports. However, the chronology of these sites varies greatly, suggesting shifting preferences possibly dependent on tiny shifts in local coastal morphology, ship technology, other coastal activities such as salt gathering, and the location or absence of nearby settlements. For example, 120A and 120B face each other on the opposite flanks of a small and now remote inlet. 120A has a little Second Palace pottery, possibly connected to a substantial prehistoric focus (Site 121) further inland, as well as Venetian and Recent material, yet on 120B all datable material is Early Roman. 124A and 124B share a history of uncertain Roman presence followed by definite Venetian and Recent activity, but their earlier histories are markedly different and distinguishable spatially, with a peculiarly dense but tiny EB II scatter slightly further inland on 124A and Classical and Hellenistic black glaze eroding down the talus near a coastal cave on 124B, and possibly the remnants of a ritual site matching that excavated by Tsaravopoulos on the Dragonera islets opposite. Of the remaining shoreline sites, 119 is a large scatter around the light beacon at the tip of the Avlemonas anchorage, first regularly used in Hellenistic and/or Early Roman times, with a marked spike in Late Roman, uncertain continuity through Byzantine and, like Avlemonas itself, a resurgence in Venetian times. Nearer to Paliopolis, Sites 126 and 128 saw more activity in Second Palace, with variable histories of use and abatement from the Classical period onwards. Among work to complete dating of other partially-studied sites, attention is drawn to Sites 137A and 137B, which between them cover the inner coastline of Diakofti island, now Kythera’s principal harbour and a potential anchorage since antiquity. Sites 137A and 137B saw sporadic activity from Late Neolithic (attested by an obsidian arrowhead), with a slight spike in the Second Palace period (possibly continued into the Third?) that may relate to the export or coastal circulation of the island’s red micaceous pottery. Classical finds are strikingly few compared to Kastri, but this entry/exit point flourished during Kastri’s relative eclipse in the Hellenistic to Early Roman periods, with a slight dip in Middle to Late Roman times as Kastri reasserted its primacy, and a second surge in Middle Byzantine to Venetian times. Among observations from continuing pottery study, a stem fragment from a Protogeometric kylix was identified from the inland sector of the Kastri grid (Fig. 9). This is of obvious interest given Homeric references to Kastri (already known as Skandeia), and is so far the only sherd from the site definitely dated between the 13th and 8th centuries BC.  

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Thorikos. R. Docter and K. Van Liefferinge (Belgian School/Ghent) report on the 2010 excavation campaign, focused on the largest cistern on the Velatouri hill (Cistern 1), situated just above the Industrial Quarter (Figs. 1-3). This is one of the features documented in survey in 2008 (together with mine entrance 2 and a hitherto unknown small cistern) which may be linked to ore-processing. The large cistern is of particular interest in relation to the question of water management at Thorikos. Although the bottom has not yet been reached, it proved to be much deeper than expected, implying a minimum capacity of 123m³ as against the estimated 80m³. This, together with the discovery of a new cistern during the 2008 survey, demands the revision of theories of water shortage at Thorikos. Cistern 1 belonged to a larger complex of ore-washeries and cisterns situated around mine entrance 2 (a kainotomia at a level of 40m). The structure is relatively well-preserved, partly rock-cut and partly in ashlar. Its irregular shape (9 x 4.5 x 7.5 x 5.5m; Fig. 1) respects the topography. To prevent seepage, the walls and fractures in the rock surface were filled and lined with waterproof cement which in places is still well preserved. The decision to build a cistern here reflects the fact that this part of the Velatouri is particularly favourable for the catchment of water. The slope is not only steep, but the surface just above the cistern is smooth and without fractures, thus guaranteeing the maximum retention of rainwater. The cistern was also equipped with a barrage: its east wall runs further uphill to channel water running downhill (Fig. 1). Study of the walls in the vicinity suggests that the cistern belonged to a larger workshop, possibly the largest known on the Velatouri. On its west side was a working area with a crushing table for ores. The rocky surface was levelled and adjusted as necessary. On the east side were several curved walls of as yet unknown purpose. No ore washery has yet been found in connection with this workshop. At this stage of investigation, the chronology and layout of the workshop remain uncertain. Based on comparison with other ergasteria in Thorikos and Laurion, it was probably constructed at some stage in the second half of the fifth or fourth century BC. The latest pottery in the upper fill of the cistern suggests a date in the sixth or seventh century AD (Fig. 4). Some 9% of the ca. 700 finds studied belong to the fifth- sixth/seventh century AD, shedding light upon the latest phase of occupation at Thorikos and on metallurgical activities in the area of mine 2.

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Salamis, Kanakia. Y. Lolos (Ioannina) reports on the 2010 season of excavation on the Mycenaean acropolis above the head of the Gulf of Kanakia, and on the neighbouring plateau of Pyrgiakoni (the site of the associated cemetery). Limited surface survey was completed in the areas of Peristeria and Maroudi, on the southern shores of the island. Work on the summit of the Mycenaean acropolis focused in sector Γ, which contains the central building of the late 13th-century BC palatial complex (Fig. 1). This complex developed in five successive phases and consists (to date) of 50 rooms and other spaces over an area of 750m2. The east part of the north wing of Building Γ was investigated: three new, small rooms were uncovered and mostly excavated to floor level. The two northernmost rooms are successive and form part of a four-roomed annex (a form of covered courtyard) on the north side of the central palace building. The westernmost part of this annex is the prothalamos for the north entrance to the complex, with a built bench and terracotta bath. The annex was fully or partially roofed (probably in an improvised manner), and bounded to the north by a zig-zagging wall of cursory construction (perhaps an animal pen). The third of the new rooms is a small, long and narrow room of uncertain function, part of a series along the north side of the long, wide corridor which runs from east to west (Fig. 2). In its southwest corner was a low, Γ-shaped bench (perhaps a workbench), partially built and partially rock-cut. Portable finds from the destruction and abandonment levels in the excavated rooms comprise quantities of LH ΙΙΙΒ-ΙΙΙC Early pottery, an almost intact coarse tripod chytra (Fig. 3) and spouted lekane (from the room with the Γ-shaped bench) and 19 stone tools of different types.  Potters’ marks on three vertical handles belonging to Aiginetan chytra-form vessels add to the collection of such evidence from the buildings of the acropolis.   The plateau southeast of the Mycenaean acropolis was the location of burial and worship of the dead at various periods in antiquity.  Τhe extensive west/southwest area contains two adjoining monuments - the Mycenaean tumulus-cenotaph and the Classical/Early Hellenistic temenos, investigation of which began in 2008.  Excavation in 2010 was conducted in the temenos, in the heart of which a generally flat area of limestone forms a natural exedra (36 x 20m), with a face to the south and southeast (averaging 1.7m high) into which were cut orthogonal apses (Fig. 4). The entire area is defined by a peribolos 1-1.2m thick, which can be traced along the east and north sides. The monument is in contact with the peribolos of the Mycenaean cenotaph. On the lower level of the temenos, two successive rooms with separate entrances were in contact with the vertical face of the exedra. The smaller room (interior dimensions 5 x 1.5-2m) had a white lime plaster coating on the floor and walls, and may be a room for purification of worshippers (Fig. 5), to judge from the portable finds (pithos fragments, orthogonal vessels and stone basins to store water from the neighbouring fountain which was investigated in 2009). The second room (interior dimensions 5 x 5m), which contained a quantity of pottery, small finds and a number of coins, likely served an ancillary role (Fig. 6). The main cult area lay on the upper level of the temenos, and was defined to the north and east by a well-built Γ-shaped peribolos wall. The junction between the two levels was bridged by a ramp or stairway at a point where there was a weakness in the rock face. This gave access to a narrow stone-paved corridor leading north-northwest directly to a Π-shaped construction (3.5 x 2.5m), open in front and with an exit door in the rear (north) wall (Fig. 7). Slightly to the west, a large roughly oval bothros or pit (5.6m long x at most 3m wide with a funnel-like base) probably received liquid offerings (Fig. 8). It was filled in two episodes during the same period, likely as part of the clean-up after the destruction of the temenos. The debris contained much building material and a large quantity of Classical and Early Hellenistic pottery (plainware and high quality black-glaze) of the fifth-early third centuries BC, which clearly indicates the period of use of the sanctuary. Indeed, much of the pottery from the 2010 excavation in this area dates to the Late Classical-Early Hellenistic period. The most common plainware forms are lekanes, wide-mouthed cooking pots, transport amphorae (from Thasos and Mende among other centres), pithoi and beehives. Common shapes in Attic black-glaze are phialae, small bowls, skyphoi, kantharoi, closed shapes as oinochoes and olpae, and lamps (Figs 9, 10).  Part of a red-figure bell-krater of ca. 400 BC was found with black-glaze sherds in a natural hollow in the rock (Fig. 11). The first inscriptions are graffiti on the bases of two black-glaze vessels: there are also two stamped amphora handles.   Many of the small finds from the 2010 excavation come from the floor of the ancillary room in the south sector. These include pyramidal terracotta loomweights, terracotta and stone tools, objects of iron, bronze and lead (clamps to repair vases, sheet, fishing weights, sling-shot, and an Athenian weight with a relief symbol of a 1/4 amphora, Figs 12, 13), two faience beads, 13 perforated Luria lurida shells used as beads for necklaces, and 5 worked Spondylus gaederopus shells. The 13 coins recovered from the south sector are particularly important for the dating of the destruction and abandonment of the shrine. Apart from one small Late Roman bronze coin, almost all come from the ancillary room. The bronze coins include several known Athenian issues of the end of the fourth to early third centuries (particularly from the beginning of the third): a fourth-century Athenian silver Triteteartemorion (three-quarter obol) was also found (Fig. 14). In sum, the temenos was established at the beginning of the fifth century shortly after the annexation of Salamis to the Athenian state. Its destruction is placed in the early third century BC, perhaps in the period of the Chremonidian War (268-263/2 BC), on the basis of ceramic and numismatic evidence.  The shrine, in immediate visual contact with the ruins of the acropolis, within an old burial area (noting the Mycenaean cenotaph), and with a large bothros for liquid offerings, was apparently intended for hero-worship, probably of Ajax (and perhaps also the mythical Kychreas) on the basis of epigraphical and literary sources. This cult may have continued within the city of Salamis. Surface survey covered a limited area encompassing parts of Maroudi and the wider area of Peristeria. In the Maroudi area, part of the large Early Helladic II settlement on the Mertzani promontory was explored (Fig. 15). In the area between the last modern house and the upper part of the promontory (which is free of modern construction), all visible foundations of the EH II settlement were photographed and recorded, and a representative sample of EH II pottery collected. The six confirmed walls of this settlement were fully planned. To the north, Early Helladic sherds were found on the surface as far away as the south side of Ikarias Street (90m from the southernmost modern house).   Also in the Maroudi area, beside the public road in and around the artificial cutting at the entrance to the Ajax Club and the start of Mina and Dimitriou Palla Street, were traces of foundations (and perhaps tombs), tiles and numerous Classical-Hellenistic sherds which had probably eroded from a settlement of this period located higher on the slope.   As part of a study of the network of Early Helladic coastal settlements and shipping stations in the Saronic Gulf and the wider area to the south, the sites of Lykopoulo in the area of Peristeria, and Ormos Kolones (a fortified EH II settlement discovered in the 1990s) were explored. The EH II settlement at Lykopoulou extends over the upper levels of a high and rocky promontory free of modern building. The settlement is protected by a fortification circuit, the thickness of which varies from 1m to 1.4-1.5m, which follows roughly the line of the upper terrace of the promontory. This protects the settlement on the north, northwest, west and south-west sides, and extends to the point where the hard limestone bedrock falls away precipitously on the east and south sides. The main approach to the settlement is on the north side of the circuit, where a defensive tower, built of large and medium stones, is preserved to a height of 1.2m (3-4 courses) (Fig. 16). On the south side of the settlement, on the upper level of the promontory, the foundation of a wall (ca. 0.55m thick) running east-west for 9.4m, is probably the long side of a large building. Small, worn EH II sherds (including a sherd of an Urfirnis sauceboat) are scattered across the top of the promontory.

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Skala Oropou. A. Mazarakis Ainian (ASA/Thessaly) reports on continuing excavation in the Geometric and Archaic settlement. Buildings ΛΔ and ΛΕ were further investigated (Fig. 1): the former produced Archaic miniature kotylai possibly linked to cult activity. A system of flood protection for building ΛΔ is identified in two walls to the west of the building, separated by a ditch in which a small late seventh-century libation vessel was found in 2008 (with a second miniature handmade libation vessel found nearby in 2010). A mound of stones northwest of building ΛΔ served the same purpose:  a small structure in this area, 1.2m in diameter and perhaps for storage or domestic animals, is also protected by a wall to the west. Flood protection walls are also found to the east of buildings ΛΔ and ΛΕ.

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Marathon Tsepi.  M. Pantelidou Gofa reports on the 2010 study season, focused on pottery from deposit 39. Fifty five fruit stands were restored: of almost identical design, especially in the shape of the foot, they indicate the existence of a local workshop. Over 100 lekanes were restored, showing similarly small variation (although the form has not yet been identified among complete vessels).

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Kerameikos, the Demosion Sema. A funerary peribolos containing four sarcophagi was uncovered next to a 3m wide section of ancient road during excavations of a plot at 66-68 Mykalis Street in Metaxourghio. Three of the graves had been looted, but one of the dead showed signs of head trauma. A funerary lekythos of the third quarter of the 4th century BC was discovered, while over the tomb stood a large marble lion 2m in length, and 1.5m high. The Central Archaeological Council has ordered the expropriation of the plot, which is close to the site of a polyandrion previously excavated on Salaminos Street.  

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Modi (Liontari), shipwreck. C. Agouridis (Hellenic Institute for Maritime Archaeology) reports on the 2010 excavation season on the LH IIIC (12th-century) merchantman wrecked off the islet of Modi.  Finds include large transport vessels (pithoi, pithoid amphorae, five hydriae), sherds, and terracotta and stone anchors: over 30 vessels have been lifted.

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Athens, Ancient Agora. Excavations ahead of the laying of a new railway line east of the Stoa of Zeus uncovered further remains of the altar of the Twelve Gods, the southwest corner of which lies within the archaeological site. Part of the paved floor and the krepis of the stone fence were revealed. Above the altar were the foundations of a Late Roman house, with a marble head of a herm built into its northeast corner. Between the Stoa of Zeus and the altar, part of the "West Road" is preserved, plus the fragmentary foundations of a fifth-century AD circular building, part of which was found in the northern part of the Agora by the ASCSA. East of the altar, superposed road layers of the Panathenaic Way were uncovered, and three blocks, perhaps from a starting system. In the eastern section of the road was a Byzantine silo and shallow square cuttings in the rock of unknown use.

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Athens, Plaka.  The Α’ ΕΠΚΑ reports the discovery at Kladou 6 of Roman-Late Roman bath complex founded on a large limestone wall of an older building (fig. 1). The remains are likely associated with Hadrian's Gymnasium, part of which was discovered in 1949 by the ASCSA east of the Stoa of Attalos. At a property at the junction of Adrianou 80 and Diogenous 3, a Justinianic gate of the Late Roman walls was revealed (fig. 2), with the remains of a rectangular tower (fig. 3) and section of the walls, as well as part of the post-Byzantine church of Panagia Krystalliotissas (fig. 4). Under the Venizelon mansion at 96 Adrianou, part of the Late Roman fortifications were revealed (fig. 5), while in the courtyard of Dioskouron 5 lay part of the retaining wall of the ancient Street of the Tripods to a height of five courses (fig. 6). In the basement of the Aiolos (the first hotel in Athens, built in 1837) at the junction of Aiolou and Dexippou, the southeast corner of the Library of Hadrian came to light, as well as part of a large square tower or gate of the Late Roman walls of the city (fig. 7). Many architectural members and inscribed bases of various periods were recovered. At 4 Shelly St., successive layers of the Street of the Tripods were excavated along with its fourth-century BC retaining wall, and the foundations of two choregic monuments (figs. 8-9). At 16 Thrasyllou, part of the foundation of the Odeon of Pericles was revealed:  the foundation was set on a terrace and the pottery from the foundation trench dates to the first half of the fifth century BC. Excavation at Vyronos 2, to the south of the ancient Street of the Tripods, revealed the whole width of the street (5.9m) and its western retaining wall of conglomerate blocks (fig. 10). Various water and drainage systems, mainly clay pipes, were sunk into the road, the date of which extends to the Byzantine period. Excavations continue, focused on the area beyond the eastern boundary of the ancient road where the ancient road probably turned west towards the Theatre of Dionysos, with another route continuing to Dionysiou Areopagitou Street. In a trial trench at Bakchou 6, part of a Classical choregic monument was uncovered, along with layers of the ancient Street of the Tripods leading towards the Theatre of Dionysos (fig. 11).

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Acharnai, 21 Salaminos Street. The B’ ΕΠΚΑ report on excavation of the ancient deme theatre (figs 1-2). The theatre had 11 rows of limestone seats in a semicircular arrangement. Part of the orchestra was found at a depth of 2.5 m. The koilon was founded on a natural slope. The seats are relatively narrow (0.22 to 0.4m). Between the orchestra and the proedria was a drainage channel. Above the tenth row of seats was part of the diazoma and the first step of the (probably wooden) epitheatro unfortunately badly damaged by ploughing. The orchestra seems horseshoe-shaped with a diameter of 13.5m. Its capacity is estimated at 1700-2000 spectators (not counting the epitheatro). The construction of the theatre is not yet accurately dated, but fourth-century BC inscriptions mentioning the theatre have previously been found.  

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Salamis. The ΚΣτ’ ΕΠΚΑ report that rescue excavation in the centre of the town revealed a cist tomb and a long trench containing a large number of skeletons and many offerings (vases etc.) dating from Early Helladic II to Late Helladic III. 

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Kythera, Palaiopolis. The ΚΣτ’ ΕΠΚΑ report the discovery of a tomb of the Late Minoan I period with 260 vases.  

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Kallithea, 239 Andromachis St. (property of N. Karadima). M. Petritaki (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of an extensive cemetery and a road. The road runs on the NE-SW axis and was in use since the Geometric period. The cemetery extended in the wider area of the property. 50 burials were excavated from this plot dating in the Late Geometric, Archaic and Classical (5th c. B.C.) periods (Fig 1). The burials are pyres for adults, and inurned cremations and two terracotta larnakes for children. There are 7 inurned cremations in pithoi and amphorae. Five of them have burial offerings. Burial XI is an inurned cremation in a pithos. The ashes had been preserved in the vessel. The walls of the pithos attest to the cremation having taken place inside of it. A kyathos, parts of a lekanis and a broken miniature oinochoe had been placed around the pithos. Additionally, sherds were found on top of the pithos attesting to rituals having taken place after the cremation. Burial XXV is an inurned cremation in an amphora. The amphora is intact and a pithos sherd served as its lid. The vessel is a horse-head amphora and dates in 600-570 B.C. (Fig 2). It contained a pyxis and its lid, a trefoil-lipped oinochoe, two miniature kyathoi, 2 miniature skyphoi and few bone remains. Some of the pyre pits are shallow and others deep. Pyre XXXIV contained an amphora with a lid, which had been used as an urn. The amphora is decorated with a water bird and double axes on either side of the bird. The votive offerings include a krateriskos and a skyphos. Pyre XXXV contained a bronze cauldron, which had been used as an urn. The votive offerings include a krateriskos and a kyathos. Urns were also found in pyres XXI and XXII.

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Hill of the Nymphs, Akamantos 29 (property of E. Zarkadoula). Olga Dakoura-Vogiatzolgou (Α’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a Hellenistic piriform cistern and adjacent shafts (Figs.1, 2). All these hydraulic installations were rock-cut on the soft limestone bedrock and further supported structurally with rubble walls. A skeleton was dug from inside the cistern. The layer containing the human remains is dated to the 2nd-3rd c. A.D. It therefore appears that the dead person was placed there after the cistern had fallen out of use. In addition, a pi-shaped drain and a sewage tank were found (Fig. 3). The latter date to the 1st c. B.C. - 1st c. A.D. This area appears to have been continuously inhabited from the Hellenistic until the Late Roman periods. Finds from the area include pottery sherds, roof-tiles, glass sherds, slags, fragments from lamps, bronze artefacts, 10 bronze coins, nails, loom weights, 14 fragments from Archaic terracotta figurines, 4 bone pins, a bone spoon, an artefact made of agate, part of a marble grindstone, a marble figurine missing its head, and an intact miniature vessel.

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Koropi, Kassou and Anonymous Streets (O.T. 336, property of A. Tsakopoulou and I. Nikolaou). Eleni Andrikou (B’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a Classical-Hellenistic farmstead (4th-3rd c. B.C.). The farmstead had nine rooms and a courtyard (Fig 1). It is possible that a tenth space belonged to this farmstead. Otherwise it might have belonged to another farmstead in this area. The walls were constructed with rubble. Numerous rock-cut pits were found in the courtyard. Some of these contained pottery sherds. The excavator supports the idea that the pits attest to manufacturing activities. A well was also found near the farmstead. Finally, a grave was excavated, which contained two Hellenistic burials. Finds from the area include pottery sherds (fine ware and coarse ware), loom weights, 33 bronze coins, the bronze figurine of a hare and a fragment of an inscription (Fig. 2). E. Sioula conducted the excavation and a full report will follow after its completion.

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Aigaleo, Kifissou Avenue 96-98, (O.T. 817, property of Biochalko-Metem Co.) Eleni Asimakou (B’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a cemetery that was in use from Prehistoric until Roman times and part of it was destroyed in the Byzantine period, in the founding of a settlement. Prehistoric period: An EH chamber tomb was excavated, which contained secondary inhumations and burial offerings (a figurine, phialai, pigment graters and obsidian blades, Fig. 1). Small amounts of EH pottery sherds were found in the area of the tomb. Geometric and Archaic periods: Eight geometric pit graves were excavated containing secondary cremations in urns and burial offerings (Fig. 2). In addition a Geometric inurned cremation was found as well as a well containing two animal burials (Fig. 3). Specifically, the well contained the burial of a horse and a skyphos, which had been placed as a burial offering, and in a higher stratum the burial of a dog. The skulls of both animals were missing. Apart from these, 10 Geometric secondary cremations were revealed, as well as three Geometric walls in the area of these cremations. Two Geometric periboloi were excavated with numerous pottery sherds (possibly from disturbed burials) in their vicinity. One of the two periboloi enclosed a well, while 2 pyres and numerous Archaic figurines were found outside of it. Additionally, a rectangular building was excavated containing an empty kalpis and a pyre. The latter contained bones and Classical pottery sherds. An ancient road ran south of the periboloi. Finally, a rectangular funeral peribolos was found, marked with a tall, undecorated stele. The peribolos enclosed a Geometric secondary cremation (Fig. 4) and another Geometric urn was found outside of it. Classical period: A pi-shaped peribolos was excavated enclosing two marble sarcophagi. One of these contained a Classical burial with offerings and the second 2 disturbed burials dating in the late 6th –early 7th c. A.D. More sarcophagi (Fig. 5), a terracotta larnax, an empty grave, a burial in a lebes and a cist grave were found outside the peribolos. Additionally, seven Late Classical tile graves were found (Fig. 6). Numerous fragments from statues, stelai, and marble lekythoi and loutrophoroi were found in the area. Later Periods: Four Roman cist graves were excavated as well as a funeral stele (Fig. 7). Two rectangular graves (Fig. 8) and a cist grave dating to the first half of the 7th c. A.D. were also found. Finally, part of Byzantine settlement was excavated in the south part of the cemetery. Spolia from the cemetery had been used in the construction of the walls of houses and the retaining walls of the central road running through the settlement. The excavation was conducted by B. Antoniadis, A. Bassalos, B. Zygouri, K. Kalompatsou, Ch. Papanastasiou, I. Porfyropoulos, S. Polydora, D. Sidiropoulou and K. Triga.

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Aigaleo, Kifissou Avenue and Thessalias St. (property of Viamax Co.) Eleni Asimakou (B’ ΕΠΚΑ) and Katerina Paschali (B’ ΕΠΚΑ) report on the discovery of three EH rock-cut chamber tombs (Figs. 1, 2), 4 Classical inurned cremations (Fig. 3), a small apsidal room containing a terracotta perirrhanterion (Fig. 4) and a late Archaic lamp, and numerous drains, cisterns, wells and cuttings indicating the use of the space as a workshop. The latter features contained pottery sherds and other finds dating from the Geometric until the Late Classical periods. The first of the EH chamber toms contained a burial in a pit and four secondary inhumations which had been placed on top of this. A miniature crater was found amongst the bones. The second chamber tomb contained few bones and a marble phiale preserving traces of pigment as well as a pigment grater. The third chamber tomb contained few bones. The area was heavily disturbed, since numerous kilns had been constructed there in recent years (19th-20th centuries).

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Acharnes, Lathea A’, Parnithos Avenue 162 (O.T. 1437 property of G. and B. Ralli) Dora Georgousopoulou (B’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of 2 tile graves and a wall (Fig. 1). The first tile grave contained few bones, a tooth and a coin. A Roman, closed vessel was found outside of it. The second tile grave contained a skeleton in supine position. 

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Acharnes, Lathea B’, Esperidon 9 and Trempesinas (O.T. 40 property of M. Zachariadi). Dora Georgousopoulou (B’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of four walls forming a rectangular structure, a terracotta drain and three burials (Figs. 1, 2). The first burial was found outside the rectangular structure and the other two inside it. The one outside was a tile grave, which contained a skeleton in supine position. Of those found inside the structure, the first was a secondary inhumation, which contained two skulls and bones (Fig. 3), and the second a cremation in a pointed amphora (Fig. 4). Numerous Roman sherds (black-glazed and undecorated ones) and a bronze hoop were found around the amphora. 

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Marousi, Anonymous pedestrian street (near Sorou 49). Ioanna Gourtzioumi (B’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of four burials. The first was a terracotta larnax which most likely contained a child burial. It also contained two black-glazed lekythoi dating in the second quarter of the 5th century B.C., one black-glazed pyxis, a miniature oinochoe, and a black-glazed, miniature skyphos. The second burial was another terracotta larnax containing a child burial, a pyxis with its lid, a miniature skyphos, a headless figurine and a bronze strigil. All of the burial offerings are dated to the second quarter of the 5th century B.C. The third burial was a cremation in a pointed amphora. An unworked boulder had been used as its sema. The fourth burial was a pit grave containing 23 miniature vessels (1 squat lekythos, 1 alabastron, 2 ladles, 1 lekanis with its lid, 1 situla, 1 pyxis with its lid, 2 lopades, 2 cook pots, 5 plates and sherds possibly belonging to another 6 plates, 1 black-glazed skyphos, and at least 2 more black-glazed closed vessels). The burial is dated in the second half of the 5th century B.C. 

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Chalandri, Patima II, Panaghias Lytrotrias Street (property of Nikolakopoulos-Skarpa). Christos Koutsothanasis(B’ ΕΠΚΑ) and Ioanna Gourtzioumi (B’ ΕΠΚΑ) report on the discovery of parts of two 4th c. B.C. farmsteads and 11 rock-cut pits. The walls of the buildings had been constructed with rubble, and worked boulders. The floors were made with beaten earth. The pits appear to have predated the buildings but once the latter were constructed, the pits were used as deposits pits. These contained numerous 4th c. sherds, many black glazed, loom weights, iron artefacts and an earring. One of the pits appears to have contained a pyre.

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Piraeus, Votsi St. 15 (property of Euag. Giannakopoulou). Maria Petritaki(ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a section of the 4th c. B.C. Mounichia fortifications (Figs. 1, 2, 3). Specifically, a 13.50 m. stretch of the fortification wall was found and a square tower. The latter measures 5.50x5.15 m. A gate opening measuring 1.70 m. in width was found next to the tower. Both the fortification wall and the tower are constructed with limestone in the emplekton technique. Isodomic masonry was used for the outer faces of the walls of the tower. Finally, the fortification wall has three openings for drainage (Fig. 3). At a short distance from the fortifications was discovered part of the fill for the nearby shipsheds (ADelt 56-59, 443-444). Finds from the area include sherds from Classical, Hellenistic and Roman pottery, as well as roof-tiles.

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Moschato, Hydras St. 2 (property of D. Georgiou). Maria Petritaki (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a Hellenistic cemetery and a road (Fig. 1). The cemetery, which lies between the Long Walls, had a rubble peribolos wall, which also served as the retaining wall of the adjacent road. 19 burials were excavated: 6 cist graves, 4 pyres, 1 stone theke containing a kalpis (Fig. 2), 6 tile graves, 1 inurned cremation and 1 pit grave. All but two graves had burial offerings. One of the cist graves contained three burials. One of the graves contained 131 unguentaria, while another 112 such vessels (Fig. 3). The pyre contained a bronze coin. In addition, three locations for the placement of burial offerings were identified.

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Moschato, Chrysostomou St. 117 (property of K. Kotseli). Maria Petritaki (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a 3rd-4th c. A.D. building (Figs. 1, 2). It has an E-W orientation, measures 7.40x5m., has two rooms, and was built with rubble, rooftiles and mortar. A bench was found in one room and a hearth in the other. The interior is covered with a destruction layer containing numerous roof tiles. It is thus evident that the building was roofed. Other finds from the building include plain ware sherds, fragments from beehives, glass sherds, animal bones and coins.

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Moschato, HSAP railway tracks, (halfway between Kallithea and Moschato stations). Anna Maria Anagnostopoulou (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) and Maria Raftopoulou (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) report on the discovery of a stretch of the South or Middle Long Wall (Figs. 1, 2, 3). Specifically, the internal (north) face of the wall was excavated for a length of 38 m. It has an E-W orientation and runs parallel to the railway tracks. A three-stepped krepis was found and the orthostates. These were made from good quality poros stone from the Piraeus. Tool marks are visible on the boulders. The fill of the wall, in-between the orthostates, consisted of rubble. Mud bricks, which were not found, would have been placed on top of this fill. A stone staircase, which would have led to the top of the wall, was also found. More walls were found in the vicinity of the staircase, built with pseudo-isodomic masonry. The space delimited by these walls would have been roofed, since numerous roof tile sherds were found in the area. A gate measuring 1.45 m. wide was also excavated. The gate appears to have fallen out of use in antiquity since it was sealed at some point. This stretch of the wall is dated to Conon’s time, 394 B.C. The road running between the Long Walls was also discovered. This road connected the asty with the Piraeus. Its maximum width was 5.3 m. Two consecutive road surfaces were identified. They were both made with beaten earth, river pebbles and small stones. The road preserved wheel ruts. A horos stone was found on the road. It reads ΟΡΟΣ ΜΝΗΜΑΤΟΣ, and appears to have fallen from a nearby grave. The excavation was conducted by L. Despotidou under the supervision of the authors of this report. 

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Tavros, Tavros/El. Venizelos train station and Kleious 18 (property of Giannaras Co.). Anna Maria Anagnostopoulou (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ), Eirini Skiadaresi (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ), Maria Raftopoulou (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) and Maria Petritaki (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) report on the discoveries of a stretch of the South or Middle Long Wall and a stretch of the North Long Wall. The first, found next to Tavros train station, consists of a stretch of the fortification wall and a rectangular tower measuring 8x5 m. (Figs. 1, 2). It is constructed with aktite stone from the Piraeus and dates to Pericles’ time. The second, found in the Giannara property, was built in the emplekton technique and dates to Conon’s time (Figs. 3, 4). The excavation next to Tavros train station was conducted by D. Kampouri under the supervision of the authors of this report. 

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Tavros, Kleious 18 and Kleious 22 (properties of Giannaras Co.). Maria Petritaki (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a Hellenistic cemetery (Fig. 1). A peribolos rubble wall and 9 tile graves were excavated. The graves contained a bronze spatula, a loom weight, fragments from a strigil, 3 unguentaria and a seashell. The cemetery lies between the Long Walls and appears to have been built after the latter fell out of use. 

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Vouliagmeni, Zephyrou 21 (property of G. Kritsa). Mairi Giamalidi (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of 2 retaining walls and another 2 walls delimiting a property (Figs. 1, 2). The retaining walls were constructed with rubble and roughly worked boulders. The latter were extracted from the area for their immediate use in the retaining walls. The walls delimiting the property were built with rubble (Fig. 3). It appears that the retaining walls served to contain the soil and attest to farming activities in the area. Small finds include undecorated and black-glazed pottery sherds from plates, skyphoi and oinochoai, all of which date in the Classical and Late Classical periods. The excavation was conducted by I. Louretzatou. 

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Voula, Varis Avenue 31 and Athinaidos (O.T. 149, property of Alfa plan). Mairi Giamalidi (ΚΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a 5th c. B.C. cemetery and a 4th c. B.C. domestic complex (Figs. 1, 2). The cemetery was delimited by a peribolos wall and included 50 burials (42 pyres, 6 pit graves, 1 tile grave and 1 terracotta larnax). All the pyres were rock-cut and contained 40 vessels (lekythoi, skyphoi, pyxides and aryballoi). Pyre 3 contained 10 black-figure lekythoi. Pyres 14 and 18 were twin pyres, which had the same dimensions, were delimited by two Γ-shaped rubble walls, and contained Corinthian aryballoi. Γ- and Π-shaped walls also delimited some of the other pyres. The base of a funeral stele was found near pyre 25. The pit graves were also rock-cut and contained 37 vessels (lekythoi, skyphoi, alabastra, pyxides), and bone and metal artefacts. One of them was the grave of a young athlete and contained 14 vessels (12 lekythoi, 1 pyxis, 1 marble alabastron) and a bronze strigil. Another one belonged to a child and contained 15 vessels (6 lekythoi, 9 skyphoi) and knuckle-bones. The tile grave belonged to a very young child and contained a lekythos. The terracotta larnax contained the burial of an infant and 3 lekythoi. In addition to these, 2 pits for burial offerings were excavated. They contained numerous skyphoi, plates, phialai, oinochoai, amphorae and lekanides. The cemetery dates from the end of the 6th to the first half of the 5th c. B.C. Its location shows that some cemeteries in Halai Aixonidai were adjacent to the habitation area. After the abandonment of the cemetery, its peribolos wall was incorporated in a 4th c. domestic building. The latter measured 280 m2 and was gamma-shaped. The west wing consisted of 10 rooms placed around a stone-paved courtyard. One of them (building A) lies on the north side of the courtyard and was independent of the other rooms (Fig. 3). Its walls were stronger and better constructed than those of the rest of the complex and its floor was paved with square, terracotta slabs. The courtyard measures 6.80x5.50 m. Numerous lamps, kantharoi (2nd half of the 4th c. B.C.), black-glazed pottery, storage vessels, a terracotta mortar, beehives, cooking pots and metal artefacts were found in one of the aforementioned rooms. More rooms were found on the south side of the courtyard. One of these has a floor paved with schist. Room 10 is part of this second cluster of rooms (Fig. 4). This room is large and paved with square terracotta slabs. It contained a pithos lined with mortar and a cistern, and appears to have served as a workshop. A large open area lies south of the complex. Two hearths, a bench and drains were found there. Lamps dating to the 2nd half of the 4th c. B.C. were found in the drains. Additional small finds from the complex include sherds from storage vessels (amphorae, pithoi), plain ware (lekanides, oinochoe, cooking pots, plates, phialai), fine ware (kantharoi, skyphoi, saltboxes), a large number of beehive sherds, black-glazed lamps, loom weights, lead clamps, iron artefacts, grinders, fragments from grindstones, and 5 bronze coins. The building was used from the middle of the 4th until the early 3rd c. B.C. The excavation was conducted by K. Ntaifa. 

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Theseio, Poulopoulou 6 and Amphiktyonos (property of P. Sakellari). Giannis Maurokefalidis (Γ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of 5 walls, 2 cisterns, 1 terracotta drain and parts of 5 floors (Fig. 1). One of the cisterns had been subsequently used as a deposit pit. Finds from the area date from the 4th c. B.C. to the Byzantine period. These include undecorated pottery sherds, cooking pots, storage vessels, red-figure pottery sherds, loom weights, fragments from an iron knife, fragments from lamps and large quantities of murex shells. Numerous terracotta figurines and their moulds were found in the deposit pit. These include figurines of animals, women, female heads, monkeys, dolphins, cocks, rams and a donkey with a hat. The presence of the moulds may point to this building having served as a workshop. Finally, a fragment from an altar was also found in the deposit pit. 

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Koukaki, Th. Renti 9-11. Eugenia Tsalkou (Γ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a Submycenaean – Protogeometric cemetery as well as various Classical to Roman finds and burials (Fig. 1). Numerous Mycenaean, Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric burials have been found in this area (see references above). Submycenaean – Protogeometric burials: 29 rock-cut cist graves (Fig. 2), 4 shaft graves and 1 inurned cremation were found. 27 of these contained burial offerings. The latter include 14 stirrup jars, 8 prochoi, 6 lekythoi, 6 amphorae, 2 kyathoi, 2 flasks, 2 skyphoi, 6 bronze pins, 6 fibulae, 23 bronze rings, 2 silver rings, 2 spatulae and numerous beads from semiprecious stones, bronze and glass. The inurned cremation contained 4 terracotta animal figurines, 2 knucklebones, 12 terracotta weights, 10 perforated terracotta disks and an unidentified, perforated, terracotta artifact. Classical-Hellenistic periods: 10 cisterns were found, some of which were connected with shafts. The cisterns contained pottery dating from the 5th to the 3rd c. B.C. and the 3rd to the 4th c. A.D. They also contained 4 funeral stelai, three of which bore inscriptions: Inscription 1, late 4th c. B.C.: [Ἰ]άσων χρηστός Inscription 2, 3rd or 2nd c. B.C.: Θεόφιλος Ἀλεξίου Καλλατιανός Inscription 3, late 4th or early 3rd c. B.C.: Φίλιππος Φρασίου Φρεάρριος Finally, a skull and bones were found in one of the cisterns.   Hellenistic period: An inurned cremation and an amphora with ashes were found. They contained pieces of an iron artefact and 3 unguentaria. In addition, 7 walls were excavated as well as a cistern with shafts.   Roman period: 8 cist graves and 2 inurned cremations were excavated. The inurned cremations contained steatite spindle whorls, which date in the 2nd c. A.D. The cist graves date from the 1st to the 3rd c. A.D. and contained a plate, 2 unguentaria and an iron ring.   The excavation was conducted under the supervision of N. Sakka.

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Akademia Platonos, Vasilikos 45. M. Panagiotopoulos (Γ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a cist grave and a rubble funeral peribolos. Finds from the area include a funeral colonnette with the following inscription, which dates either to the end of the 1st B.C. or to the early 1st c. A.D.: Κλεοπ[άτρα] Μανίου Γα[ργηττίου] [θ]υγάτηρ Διον[υσίου] [Δ]ειραδιώτ[ου γυνή] A fragment from an architectural member was also found. The excavation was conducted by M. Alexopoulos, A. Karapidakis and A. Mariani.

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Athens, Kallisperi 21. Niki Sakka (Γ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a 4th – 5th c. A.D. apsidal building (Figs. 1, 2). The building has a prodomos and a floor decorated in the opus sectile technique. It is highly likely that this building belongs to the large, public, 4th c. A.D. bath that was found in the area (Agora XXIV, 42-44). The building was extended in the 10th-12th c. A.D. A statue of a seated woman (1st c. A.D.) had been used in the construction of the building’s east wall. A tile-built pithos was excavated east of the building. Finds from the area include a fragment for a 5th c. A.D. inscription which reads: κυμη[τήρι]- [ον] v [- - -] καὶ Εἰρ[- -] The excavation was conducted by the author of this report, T. Michalakopoulou and Eug. Tsalkou.

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Athens, Monastiriou 6-8 (property of Manasaki). Konstantina Lymperopoulou (Γ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a stretch of the ancient road leading from the asty to the Academy of Plato and 7 burials (Fig. 1). The road had two 5th-century B.C. phases (one prior to the middle of the century and one after), and appears to have remained in use until the 2nd c. B.C. A drain runs parallel to the road. The latter was damaged by a modern well. Finally 1 inurned cremation, 4 tile graves and 2 cist graves were found. Apart from one burial, dated to the 1st c. A.D., all others contained no burial offerings and cannot be dated. 

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Athens, Kynosarges, Vourvachi 17 and Kokkini 1 (O.T. 54048). Charalabia Charami (Γ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a retaining wall and walls of a large Roman building (Figs. 1, 2). The latter could have been the Hadrianic Gymnasium of Kynosarges (see references above). In addition, another part of the Late Roman cemetery was excavated (see references above). Secondary inhumations were found as well as 11 late 6th – early 7th c. A.D. pots. Amongst the finds is a late 5th c. A.D., intact, gouged oinochoe. 

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Eleusis, Pindou and Kolokotroni (O.T. 297, property of Linardou Bros.). Kalliopi Papaggeli (Γ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of a Hellenistic building and a Late Classical (late 4th c. B.C.) road (Fig. 1). The building was tripartite and the walls were built with stone boulders and rubble. The floor was paved with terracotta slabs. With respect to the road, five consecutive surfaces were identified as well as a retaining wall on its east side.   The excavation was conducted by El. Paparoupa, El. Ioannidou, I. Kalantzi, Chr. Tzavali, Andr. Kapetanopoulou, Sot. Stouggioti and Ad. Giannou under the supervision of the author of this report. 

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Eleusis, Kougioumtzoglou 50 and Petraki (O.T. 182, property of Sot. Leventi). Kalliopi Papaggeli (Γ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discovery of an early Archaic to Classical cemetery (Fig. 1). 72 burials were excavated: 30 inurned cremations of children, 34 pyres, 7 pit graves and 1 larnax. The burials contained few burial offerings. 

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Eleusis, Heroon Polytechneiou, Petraki and Hatzidaki Streets (O.T. 133, property of D. Aggelou and Co.). Kalliopi Papaggeli (Γ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the discoveries of a Mycenaean settlement, a cemetery, and a road with Archaic to Late Roman buildings on both sides of it (Fig. 1). The cemetery, which was rich in burial offerings (Fig. 2), contained 19 Classical and Hellenistic burials, 7 Geometric ones, 2 prehistoric ones and a Classical well (Fig. 3).

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