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Dernières notices ajoutées par région : Péloponnèse
En 2005, une campagne, dirigée par H. Williams, a été consacrée (1) à une prospection géophysique à l’intérieur des murs de la cité classique et hellénistique, qui a révélé, dans la partie occidentale, de nombreux éléments du réseau viaire ; (2) à la fouille de tombes classiques ; (3) à une étude des remparts ; (4) aux travaux préliminaires à la publication du sanctuaire de l’acropole, qu’il convient d’attribuer à Athéna ou à Artémis. On note que la céramique y est abondante jusqu’en 146 av. J.-C., mais que les lampes sont pour l’essentiel antérieures à 250 av. J.-C. Il faut noter la découverte fortuite d’un silex du Moustérien, à ce jour l’objet le plus ancien découvert sur le site.

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Skortsinos, Troupitses Cave. I. Efstathiou-Manolakou (EPSNE) reports on renewed study of this cave in 2005. A full plan and geological study were made, trenches opened to confirm the stratigraphy and a large quantity of surface pottery collected. Pottery was mainly FNeo (the only phase of occupation, ca. 4200−3300 BC). It consisted of handmade coarseware in both open and closed shapes: pithoi and pithoid vessels with flat bases and vertical strap handles, plus deep bowls, predominate (undecorated or with plastic decoration), with smaller numbers of black bowls with incised decoration. Strainers and scoops are also present. Other finds were bone tools, a few flint cores and blades, obsidian blades and an obsidian tanged arrowhead, a stone axe and a rubber, shell and bone beads, animal bones (of domesticated and hunted species), and a piece of bronze sheet. Most evidence of occupation came from the forward rather than the rear part of the main chamber; part of a hearth was located. Evidence suggests that the cave was mostly used for storage, with only occasional human occupation, although permanent occupation in the wider area is considered likely (noting a quantity of obsidian fragments and a little Neolithic pottery found outside the cave). Human bones were scattered though the cave: it remains unclear whether the cave was used for burial.

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Loutra Heraias. A.-V. Karapanagiotou (ΛΘ' ΕΠΚΑ) presents a preliminary publication of a Myc cemetery on the S slope of the hill of the chapel of Ag. Giorgos, close to the NW edge of the village of Iamatikes Piges, 12km from Paloumbas and ca. 15km from the known Myc cemetery at Palaiokastro. Remains of a collapsed tholos tomb and traces of at least 6 more were visible on the surface, along with remains of slabs displaced by the digger used to open a road up the hill. Only the chamber of the tholos tomb survived, cut into the soft limestone of the hill (2.8 x 2.15m). The dromos could not be located. The chamber floor was covered with fill which had seeped in from above and the S part of the chamber had subsided. The tomb was reused, presenting evidence of earlier burials pushed aside, as well as the latest burials on the floor of the chamber. Remains of a least 8 individuals lay at the W side of the chamber, along with their grave goods. In the southernmost part, 2 skeletons were preserved in supine position. Grave goods consisted of more than 25 vessels representing a variety of closed shapes (especially alabastra, also pithoid amphorae), plus dress ornaments (bronze and bone pins), beads, whorls, 2 knives and 3 razors and a sealstone. Use of the tomb dates to LH IIIA−B.

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Chrysapha, Monastery of the Agioi Tessarakanta Martyroi. J. Papageorgiou and D. Charalambous report on a programme of conservation of the 17th Ct wall-paintings (painted by Giorgios and Dimitrios Moschos) completed by the 5th EBA in 2005.

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Thea (anc. Antheia). M. Petropoulos reports the discovery of a small shrine during a rescue excavation. This consisted of an orthogonal built altar, part of a 2-roomed building and 5 pits which either contained the remains of sacrificial victims and pottery vessels, or were for offerings. No temple was located. Finds, dating from the LGeo to LHel, were numerous − to date, intact figurines and miniature vessels number over 40,000. The minature vessels are mostly drinking shapes, with hydriae, kraters, lekythoi, kernoi and aryballoi. The deity is identified as Demeter on the basis of an inscribed perirrhanterion (ΑΙΣΧΡΕΑΣ Δ[ΑΜΑΤΡΙ]), noting also the popularity of female hydrophoroi among the figurines. The epithet ‘Poteriophorou’, applied to the cult of Demeter at Antheia by Athenaios (Deipnosophistai 11.46d), fits the iconography and choice of pottery shapes at the Thea shrine, supporting the identification of Thea as anc. Antheia.

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La troisième campagne de fouilles du terrain Nannopoulos, menée en collaboration avec l’éphorie de Nauplie (A. Pariente et Chr. Pitéros), a permis de mettre au jour, dans la partie Nord du terrain, la suite de deux monuments : dans le secteur Nord, on a poursuivi le dégagement de la krépis et des fondations de la colonnade (fig. 1). Une bande d’éclats de taille y atteste le débitage des blocs supérieurs de la krépis. À l’emplacement du bassin installé dans l’orchestra, on retrouve principalement des couches de remblais qui semblent dater le remblaiement massif de cette structure et sa transformation en véritable décharge à l’époque paléochrétienne. La base centrale, désormais entièrement débarrassée de l’épaisse couche de remblais qui la recouvrait, est constituée d’une structure en P et semble avoir comporté, à un niveau supérieur situé contre la krépis, un dispositif hydraulique doté d’un petit bassin. dans le secteur Sud, on a dégagé quelques blocs des deux niveaux de l’assise-banc de l’orchestra, qui avaient basculé dans la grande perturbation « byzantine » identifiée au sud du terrain. Les couches avoisinantes ont livré une céramique hétérogène des IIe-Ve s. apr. J.-C. Dans les deux secteurs de la fouille, ont été dégagées huit nouvelles tombes de la nécropole (fig. 2), probablement récente, mais de datation imprécise en raison de l’absence complète d’offrandes, et identifiée sur la majeure partie de l’agora : deux des sépultures abritaient les squelettes d’un adulte, trois ceux d’un enfant, une autre une partie des restes osseux de deux nourrissons.

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Une série de sondages, de nettoyages et de travaux d’aménagement ont par ailleurs lieu sur l’agora d’Argos au cours de l’année 2005 (M. Piérart) : le nettoyage des égouts (fig. 1-2) était destiné à rendre compréhensible le plan de l’installation, tout en assurant une protection économique des ruines ; ont été également nettoyés le bassin triangulaire et le canal secondaire qui s'y déversait. l'étude des éléments d'architecture a permis de préciser sur quelques points la chronologie relative des monuments de l'agora. En particulier, les soubassements des piliers de l'aqueduc paléochrétien qui traversait l'agora d'Ouest en Est ont été construits en partie avec des blocs de calcaire provenant de la salle hypostyle. Il est donc assuré que l'aqueduc, qui longeait le mur Sud de ladite salle hypostyle, ne fut érigé qu'après la destruction de cette dernière. Mal construit, il ne resta sans doute pas très longtemps en usage : lors de la construction des voûtes qui couvraient les trois canaux de l'égout dans ce secteur, l'un des piliers de l'aqueduc a été complètement démonté.

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Ont bénéficié des infrastructures de l'EfA à Argos et, le plus souvent, d'un soutien financier pour leur recherche : M.-Fr. Billot pour les terres cuites architecturales d’Argolide, Cl. Prêtre pour ses recherches épigraphiques, G. Touchais et A. Philippa-Touchais pour leurs travaux sur l’Aspis. Ces derniers feront l’objet d’un bref développement  : ils ont tout d’abord concerné des travaux d’aménagement, destinés à assurer la protection d'un certain nombre de murs de l'habitat HM et la mise en valeur du site (fig. 1-2). en second lieu, l’étude du matériel céramique a été poursuivie au musée et a porté cette année sur les séries à peinture mate du chantier Nord. Dans le cadre de ce programme coordonné par S. Voutsaki (Institut archéologique de l'université de Groningen), les premières analyses sur les échantillons d'ossements humains prélevés en 2004 ont en outre été réalisées, mais les premiers résultats laissent craindre que les produits chimiques utilisés pour la conservation des ossements n'aient une incidence néfaste sur les données recueillies. Un programme d'étude topographique et architecturale de l'habitat HM de l'Aspis, cofinancé par l'INSTAP, a été lancé à l'Aspis. Destiné à durer deux ans, il vise un double objectif : effectuer un levé topographique exact du sommet de la colline en recourant à la technologie la plus récente ; réaliser une analyse architecturale d'ensemble des constructions préhistoriques prenant en compte non seulement celles qui ont été découvertes lors des fouilles récentes mais aussi celles des anciennes fouilles. Sur ce dernier point, les principaux résultats auxquels l'étude a jusqu'à présent abouti peuvent être résumés de la façon suivante : organisation de l'habitat. — Pendant la plus ancienne phase d'occupation mésohelladique (HM I-II), il est certain que la terrasse inférieure (Est) du plateau sommital de la colline est habitée, mais on ignore si le secteur central du plateau est lui aussi occupé. À la phase suivante (HM IIIA) il est sûr que l'habitat s'étend sur la terrasse intermédiaire et presque sûr que le secteur central est lui aussi habité. C'est, semble-t-il, pendant cette phase que sont édifiés plusieurs murs de soutènement plus ou moins concentriques (« enceintes »), qui structurent l'espace en plusieurs terrasses. La dernière phase (HM IIIA-HR IA) est marquée par la construction d'un complexe architectural dessinant un arc de cercle sur la bordure Est de l'habitat, immédiatement à l'intérieur de « l'enceinte extérieure ». Le plan du complexe, caractérisé par la cohérence et la symétrie, autant que son emplacement, suggèrent qu'il fut construit selon un plan prémédité et qu'il était destiné à délimiter l'aire habitée tout en renforçant sa protection. enceintes. — En ce qui concerne les deux « enceintes » successives de l'habitat (« intérieure » et « extérieure », pour reprendre les termes de Vollgraff), l'étude a conduit aux hypothèses suivantes : il n'y avait pas deux murs d'enceinte mais très probablement trois (ou même quatre) qui étaient en fait des murs de terrasse structurant l'espace en trois ou quatre paliers ; le tracé de « l'enceinte intérieure » était sans doute différent de celui que restitue Vollgraff ; « L'enceinte extérieure » pouvait avoir une double fonction, à la fois mur de soutènement et fortification. organisation sociale. — L'image de l'habitat pendant cette phase montre clairement qu'il a été remodelé de fond en comble, qu'il se densifie et que l'espace est structuré par un système de murs de terrasse et d'imposantes constructions. Cela suggère un degré de cohésion sociale relativement élevé, une société capable de concevoir et de réaliser des aménagements d'intérêt commun (qui n'étaient peut-être pas dépourvus d'un certain souci d'affirmation, voire d'ostentation). En outre, la présence de cet impressionnant dispositif architectural sur la colline, en liaison avec celle de vestiges d'habitat contemporains au pied de celle-ci, renvoie au schéma acropole/ville basse. Cette forme primitive d'acropole rassemblait vraisemblablement des bâtiments à fonction spéciale, peut-être aussi des groupes sociaux jouissant d'un statut particulier.

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Sur le site de Kouphovouno (près de Sparte), le programme EfA-CNRS soutient les recherches environnementales de J. Renard, professeur à l'université de Clermont-Ferrand, en collaboration avec William Cavanagh, de l’université de Nottingham, et Christopher Mee, professeur à l’université de Liverpool. Ce programme étudie l’évolution des sociétés complexes dans le monde égéen entre le Néolithique Moyen et le Bronze Ancien, soit entre 5000 et 2000 avant notre ère. – La campagne 2005 a comporté deux opérations de terrain : –  des fouilles dans les secteurs C et G : dans le secteur C, la fouille a poursuivi la mise au jour de vestiges architecturaux du Néolithique Moyen, ce qui est nouveau pour cette période dans le Sud de la Grèce. On signalera notamment un petit édifice rectangulaire de 3 x 2 m, dont le soubassement en pierres est recouvert d’enduits par endroits, et une fosse à détritus partiellement explorée, qui a déjà livré plus de 8 000 tessons. La tombe identifiée à la fin de la campagne 2003 et creusée dans des niveaux d’habitation du Néolithique Moyen a également été fouillée : de forme ovale, bordée de pierres dans sa partie supérieure, elle contenait le squelette d’un adulte en position fléchie sur le côté gauche. (fig. 1) Enfin, un sondage a atteint le terrain vierge : le mobilier céramique retrouvé au-dessus de ce terrain vierge date du début du Néolithique Moyen. dans le secteur G, la fouille a mis au jour la suite des vestiges architecturaux du Néolithique Récent découverts en 2002 et 2003. Outre les informations obtenues sur les techniques de construction associant la pierre et le bois, l’intérêt de la fouille du secteur G est d’avoir livré du matériel transitionnel entre le Néolithique Moyen et le Néolithique Récent aussi bien pour la céramique que pour le mobilier lithique. Les résultats cumulés des secteurs C et G permettent de proposer une séquence désormais complète de la céramique depuis les origines du Néolithique Moyen jusqu’au passage vers le Néolithique Récent. Le mobilier lithique (armatures perçantes de flèches en particulier, mais aussi meules dormantes, haches et herminettes), en os (outillage et ustensiles : poinçons, burins, épingles…) et en terre cuite (une figurine représentant une tête d’oiseau [?], une fusaïole et un sceau) n’est pas de moindre intérêt. –  deux missions de terrain ont par ailleurs été effectuées en 2005 pour reconstituer l’histoire du site au cours de trois millénaires par une approche géomorphologique et pédologique et pour étudier la question des ressources en eau du site de Kouphovouno. Tout indique que le site était implanté dans une zone bien drainée et non marécageuse. Un carottage effectué au sud d’une mare approvisionnée par une source à 150 m au sud du tell confirme la présence d’une nappe phréatique à environ 1,50 m de profondeur. Il semble clair qu’il n’était pas difficile de trouver de l’eau aux alentours du site à l’époque néolithique (fig. 2).

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Anc. Quarries in Laconia.  G. Kokkorou-Alevras (Athens), A. Chatziconstantinou (Athens), A. Efsathopoulos (Athens), E. Zavvou (Epigraphical Museum, formerly Ε' ΕΠΚΑ), A. Themos (Epigraphical Museum, formerly Ε' ΕΠΚΑ), K. Kopanias (Athens) and E. Poupaki (Athens) present an overview of ongoing research into the main quarry locations in Laconia.  Quarry sites briefly noted are: Gynaika, Platyvouni (Sochas), Vresthena, Chrysafa, Viglafia (Rom−ECh), Daimonia, Ag. Marina, Zarakas and Tainaro.  Fuller discussion is offered of Oitylo (including Rom−ECh cuttings) and especially Plytra (anc. Asopos), where 3 sandstone quarry sites (probably LHel−ECh) are identified and details of the quarry cuttings and evidence for Rom cult and Rom−ECh burials in the quarry areas presented.  

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Plytra (anc. Asopos).  In a presentation of anc. quarry sites in Laconia, G. Kokkorou-Alevras (Athens), A. Chatziconstantinou (Athens), A. Efsathopoulos (Athens), E. Zavvou (Epigraphical Museum, formerly Ε' ΕΠΚΑ), A. Themos (Epigraphical Museum, formerly Ε' ΕΠΚΑ), K. Kopanias (Athens) and E. Poupaki (Athens) presernt an overview of evidence from Plytra (with previous bibliography). Three sandstone quarry sites (probably LHel−ECh) are identified, and details of the quarry cuttings and evidence for Rom cult and Rom−ECh burials in the quarry areas presented.  

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Oitylo.  In a survey of anc. quarries in Laconia, G. Kokkorou-Alevras (Athens), A. Chatziconstantinou (Athens), A. Efsathopoulos (Athens), E. Zavvou (Epigraphical Museum, formerly Ε' ΕΠΚΑ), A. Themos (Epigraphical Museum, formerly Ε' ΕΠΚΑ), K. Kopanias (Athens) and E. Poupaki (Athens) discuss Oitylo, where Rom−ECh cuttings are identified.  

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Anc. Sparta  E. Zavvou and A. Themos (Epigraphical Museum, formerly Ε' ΕΠΚΑ) present a synthesis of the results of rescue excavations conducted in the mod. city from 1994−2005, analysing their impact on our understanding of urban development from EH−ECh times.   Significant changes to the existing picture are provided, for example by the presence of EH activity on the SW edge of the city, and the extent of PGeo and Geo activity especially in the area of Limnai, S of the acropolis, and at the W edge of the city.

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Sparta, SW cemetery.  A. Themos, A. Maltezou, G. Pantou, G. Tsiangouris and C. Phlouris (Ε' ΕΠΚΑ) report on the results of rescue excavations between 1994 and 2005 (especially on the Katsaris-Mavridis and the Dimitrakopoulos-Zachariadis plots) which have revealed more than 700 burials of LHel−5th Ct AD date.  Preliminary discussion of tomb types, burials customs and offerings is presented. 

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Sparta, Byzantine city.  A. Bakourou (formerly Director, 5th EBA) presents MByz remains in the city area focusing on 2 adjacent building plots, O.T. 126 and 127, where a funerary chapel, a church, a bath and an olive press were discovered.  The triconch funerary chapel was discovered on the Theodosopoulou-Karydi property in O.T. 126.  This is a simple, one-roomed structure, 12.4m total l. x 6.1m w (narthex 9m w.).  The structure included building material in secondary use (large orthogonal limestone blocks with smaller stone filling between them, plastered in), a technique mostly used in the 10th−11th Ct, although there is no evidence for earlier structures on the site.  The interior was decorated with wall-paintings; one fragment depicts an inscribed scroll.  Evidence combines to indicate a date of the 2nd half of the 10th Ct AD. Inside the main chapel were 3 cist tombs (one in the S apse and 2 in the W aisle), with a further 6 in the narthex, below the floor and the marble threshold.  This indicates that the chapel was funerary in its original conception, but burial continued after its destruction, from the 12th to the first half of the 13thCt.  Small rectangular enclosures were built to the W of it in this later period, probably to organize the large cemetery which then developed inside and around the building (26 cist tombs have been recovered, containing multiple burials, and 25 pit graves mostly of children).  Grave goods included bracelets, rings, earrings, and many MByz buckles.  From the fill across the area come examples of glazed pottery of the 12th and 13th Cts, with restorable vessels from funerary feasts within the cemetery. Thirty eight coins were found, 3 of the 10thCt, most of the 11th to the first half of the 13thCt, and 3 Fr coins of the Corinth mint of ca. 1250. On the property of E. Rigos, just to the W in O.T. 127, are the foundations of a Byz church (preserved to 1m h.), resting on the remains of a Rom structure.  The building, which has an almost square plan, has 3 aisles with apses at the E end and a narthex at the W (the main entrance is in the W side of the narthex).  There are traces of wall-painting in the central apse (and loose fragments found scattered elsewhere), as well as of marble cladding and a marble floor.  The altar table was in situ. On the basis of the building itself, its sculpted decoration and the coins found (especially 2 anonymous folles), an 11th Ct construction date is indicated; there followed 3 or 4 building phases, and it is likely that the building continued in use into late Comninan times and that it was destroyed by an earthquake.   A further rescue excavation on the property of S. and P. Androutsou, in addition to allowing complete exploration of the whole of the church, revealed MByz cist and pit graves along the entire E side of the building.  A small distance to the E of the church lay the remains of a bath, preserving the apodyterion, caldarium and frigidarium.  The central room had apses around, one of which served as a cistern.  Remains of 2 water tanks were discovered outside the building.  The hypocaust is poorly preserved, although the floors of the W niche and the 3rd room survive.  The bath was a public rather than a private building, and is dated by the architecture to ca. 1100−1260. The olive press was discovered NE of the bath, on the Philippopoulou plot.  The large collection basin was well preserved, with a large rotating trapetum, with the slot for the central wooden axle pole which, together with a horizontal beam, supported 2 millstones turned by animal power.  A further press was found just to the N.  This is the first well-preserved workshop of this period found in Sparta, although partial traces of others (for example, on the Katsou property in O.T. 125) are preserved within the mod. city and on the acropolis.

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Magoula. E. Kourinou (National Museum) and Y. Pikoulas (Thessaly) publish the remains of an anc. bridge over the Skatias river, on the WSW slopes of Magoula, which probably dates to the LCl or Hel period (L4th-3rd Ct BC).

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Alepotrypa Cave (Diros).  A. Papathanasiou publishes the human bone remains from the site.

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Nauplion, Agias Monis Street (property of D. Choulitoudi). Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of an 18.7m-long section of the Venetian aqueduct of Nauplion.   

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Argos, Stadiou Street (property of A. Yakoumaki). E. Sarri (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of the western part of a Late Roman-Early Christian bath on a plot which lies 250m south of the baths east and north of the area of the ancient theatre and agora, and 100m north of the south arm of the city wall.   The area investigated contained the underground heating chambers for the caldarium or other internal warm rooms and the bathing areas beside them. These rooms were heated by two praefurnia, and preserve their terracotta cladding and the columns supporting the floor (suspensura) above. The bath was set within an insula bounded to the north by a cobbled street running east-west, with a water channel covered by stone slabs along it. North of the road was a Late Hellenistic funerary peribolos containing built cist tombs.    

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Perdikaria (anc. Kromna). V. Tassinos (ΛΖ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the excavation of an extensive Early Geometric and late sixth- to early fifth-century cemetery, following the destruction of graves during earth moving. Eighteen late Archaic-early Classical sarcophagoi and a pit grave with a child burial were found: this later cemetery was established directly over four Early Geometric cist graves.  Only one of the Geometric graves contained offerings (a pair of bronze spirals), but the later tombs mostly contained local and imported pottery, bronze and iron finds (rings and pins), and organic remains (egg shells).  An altar with mostly Archaic sherds were found. 

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Sparta, Magoula (Nikolaros property). A. Themos, E. Zavvou (formerly Ε’ ΕΠΚΑ, now Epigraphical Museum), C. Pickersgill (Nottingham) and M. Tsouli (Ε’ ΕΠΚΑ) report on rescue excavation which revealed architectural remains connected with the second- to third-century AD Arapissa Baths immediately to the north of the plot. These date initially to the second century, with some rearrangement made during the course of the third. In the fourth century a hall (10x8m) with an exedra on the southwest side and a mosaic floor was built over them. The central part of the mosaic was divided into eight panels with scenes from the palaistra. The structure is characterised as a teaching room in a gymnasium. Following a destruction event late in the fourth century, it changed function and a central dividing wall was inserted. Other parts of the original building were reused and remodelled in the late fourth or early fifth century to form a house: finds include cooking pots, a bobbin-shaped support and an iron tripod fire-stand.  Following the abandonment of the area, graves were opened in the remains (part of a larger cemetery also found on the Papasotiriou and Agathia plots). Sixteen graves were found in the upper excavation level, four of which (13-16) were inside the hall with the mosaic floor with a fifth (11) built into its east wall. Two (15 and 16) had walls of stone and brick in a herringbone pattern. Grave 13 was also a built tomb with mortar on the interior. Grave goods include oinochoae of different sizes, cups, iron knives and jewellery (silver earrings, rings and glass beads) all dating to the seventh century.

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Monemvasia, Kastro. P. Skagkou and K. Douvi (5th EBA) report that the collapse of a 10m-long (and 2- to 4m-high) section of the east wall of the lower city in March 2003, following bad weather, revealed details of the construction and history of the fortification. The upper part was formed in nine steps: through the thickness of the walling were square slots to support scaffolding, and two rectangular embrasures. The wall was built of unworked stones bound with plaster, with bricks inserted in irregular array. Patches of off-white plaster from the earliest construction phase survive mostly on the inner face.  More recent alterations to the wall used cement. During the post-collapse clean-up, it was ascertained that the wall was originally 0.9m thick at the level of the circuit road; during a later phase, a section of wall only 0.4m thick was built at ca. 30o to the remaining stonework, disrupting the cohesion of the structure and thus leading to the recent collapse. The wall was restored in its original form, entirely on the original line.

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Ermione, Monastery of the Pammegistes Taxiarches. G. Tsekes and K. Boudouris (5th EBA) report on study and restoration of the bell-tower of the katholikon, built in contact with the west face of the church.  The 13.3m-high tower consists of a tetrapylon base (3.3m square and 6.3m tall), built in the grey stone of Hydra, and with a vaulted interior. On this is rests the main body, in two rectangular tiers built entirely in marble (each tier originally had eight columns supporting arched epistyles), and then an eight-sided crowning element.    

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Koniditsa, Church of the Prophet Ilias.   D. Charalambous (5th EBA) reports the discovery of sections of late Middle Byzantine wallpainting upon the removal of later plaster inside the church. In the cupola was a section on non-figurative decoration (a rosette within two concentric circles).    

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Molaoi.  K. Diamanti and N. Skangos (5th EBA) report the discovery at Koutsoumbes (east of Molaoi) of a rectangular Byzantine building with walls of unworked stones held in plaster (and bricks inserted at the junctions). Plain and glazed Byzantine and post-Byzantine sherds were scattered in the surrounding area. Remains of a substantial Roman and Early Christian settlement found on the plain at Chalasmata (Pentagiousi), northeast of Molaoi, near three sixth-century basilicas previously investigated.   

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Chersonesos Palaiokastro. P. Skangou (5th EBA) reports that survey in the area of anc. Boiai revealed the remains of a cistern on the north side of the modern church of Ag. Paraskevi, sections of Byzantine walls and the remains of a tower.  

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Sparta, Alkmanos Street (O.T. 126, property of A. Aeopoulou). M. Florou (5th EBA) reports the discovery of three disturbed cist tombs (6, 7 and 8), supplementing those previously found on the site. Preserved contents comprised an intact undecorated plate, joining vessel sherds, a lamp with a depiction of a peacock and a few bones from secondary burials.  

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Sparta, perimeter road yet to be opened (O.T. 131, property of D. and A, Papadopoulou).  M. Florou (5th EBA) reports the discovery of building remains which likely relate to the Roman house excavated on the neighbouring plot to the south (property of M. Florou-Stamatopoulou). Part of a Roman floor mosaic was uncovered in the north of the plot, decorated with spirals and geometric motifs executed in large red, white and blue tesserae. A fluted column had fallen onto this floor.  Finds include Hellenistic to Roman/Late Roman pottery, pieces of wall plaster, fragments of glass vessels, and a large number of terracotta loomweights.    

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Argos, Bousoulopoulou Street (O. T. Γ412, property of Th. Papathanasiou).  G. Tsekes (5th EBA) reports the discovery of fifth- to sixth-century AD walls on a plot 90m from an Early Christian church (on the Florou property), 30m northwest of an Early Christian baptistery (on the Perdikari property), and next to plots on which Early Christian graves and building remains have previously been discovered. A strongly-built wall ran east-west across the plot: built of re-used large stone blocks in cemetery, it included spolia such as a triglyph block and two column capitals.  Two north-south cross walls of the same construction defined a room at the east end. Further spolia were recovered, including a kioniskos, a column capital and part of an Early Christian kioniskos, and a fragment of Roman sculpture.  

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Kambos Avias (property of E. Mitsea). X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of part of the wall of a now destroyed public building, ca. 300m west of the known Mycenaean tholos tomb and 150m south of the castle of Zarnata. A 5.65m-long stretch of wall (0.65m wide), built of dressed stone blocks, was preserved. No further evidence of building was found. Pottery includes Late Classical fine black glaze and tile. This date coincides with the floruit of ancient Gerinia (usually placed in this area).  

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Phrixa (property of Ch. Papakyritsi). X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of two stone-built cist tombs, oriented east-west, in parallel, which probably belonged to an extensive Late Classical or Early Hellenistic cemetery.  Tomb 1 (1.9 x 0.55m), found almost intact (with its cover-slab in situ) contained two supine inhumations, with a lamp placed between the thigh-bones of one. Tomb 2 (1.94 x 0.55m), which had been badly disturbed by a mechanical digger, contained the bones of two burials heaped at the west edge of the grave, with a lamp among them. A later, supine inhumation was also accompanied by a lamp.  

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Koskina. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of three intact cist graves (with their cover slabs in place) plus a pithos burial, which belong to a wider cemetery ca. 200m south of the modern village cemetery, southeast of the road junction. Tomb 1 (1.7 x 0.6m) contained two adult burials and the displaced bones of an earlier burial, with two skyphoi, a terracotta spool and a lamp. Tomb 2 (1.71 x 0.62m) contained the inhumation of an adult in supine position, with a one-handled cup. Tomb 3 (1.8 x 0.46m) contained the inhumation of an adult in supine position, without grave goods. The burial pithos (0.85m tall, 0.65m in diameter) had a terracotta lid, beside which was a small cup. A small stone structure protected the curved base of the pithos. The vessel contained the contracted inhumation probably of a child, with a lead coin, an iron strigil, a small knife, and numerous astragaloi from sheep and goats.  

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Platiana. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on further excavation on terraces III and IV, focused on Buildings D and E, and the rectangular base in area D (in the east part of terrace IV). Building E (6.5 x 4.8m, oriented east-west), in the east part of terrace III, south of Building Γ, was built of roughly worked blocks of local limestone (with the exception of the west wall, which contained smaller stones).  The internal courtyard (4.8 x 3.5m) was defined by stone walls to the south and east: that to the east lay beyond an area paved with reused stone slabs, and contained the main entrance to the building. The thickest part of the paved surface included an earlier construction. The south wall, which had two external buttresses, served as a retaining wall for the overlying plateau. A narrow, paved open-air passage ran between the two south walls.  Removal of the surface deposits within the building revealed a layer containing fragments of plaster and Laconian rooftiles which overlay a thick destruction deposit which did not extend into the western part of the building. Beneath this, and over the beaten earth floor of the building, was a layer containing ash and red and white painted plaster (the plaster found by the north wall indicates marbling). This floor was at a lower level than the paved surface, which is thus later in date. Close to the west wall of the building was a stone base (3.4m long, oriented north-south, occupying the entire interior width of the building); this was set on a partially preserved footing built of four blocks of local limestone which had a cyma pattern in low relief on the upper part of the front face. While the function of the base is unknown, it accords with the proposed public character of the building. Few portable finds were recovered, and the proposed Hellenistic date of the building is established mostly on architectural grounds. West of Building E, a flight of three stone steps oriented north-south linked the lower and upper terrace levels. This was bounded to the east by the west wall of Building E and to the west by a low wall of fieldstones set on bedrock. North of the steps lay the bedrock outcrop which underlay the foundation of the northwest corner of Building E. In the eastern part of terrace IV, west of the modern Church of Profitis Ilias, was a rectangular stone ‘base’ (5.7 x 1.2 x 0.3m) with a semi-circular stone exedra (covering an area of ca. 3.5 x 4m) on a large plateau immediately to the west. The rock in front of the exedra had been trimmed level. A Γ-shaped foundation (1.9 x 1.2 x 0.3m) ca. 3m south of the exedra bore three small rectangular cuttings in the upper face. Just south of this foundation was a small cist grave (0.9 x 0.5m) of limestone slabs containing a child burial but no grave goods. It probably dates to the Christian period, as the similar grave found in 2004 on the south end of the ‘base’. The ‘base’, exedra and foundation are together interpreted as an open air cult complex which likely extended onto the overlying plateau to the west. Building D (6.3 x 3m internally, oriented east-west), lay to the north of the one-roomed Building B. Built of large roughly worked blocks of local limestone and founded on bedrock in places trimmed to form a level floor, it had a threshold in the centre of the south wall. Pieces of decorative wall plaster were found over the fallen Laconian rooftiles. The south wall bore white plaster on the exterior, suggesting that the entrance way had a projecting roof. Finds from the interior of the building were generally poor and not indicative of function (with the exception of the stone basin of a perirrhanterion and a stone table support found in the southern part). A Hellenistic date is consistent with the little pottery recovered (including moulded bowls from the lowest excavated level). The building appears to have fallen into disuse gradually rather than in some sudden episode of destruction.  

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Vouzani, Klindia. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of five looted chamber tombs, arranged in three parallel rows, from a Mycenaean cemetery northeast of the modern village by the Pineios river. The presence of the cemetery was revealed in 2001 by the chance find of a Mycenaean bronze sword by a local landowner. Tomb 1 was oriented north-south with the entrance on the north. The oval chamber (2.44 x 2.1m, maximum height 1.1m) contained evidence of modern looting, plus mingled bones, glass paste, faience and sard beads, a steatite spool and part of a vase handle. The dromos (3.95m long x 1.68m wide) was filled with earth and limestone chips. Tomb 2, to the east, was on the same orientation. Large limestone blocks from the collapsed tholos covered the oval (2.36 x 2.1m) chamber: the floor had been damaged by looters. The dromos (3.55 long, 1.1-2.24m wide), had in places surfaces packed with river sand; the area of the chamber entrance was surfaced with clay soil. Only a few sherds were found in the chamber and the dromos. Tomb 3, which lay between 1 and 2, was almost entirely destroyed. Only a little mingled bone was recovered. Tomb 4 is a modified cave behind tombs 1 and 2 and on the same orientation. The entrance was sealed with a large rough limestone slab; the chamber was approximately round (2.28 x 2.22m, preserved to a height of 1.15m); and the dromos 3.7 x 1.5m. A thick layer of clay soil covered the floor. Approximately in the middle of the dromos was a contracted inhumation without goods, and at its northeast edge, a stone structure (0.87 x 0.85, height 0.1-0.7m) with no associated objects. Tomb 5 lay to the west of tomb 1, on the same orientation. The chamber was oval (1.91 x 1.52m, maximum preserved height 2.6m), the tholos had collapsed, and the entrance was sealed with a dry stone wall. Probably due to unsuitable ground conditions, the dromos was opened to the west and was small (1.54m long and 1.18-1.54m wide).  

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Ammouli, Goumero. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that the chance discovery at this hill site of an LHIIIC stirrup jar (in 2001) and a kyathos (in 2004) gave rise to trial excavation which did not reveal antiquities. The perimeter of the hill had been disturbed by extensive earth-moving which had completely destroyed the ancient remains (probably Mycenaean chamber tombs).  

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Diamantakou (Magarzi), Chelidoni. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a group of five Mycenaean chamber tombs following looting in this known cemetery.  The LHII – LHIIIA2 tomb 1, on the east side the hill, was oriented north-south and entered from the north. The tholos had collapsed (leaving the chamber filled with debris) and looters had removed the wall sealing the entrance and robbed the niche in the west wall of the dromos. The chamber was an irregular rectangle (maximum wall length 2.63 x 2.53, maximum preserved height 3.34m). The dromos (5.75 x 1.56-1.48m) was carefully constructed, sloping down to the entrance, and preserved to a height of 2.85m.  The chamber was intact, and contained four undisturbed burials plus one displaced burial.  Burial α’, a contracted inhumation on the west side of the chamber, had glass paste plaquettes and two terracotta spindle whorls around the cranium, and by the pelvis an alabastron and four spindle whorls.  Burial β’, to the west, was a contracted inhumation: by the pelvis were a kyathos and jug, by the right foot a spindle whorl, and around the cranium glass beads of various shapes and a terracotta bird-shaped pendant. Burial γ’, an outstretched inhumation, was in the centre of the tomb: by each wrist was at least one sealstone, and on the left side of the cranium, a bronze sword, two cups, an alabastron, a cup-lebes, two jars, and a variety of beads. Burial δ’, a contracted inhumation to the west of burial γ’, had an albastron at the foot.  The displaced burial was in the southwest corner of the tomb: among the bones were a jar, a terracotta spindle whorl, a sealstone, and a variety of beads.  Tomb 2 (LH IIIA2) lay 3.5m southeast of tomb 1 and on the same orientation.  The oval chamber (1.5 x 1.72m) was well constructed and preserves the tholos to a height of 1.67m. The steeply down-sloping dromos was 4.1m long and 0.9-1.12m wide, preserved to a height of 2.25m. The chamber was empty with the exception of scattered disarticulated bones along the east side, and on the west, two alabastra, four spindle whorls and a variety of beads. Tomb 3, which had a very small chamber (1.09 x 0.8m, preserved height 0.69m), lay 1.6m west of tomb 2.  The well-built dromos was 3.45m long and 0.92m wide.  The dry-stone wall sealing the entrance was intact, but the tomb, while unrobbed, contained no grave goods. Tomb 4 lay a short distance further northeast: the chamber was almost trapezoidal (1.08 x 0.55m, 0.72m in height), the dry-stone wall sealing the entrance intact, and (uniquely) the dromos was cut parallel to the chamber (2.52m long and 0.94m wide). The tomb contained neither bones nor goods. The LH IIB- LH IIIA tomb 5, on the west side of the hill, was oriented north-south and entered from the north. The tholos had collapsed into the chamber. The chamber was an irregular rectangle (5.26 x 3.1m) preserved to a height of 3.7m, while the carefully cut, downsloping dromos was 7m long, 1.6m wide and preserved to a height of 2.99m.  An oval niche in the west wall of the dromos close to the tomb entrance held a contracted inhumation with a cup and an alabastron: a few sherds were found in the dromos. The wall sealing the chamber entrance had been breached and the chamber looted. Grave goods in the northeast of the chamber (a cup and jug, nine spindle whorls, a variety of beads and a set of bronze tweezers) had escaped the attention of the looters. Two alabastra, a tripod cup, and a round handleless jar were restored from sherds found in the chamber. Bones were scattered over the entire surface of the chamber. Three burial pits were cut into the floor. Pit 1, to the west of the entrance (1.6 x 0.3m, 0.6m deep) contained a single supine inhumation, with a cup and a spindle whorl at the feet. Pit 2, oval in shape (1.26 x 0.48m, 0.15m deep) and oriented east-west, was situated by the south wall of the chamber. It contained a contracted inhumation without grave goods. Pit 3 (1.42 x 0.42m, 0.22m deep) occupied the southeast corner of the chamber, oriented north-south. It contained disarticulated bones and a spindle whorl.   

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Staphidokambos (Paspaliari-Moutaphi property). X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a Hellenistic building (dated by the little pottery recovered) very close to the present surface and thus partially preserved.  The full plan could not be restored.  In the northeast corner of the plot was a very severely damaged tile grave.  

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Chalasmata, Daphnoula. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of three tile graves on a small hill beside the riverside road leading to the modern village. Tomb 1 (1.9 x 0.45m) on the western slope of the hill was oriented north-south and formed of two tiles, closed with a large field stone on the north side. It contained an extended inhumation laid on a thin layer of clay soil, with the upper body turned onto the left side and the hands together on the left of the pelvis. One undiagnostic sherd and two pieces of an undiagnostic iron tool were the only finds.  The small, triangular tomb 2 at the southern edge of tomb 1, formed of two stones and a piece of tile, contained human bones with a black glaze lamp set on top of them. Tomb 3, ca. 2m north of tomb 1 and of similar construction but oriented east-west, was half destroyed. It contained a single inhumation of which the upper part only survives, and no grave goods.   On the hill top were traces of plastered walls in two locations. These included later period remains, as well as limestone blocks.  

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Barliaki, Chavari. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a pithos burial during road widening. Three vases were handed over by the contractors. The pithos (1.3m tall and 0.75m in external diameter) was set north-south on its side. A stone slab closed the mouth, but only the lower part of the inhumation contained in the vessel was preserved. The rich good comprised 11 vases (three skyphoi, a lopas, and seven Attic red-figure lekythoi) dating from the early sixth century to the second half of the fourth. It is therefore suggested that the tomb was used for successive burials by the same family.  

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Trano Choraphi, Kladeos (property of Ch. Photopoulos). X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the investigation, following the report of a stone mound, of five stone slabs at the base of a pit. No evidence for their date was found.  

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Lepreon. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that excavation focused on a long building (probably a temple) in the north-northeast part of the acropolis, within the fortification.  A rough wall aligned with the long side of the building plus a fill, both indicative of later landscaping, were revealed in the northeast corner of the building. Many bronze and terracotta votives were recovered, including 13 intact and many fragmentary aryballoi, terracotta plaques, bronze sheet (including decorated pieces), bronze and iron pins and decorative items in bone. The last include a votive ram, a seal depicting a lion and another with two decorated faces depicting a sphinx and a stylized bird, a double axe, a pin head, and a ring. Bronze items include a sheet with a depiction of a vessel, a biconical bead, part of a model of a lyre, vessel handles, and decorative cladding from a wooden box. These finds are generally Archaic and associated with one of the first phases of the temple (which remained in use until the Late Classical period, when it was abandoned for reasons unknown). A later kiln by the exterior angle of tower 2 at the east gate of the fortification, discovered in 2003, was fully investigated. The kiln was built of mud brick which had been exposed to extreme heat (traces of which were also seem on the floor). The structure was preserved to a height of 1.27m.  

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Ancient Elis. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a terracotta spool on the theatre plot east of the Archaeological Museum.  

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Phloka. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of an early seventh-century BC bronze helmet at the Alpheios dam.  

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Mesorrachi, Kallithea. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of non-diagnostic pottery and tile.

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Lepreon. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of four bronze coins by the Church of Ag. Panteleimon.  

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Arsinoe, Church of Agia Marina. X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the removal of two stone architectural members to the Museum of Ancient Messene. 1) An early Christian inscription in low relief (tabula ansata) on the upper part of a block: ΑΦΡΟΔΕΙ CΙΕ ΧΑΙΡΕ ΖΗCΑC Ε ΤΗ < / < 5 2) The almost complete limestone base for a funerary stele, in the form of a low throne with relief lion paws at the edges.  West of the church, on the property of P. Petropoulou, two third- to second-century BC cist tombs were found during the opening of a drainage ditch. Tomb I (1.75 x 0.4m), of limestone slabs, contained one extended inhumation and three displaced burials pushed to the ends of the grave. A one-handled cup and a lachrymaterion were placed on the pelvis, while at the feet were a bone astragalos, fragments of an iron strigil and knife, and two lachrymateria. At the south end of the grave, beneath two of the displaced crania, were two bronze mirrors, fragments of a bronze knife, a lachrymaterion, and two lamps. Following the removal of these burial remains, came two pyxides, two amphoriskoi, a plate, a black glaze feeding bottle with lid, and a miniature pyxis. A limestone pedimental grave stele was set over the tomb. Cleaning outside the tomb produced an iron knife, a bronze mirror handle and a pyxis lid. Tomb II (1.7 x 0.43m), 5.8m to the west, had been looted and badly damaged. Sherds and a female terracotta figurine were recovered from the fill.  

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Litharolakka, Ambelophyto (property of A. Adrachta). X. Arapogianni (Ζ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a Mycenaean tholos tomb.  Excavation revealed six looted and severely damaged later Christian cist graves, oriented east-west and built of re-used stone slabs from the tholos. Cist 2, the best preserved, has interior dimensions of 1.35 x 0.3m.  The tholos was built over ground, and oriented east-west with the dromos to the west. Only the northern part was preserved (to a height of 1m): the diameter of the chamber is estimated at 4.85m. The disturbed fill contained human bone and cranium fragments plus a very little animal bone, and a Late Roman jug and pyramidal loomweight.  In the chamber floor (which bore traces of fire) was an oval pit (1.02 x 0.49m) containing burnt bone and cranium fragments, and non-diagnostic burnt sherds. Close to the preserved part of the chamber wall, at a higher level than the pit, was an oval grave structure (1.32 x 0.48m) containing a large quantity of bone and sherds, plus four intact LH IIIA1-2 vessels (a decorated stirrup jar, a cup, an alabastron and a handmade miniature jug). Cleaning of the chamber floor produced  one bronze and one iron dagger, fragments of bronze tweezers, part of an obsidian blade, three steatite and one terracotta spindle whorls, and an intact Ψ figurine.  Vessels restored from the large quantity of sherd material include two stirrup jars, three kylikes, three cups, an alabastron, a plainware jug, a thymiaterion, a bridge-spouted cup with spiral decoration, a feeding bottle, and one decorated and one undecorated jug.  The pottery dates the tholos from LH I-II to LH IIIB.  

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Volimidia (Kalogeropoulou property). G. Korres (Athens) reports the excavation of a chamber tomb similar to those previously known from this area, with a round chamber (5m in diameter) and beehive superstructure. Oriented north-south with the dromos  (6.7 x 1.9m) to the south, the chamber is preserved to a height of 1.9m. Sherds including kylix fragments, and a Φ figurine were recovered from the dromos. An older, rectangular grave on the east side of the dromos contained a Middle Helladic vase. A small subsidiary vaulted chamber opened from the west side of the dromos: from it were recovered kylix fragments, a terracotta spool, a decorated round alabastron, a handleless cup, and many Mycenaean sherds. In the floor of the main chamber were three parallel burial pits, oriented north-south (α [east]: 1.7 x 0.4m; β [centre]: 1.9 x 0.5m; γ [west]: 1.8 x 0.6m). Seven individuals (i.e. seven crania) were buried in the chamber.  Fifteen vessels were found in the chamber fill, mostly stirrup jars, jars, alabastra, bowls, cups and jugs.  The tholos likely remained in use until LH IIIC.  

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Patras, 56 Agiou Dimitriou Street.  L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a cistern, built of tile and stone in cement, with a stone floor and lined with hydraulic cement. A cement-lined water channel ran outside it. Poorly preserved Byzantine and post-Byzantine building remains (three rooms and a water channel) lay in the eastern part of the plot.  

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Patras, 71 Pantokratoras Street.  L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of remains of a Late Roman building (door jambs and an in situ threshold block) in the north part of the plot. In the remainder of the area were three separate floors (a black and white mosaic with floral decoration, a marble-clad floor, and a floor with two levels in opus spicatum) and sections of two water channels. The northeast corner of a cistern was exposed in the southwest.  

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Patras, 43 Sotiriadou Street (Tasini property).  L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of dense architectural remains over the entire plot. Two chambers of a monumental Roman structure (probably a nymphaeum) lay in the northeast of the plot, with walls in opus testaceum  preserved to a height of over 2m, a plaster floor over the entire structure, and a marble clad semi-circular pool (1.8m in diameter) entered via two steps. Outside the nymphaeum to the northwest, a section of paved road ran northwest-southeast, continuing that previously found on the neighbouring plot. Four water channels were found, one of which ran beside the road and one was associated with the nymphaeum. A later well and walls postdate the road.  The final use of the plot was as a Byzantine cemetery: 14 graves (tile graves and one cist) were found, without goods.  

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Patras, 74 Miaouli Street.  L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Late Roman buildings. In the west of the plot, one room belongs to a larger building with extended beyond the plot. In the west were two rooms of a further building which also extended beyond the plot. In the southeast corner was a well with a terracotta well-head. A 3.8m stretch of brick and stone wall in the centre of the plot contained archaeological spolia (fluted column drums, column capitals etc.). Beneath this wall, a floor and water channel predate the Late Roman remains.  

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Patras, 14 Agion Saranda Street.  L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Byzantine building remains (a corner founded on an earlier wall on the same orientation, plus a round, cement-lined cistern contemporary with the later structure). Two destruction levels (containing stone, tile and plaster) were located in the eastern part of the plot.  

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Patras, 47 Pantokratoras Street (property of Th. Mazaraki). A. Koumousi (6th EBA) reports the discovery of a two-roomed Byzantine building beneath an extensive destruction layer. Its walls were built of stones of various sizes, tiles, and spolia including worked blocks, sections of stylobate and arched lintels, parts of statues, a Latin inscription, and a small marble chancel column of Middle Byzantine date. Pottery and coins indicate that the building remained in use until the end of the 14th century.  It was founded on the walls of an Early Christian structure from which a bronze probe and a number of tegulae mammatae were recovered.  Investigated of the underlying Roman remains was pursued by the ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ. G. Alexopoulou reports the discovery of a Late Roman wall, with to the east of it a stretch of Roman road with a gravel surface and a covered water channel.   

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Patras, North Cemetery.  57 Satovriandou Street.  M. Petropoulos (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of 18 Hellenistic and Roman graves. Three tile graves, three cists and a limestone sarcophagus date to the Hellenistic period, while 11 (all tile graves) are Roman. Ten were child burials (with no surviving bone). Burials were in supine position, set directly onto the ground or on tiles. Most offerings were associated with Hellenistic graves; these include one gold and 15 silver pins, two gold rings, and three danakes. The Roman graves contained many glass vessels, 16 of which (round and bird-shaped unguentaria) come from one child burial. A marble grave stele found in two pieces bore a Latin inscription referring to a known Patras family of the second and third century AD.  

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Patras, North Cemetery.  72 Kanakari Street.  L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of two graves – a tile grave and a cist with a pedimental cover – which will be further investigated.  The plot, at the level of Kolokotronis Street, lies in a previously investigated area of the North Cemetery.  

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Patras, North Cemetery.  18 Pavlou Mela Street.  L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a funerary peribolos and six tombs dating from the second century AD onwards. The graves comprise a looted cist containing three burials, a child burial in a transport amphora, and four tile graves; most had no goods.  A thick layer of debris from a later wall covered the cemetery road ( formed of  pebbles, tile and gravel) which was revealed for 9m running northeast-southwest.  

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Kato Sychaina.  34 Agias Kyriakis Street and Agias Kyriakis Alley (property of I. Mandelou).  G. Alexopoulou (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Mycenaean buildings on the west-northwest slopes of the Katarrachi or Bortzi hill – the site of the Mycenaean settlement related to the cemetery at Voudeni, and of settlement dating from the Middle Helladic to Roman periods. Architectural remains of several phases do not postdate LH IIIC. Walls from two buildings belong to first, LH IIIB, phase. Two walls are assigned to a second, LH IIIB2/LH IIIC, phase, with a short stretch of a third belonging to phase 2a (LH IIIC).  Two buildings are pure LH IIIC in date (one wall of each was uncovered, separated by a lane).  

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Kato Sychaina.  G. Alexopoulou (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Early Helladic settlement remains. On Myrtiotissas Street (O.T. 1754A,  property of A. Zapanti), an extensive layer of pebbles probably formed the substructure of a settlement. Early Helladic pottery was collected (mostly lug handles and pithos sherds with plastic decoration). To the east, at 33 Prokopiou Street (property of M. Panteli), two strata contained domestic remains, but were not in situ. Early Helladic II and Late Helladic pottery was collected.  

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Sychaina. 138 Kozanis Street. L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of scattered stones, Classical tile and sherds in the surface layer, probably displaced from the hill top to the south.  

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Kato Kastritsi, Rion, 2nd cross-alley on Thrakis Street. L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of prehistoric (mostly LH III) settlement remains at the foot of a hill above the University of Patras. Nine rooms were identified. Rooms I-IV and probably also VIII were contemporary: stone deposits related to their destruction lay over the entire plot.  Room I (4.48x3.9m) preserves part of a stone-paved floor (with a gravel foundation course): a destruction layer over the floor extends beneath neighbouring later walls. A road ran beside it. Remains of a second, older phase comprise one wall and the fire destruction of  Room VII. Two earlier phases were revealed in Rooms VI and IX (although it is unclear whether they overlapped chronologically). Room I was built as an addition to Room VI, which was founded at a lower level in part within a destruction deposit with strong signs of burning. A terracotta hearth lay in the east corner of Room VI, with (immediately to the north) a sunken structure probably for charcoal burning: remains of the mud-brick superstructure were found within the room. To the east, a stone floor or road extended to the property line.  Excavation was not continued below the level of the architectural remains, but a trial trench in the west part of Room VI produced Middle Helladic sherds at a depth of 7.33m beneath the overlying road surface.  

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Zoitada, Krini.  L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of further tombs from the Mycenaean cemetery on the west slope of the hill (three chamber tombs were previously excavated on the Galanou property: ADelt 49 [1994] Chr. 234-236). This is one of five Mycenaean cemeteries in the wider area of Krini. Tombs were excavated on two plot. At 15 Ethnikis Antistaseos Street, seven chamber tombs were found in a dense, almost parallel array, with the chamber to the northeast and the dromos to the southwest. Tombs 1-5 were on a higher level, with tomb 7 below and 6 in between.  Damage caused by a mechanical digger left only tomb 6 intact. All tomb were sunk into the ground, with the dromos sloping steeply down (tombs 1, 2 and 3 had steps down into the chamber). Tomb 4 was unfinished, with only a shallow (0.2m deep) cutting made for the dromos.  None of the tombs had been looted, but the bones were poorly preserved. Sherds of drinking vessels (chiefly kylikes, deep bowls and kraters) were found in the dromoi of tombs 2, 3 and 6. Tomb 1, which had an oval chamber (2.3-1.85m across) and a 1.7m-long dromos, contained a few disarticulated bones from a single in situ inhumation accompanied by two small alabastra and two spindle whorls. Tomb 2, which had a round chamber (ca. 2.5m in diameter) and a 1.95m-long dromos, contained two layers of burials separated by a layer of soil and gravel. The earlier level (on the tomb floor) contained a primary contracted inhumation (sex uncertain) with a necklace and arm rings made of numerous cornelian beads, and the displaced remains of at least five further burials. A further cranium and other bones were found displaced. Grave goods comprised three alabastra, a jug, a bone pin and bronze tweezers. The later layer contained a primary inhumation with two alabastra. Tomb 3, which had an oval chamber (3.5-2.85m across) and a 3.4m-long dromos, had partially collapsed, covering the neighbouring tomb 2. It contained two layers of burials separated by a 1.3m-thick layer of larger stones which might be the result of an earlier partial collapse of the superstructure while the tomb was in use. The earlier level (on the tomb floor) contained two burials (the better preserved accompanied by a bronze tweezers) and the displaced remains of two more with a one-handled closed vessel and two alabastra. Very small oval bone beads (plus two gold six-leafed rosettes) were recovered from the fill of this layer. The upper level contained two in situ inhumations and the displaced remains of at least two individuals. Goods comprised three stirrup jars, an alabastron, two spindle whorls, and an intact bronze needle. Tomb 5, with an oval chamber (2.6-2.25m across) and a 4.15m-long dromos, was largely destroyed. A layer of red soil and rock chips lay over the tomb floor with no evidence of burials, but one alabastron. Tomb 6, with an oval chamber (2.9-2.4m across) and a 2.9m-long dromos, contained five primary inhumations and the displaced remains of at least three burials over the floor: a pit grave by the entrance (with a cover slab) contained scant remains probably of a child burial, sealed with a layer of clay. This tomb contained the richest collection of grave goods – 26 vases (many intact) including, in addition to stirrup jars and alabastra, lekythoi, ring- and bird-shaped askoi, a kalathos and a four-handled amphora, plus bronze tweezers. Tomb 7, with a round chamber (1.75m in diameter) and a 3.15m-long dromos, contained five primary burials in a layer over the floor with three alabastra, spindle whorls, a bronze ring, beads, and a faience scarab depicting a lion.  Cleaning across the plot below the level of the tombs revealed an irregular bedrock surface. On the Property of K. Georgantopoulou, 50m to the north, two further Late Helladic chamber tombs were found intact. Tomb 1, with an irregular oval chamber (2.6-1.5m across) and a 2.13m-long dromos, contained a displaced set of at least 6 burials opposite the entrance (by the rear wall of the chamber), with five groups of offerings (ten vases – stirrup jars, jugs, cups and an oil dispenser), beads, and seal stones depicting animals. Tomb 2, with a 3.8m-lomg dromos, contained two primary contracted inhumations in the left half of the chamber with a group of five small vessels in common. In the right half were the displaced remains of at least five burials plus 17 vases (stirrup jars and alabastra), a spindle whorl and bronze tweezers.   

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Saravali (Psemma property). L. Papakosta (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a destruction level containing Byzantine pottery, tiles and stone.  

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Loutro, Prevedos (anc. Pharae) (Kanellopoulou-Koumanioti property). G. Alexopoulou (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a Roman bath complex with its hypocaust system. Trial excavation revealed walls and water channels, moulded bowls, Roman pottery, and an inscription (letter height 0.025m) reading: ΑΠΟΥΛΗΙΟΝ/ ΦΙΛΩΤΑΝΗ/ ΦΘΛΥΤωΝ Two further inscribed fragments read ΧΑ and (in two lines) Μ[Α] and…. Ρ. The chapel of the Panagia, northwest of the plot and to the right of the Patras-Tripotamon-Tripolis road, which is surrounded by sherds and scattered architectural members, lies in the centre of the ancient city. The modern road follows the course of a major ancient road. The complex is associated with the centre of ancient Pharae (at Prevedos).

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Lachida, anc. Pharae (property of K. Verra). G. Alexopoulou (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of an extensive layer of tile and building material probably from a farmstead.  

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Aigion, Agiou Meletiou Alley (property of G. Papanastasiou). E.-I. Kolia (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a (probably public) Roman bath complex which extended onto neighbouring plots. Four rooms were identified: their walls had two faces in opus testaceum with a stone and cement fill (opus caementitium) and interior faces clad in marble. Room 2 had a wall mosaic in stone and coloured glass. Hellenistic walls lay beneath the Roman Room 1. Two column bases and a water channel in room 1 likely relate to a later construction phase.  Room 2 had at least two successive cement floors. The largest room, 3, with an apse in the south wall, contained the hypocaust (the columns of which were preserved, along with parts of the cement floor). Room 4, at the west edge of the plot was partially investigated; it was probably the second room of the caldarium. Debris of the collapsed upper floor was found in the northwest corner.  The complex had evidently been renovated on various occasions until its destruction in the Late Roman period. It is to be associated with remains excavated in 1971 at 22 Andronopoulou Street, to the northwest (ADelt 26 [1971] Chr. 185).  

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Aigion, 12 Dodecaneson Street (property of A. Panagopoulou). E.-I. Kolia (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Neolithic to post-Byzantine remains. Four round pot-Byzantine refuse pits (1m across) had destroyed earlier structures and disturbed prehistoric levels. Eleven fragmentary wall sections could not be associated with structures. This may be an Early Helladic (residential?) structure (dated by ceramic finds), but was disturbed by Byzantine and post-Byzantine activity. A small area in the northwest of the plot produced undisturbed Late Neolithic strata containing evidence of fire, unworked stones, masses of clay, a large quantity of coarse and fine decorated pottery, animal bone, and obsidian and flint blades and cores.  

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Kamares, Erineos (property of P. Petropoulou). E.-I. Kolia (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of six irregularly-shaped mounds of fieldstones and gravel (with dimensions ranging from 2x1.5m to 3x1.5m), and, built into the eastern field edge, a wall of fieldstones founded on a layer of gravel. A horseshoe-shaped clay structure (0.8m long), hollowed inside, lay in the north of the plot: by its east side were two cremations (one in a pit 1m in diameter). Abundant Early Helladic-Late Helladic pottery included sherds with painted or impressed decoration, a few broken vessels, two figurines, spindle whorls, and a large quantity of obsidian and flint blades and cores (found mostly in the stone mounds).  

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Kastro, Diakopto (anc. Boura). E.-I. Kolia (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a cist tomb at the site of Ai-Lenti (beside the farm track to Ag. Apostoloi). The grave, which had been robbed in antiquity, was built of small stones: a few Hellenistic sherds and tile fragments, and a little bone, were collected from fill by the preserved short side.  Beside the farm track from Ai-Lenti to Kastro, an enchytrismos in a plain vessel (probably a child burial although no bones survive), contained a small kantharos and three miniature kotyles dating to the second half of the sixth century, plus a severely corroded iron object. Just to the north was a Roman cist grave with a plaster floor.  

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Agia Paraskavi, Kastro Kalavryta (property of Ch. Nakos-Kouremetis General Partnership). G. Alexopoulou (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a pithos on the west-southwest slope of the Kastro, 50, northeast of the Chapel of Ag. Paraskevi. The pithos, which contained fragments of bone, lay on its side, its mouth closed with a terracotta plaque: its maximum preserved diameter was 0.95m. Badly worn sherds were collected outside it. Along the east side of the plot, a stretch of fortification wall running north-northwest to south-southeast, built of partly worked and unworked limestone blocks, was revealed for a length of 41.7m (scattered blocks revealed its continuing course). Both faces were visible, with a fill of small-medium stones and soil, though the structure had been damaged by the opening of a rural road. A terrace wall lay 10.4m to the west, founded on a course of gravel.  Between the two walls lay a pithos burial closed with a limestone slab: it contained a fragmentary skeleton and three two-handled skyphoi (one of which was intact) of the third quarter of the eighth century. Outside the pithos, by the mouth, were two oinochoae, part of a pedestal krater, two small vessels, a kalathos, and a small open vessel with an everted lip, likewise all dating to the third quarter of the eighth century.  A further pithos a little to the north, contained bone fragments.   

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Kastro Kalavryta (property of A. Intzoglou). G. Alexopoulou (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of three post-Byzantine round structures (for the use of shepherds) built of ancient materials, including pithos sherds and stone, to the northwest of the Chapel of Ag. Paraskevi. The foundations of Hellenistic walls lay to the southwest. Pithos fragments and a few Hellenistic sherds were recovered.  

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Agios Konstantinos (property of A. Mavroeidis & Company [formerly property of P. Psevtoudi]).  G. Alexopoulou (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of part of a Classical house comprising two walls at right-angles and a destruction layer containing Laconian-type rooftiles, iron nails, and a little pottery (including fine black glaze), also pyramidal loomweights. Part of a pebble floor lay in the corner, beneath the destruction layer. A later internal wall changed the room division. In the north of the plot was a strong terrace wall (2m wide, preserved to a length of 8.4m), plus a second (0.5m wide) which ran parallel to the western part of it.  

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Agia Triada (property of D. Diaphagou and D. Kollia). G. Alexopoulou (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a section of a covered water channel built of stone slabs, tile and plaster.   

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Klokos (property of A. and M. Kouneli General Partnership). G. Alexopoulou (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery (at a site ca. 2km northeast of Kalavryta) of three burial pithoi, laid on their sides and closed with stone slabs. Although the pithoi had been damaged during construction, pithos II contained a fragmentary skeleton and a quantity of Middle Geometric grave goods.    

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Psophis. G. Alexopoulou (ΣΤ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery, in the course of widening a road within the archaeological site, of a post-Byzantine wall containing earlier spolia (including column capitals), the corner of a Late Byzantine building, and a large quantity of Classical and Hellenistic pottery.  

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Patras. 7 Boukaouri Street.  A. Koumousi (6th EBA) reports the discovery of the inner face of a wall (4.3m high, 7.8m long, 2.4-2.5m wide) on the east side of the castle, strengthened with buttresses between which are two arched window-slits. The wall, which belongs to the same construction phase as the castle, is a continuation of the section previously discovered further south, at 3 and 5 Boukaouri Street. It is built of unworked stones, brick and sections of tile with a thick cement binding, and the window arches are brick. To the west of the wall was a rectangular well (2.1 x 1.7m) with walls of alternating courses of brick and unworked stone, which was investigated only to a depth of 1.8m (but is clearly deeper). Large quantities of Byzantine (12th-century) pottery were recovered, especially glazed open and closed shapes. More recent levels produced four bronze torneselli of Andrea Dandolo (1342-1354).  

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Patras. 8 6th Syntagmatos Street.  A. Koumousi (6th EBA) reports the discovery of the corner of a Byzantine (11th- to 12th-century) building with strong walls of large squared blocks (separated by two courses of brick) bound with cement, which is preserved to a maximum height of 3.58m. The interior faces preserved traces of plaster. The date is supplied by pottery and coins (half tetartira and anonymous folles). Sections of the same building had previously been discovered during rescue excavation on the neighbouring plot to the east in 1998. (ADelt 53 [1998] Chr 258).  Across the remainder of the plot were walls and water channels belonging to an industrial installation (a lime kiln).  

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Mitopoli (property of Z. Nikolakopoulou). A. Koumousi (6th EBA) reports the discovery, ca. 100m south of the Frankish castle of Mitopoli, of a rectangular structure with walls of large limestone blocks and  courses of brick bound in thick cement. An extensive destruction deposit inside and outside the building produced a Roman coin. Finds include a large number of rounded bricks from the columns of a hypocaust.  

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Argos. 39 Danaou Street (property of the Xixi brothers, O.T. 134A). Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Archaic, Hellenistic and Roman building remains. In the southeast of the plot, at a depth of 2.37-2.45m, three rooms of a Roman bath complex had partially preserved floor mosaics covered with terracotta tiles. The building continued beyond the excavation area to the east and south. By the west side was a Roman cistern lined with terracotta tiles.  Three sections of floor mosaic survive: a) northernmost floor (3.6 x 2.1m), with a band on the south edge of alternating lozenge and hourglass motifs in black and white tesserae, inside that a band of net motif and then a central scene surrounded by a garland, preserved parts of which depict a vine and the head of a bird in black, white, blue and dark brown; b) (3.22m x 1.53 as preserved) a central panel with geometric decoration of triangles and lozenges surrounded by bands, in red, black and white; c)5 x 1m section with a black border and a band of hourglass and cross motifs in black and white. Beneath the Roman bath lay the foundations of a Hellenistic building plus a rectangular (2 x 6m) building which probably housed a press (noting the base of a terracotta basin and a press stone built into a Roman wall, along with a Classical-Hellenistic marble base with cuttings for a bronze statue of an adult figure). Immediately beneath this level were two deposits containing fragments of Hellenistic wall-painting in purple, yellow, white, red, grey and black colours in varying combinations. In the west part of the plot were the foundations of a Roman ironworking shop.Two rooms were traced, but the structure extended beyond the excavation area. Beneath this were Hellenistic foundations, with Archaic beneath them. On the north side of the excavation area, an Archaic pithos contained the inhumation of an adult without grave goods. An enchytrismos of an infant in a table amphora and a pit grave of an infant without goods were found in the same area. Fines from the excavation as a whole include, in addition to pottery, coins, fourth- to second-century BC unguentaria, lamps and Hellenistic figurines (including a koutrotrophos).    

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Argos, Church of the Panagia Katakrymmeni. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that a fourth-century BC inscribed limestone grave stele is built into the stone steps from the nave to the cellar. This reads: ]ΓΩΝΙΔΑΣ ΑΣΤΙΔΑ ΜΑΝΤΙΝΕΥΣ

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Anyphi, Church of Agia Soteira. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that three blocks from the starting line of a stadium are built into the north wall of this unfinished 12th-century church. Since the building incorporates many other spolia from the Argive Heraion, this is the likely location of the stadium.  

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Pyrgela. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that part of the marble bier from a Roman sarcophagus is built into the northeast corner of the Church of Ag. Nikolaos in the village square. The sarcophagus likely originated in the city of Argos.  

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Agia Triada (Merbaka), Chapel of Agia Anna. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that a crowning block from the Classical altar of the Argive Heraion is built into the chapel (which is itself on the site on an earlier, 12th-century church). He recalls that two further members from this altar are built into the 13th-century Church of the Panagia at Merbaka.    

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Prophitis Ilias, demos of Agios Adrianos. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on work to expose the foundations of the ancient temple previously discovered beneath the Church (an Archaic-Roman votive deposit, containing a few Mycenaean sherds, is also known at the site). The temple is estimated at ca 6 x 12m. The longest preserved section of the north-south wall, inside the church, is 5.25m long: the 13.3m- long wall on the north side has a foundation of limestone blocks. The temple substructure and the sloping surrounds had been levelled with a packing of stones, among which were Mycenaean sherds and Classical and Roman tile. It is suggested that the original identification of the dedicatee as Athena may be incorrect, noting the recovery in the original excavation of the lead catchplate of an Archaic fibula with a depiction of Zeus and Hera. A Mycenaean fortification around the lower slopes of the hill was cleaned, revealing the lower part of a Mycenaean retaining wall on the west, south and southeast. The oval circuit was ca. 18m east-west and 30m north-south. The temple this stood in an area which had been landscaped and occupied in Mycenaean times.  

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Nauplion, Ephesou Street (property of the Patsalou brothers). Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a limestone sarcophagus (internal width 0.56, height 0.46, length not determined as the sarcophagus continues into the neighbouring plot).  Late Geometric-Archaic sherds were recovered during cleaning over the cover slab.  

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Monastery of the Zoodochos Pigi, Agia Moni. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on ancient spolia built into this 12th-century monastery and on ancient remains in the complex as a whole. a) A Hellenistic inscribed limestone base in the northeast corner of the church preserves two lines of text: ]ΤΡΑΤΩΝΟΣ ΑΡΓΕΙΟΣ ]ΙΗΣΕ This likely refers to the Argive artist Xenophilos son of Straton (IG IV, 1 234): the base likely came from the Argive Heraion. b) Seven lozenge-shaped and one triangular marble floor slabs from the tholos at Epidauros are reported in the western part of the north side of the church and on either side of the entrance to the chapel just outside the enclosure of the monastery. These slabs were likely removed during the second period of Venetian rule (1686-1715). c) The foundations of a rectangular (5 x 5.2m) fourth- to third-century BC tower lie outside the west perimeter wall of the monastery complex, just south of the approach road. A post-antique well was opened in the middle of it. The ancient road from Nauplia to Asine ran via this area. d) A cistern southwest of the monastery estate was lined with hydraulic cement and pieces of Hellenistic rooftile. It may indicate the presence of a farmhouse in this area.  

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Chani-Karpetorema, Pyrgiotika (Phelekoura property). Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a tower (6.7 x 5.1m), built of limestone blocks, on a low hill south of the national road from Nauplion to Epidauros. Inside was a small (3 x 4m) irrigation cistern.  

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Nauplion, Psaromachalas, 30th Noemvriou and Salaminos Street (property of the Monastery of the Zoodochos Pigi, Aria). Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a 6.1m-long stretch of Hellenistic polygonal wall running east-west and preserved to two courses.  Both the megalithic blocks and smaller stones used were likely cut from local bedrock. The wall follows the steeply sloping contours of the bedrock, and is likely a continuation of the Hellenistic wall found on the property of A. Armelidi at 1 Zygomala Street. The Venetian wall rests upon it.  

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Ancient Asine. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) records observations made in the course of cleaning and excavation of the fortification wall for a new access way to the acropolis. Exposure of the inner face of the original early Hellenistic inner circuit showed that it was built of soft limestone blocks (the exterior, polygonal face is in hard limestone); the total width of the north side of the wall is estimated at 4.1m. The western part of the lower, sea wall was destroyed by the sea during the Early Byzantine period: a new wall was then built (1.6m thick, preserved height 0.9-1m). The surviving remains of the Early Byzantine western sea wall preserve a small gate leading up to the western side of the acropolis (a second, southern gate is also attested, 5.8m away). Within the fortified acropolis, the Chapel of the Panagia was built on the site of a larger three-aisled church of the fifth to sixth century AD.  Building foundations and pottery indicate Early Helladic and Mycenaean occupation in the area outside the acropolis fortification on the west side. Fifty-seven metres west of the west fortification wall lies the northern part of a double kiln (the southern part is lost to the sea) dated to the second period of Venetian rule (1686-1715), noting the tiles used in the construction. The lower part of the firing chamber, the clay floor and the collapsed superstructure are preserved. Five metres to the west lay the walls of an Archaic building.  

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Agios Demitrios, Epidauros. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of architectural members from the entrance of a previously unknown tower built into the ruined Church of Ag. Nikolaos in the village square (noting that the ancient road from Argos to Epidauros passed closed to the village). A further ancient architectural member and part of a press stone from an ancient olive press were also found in the square. West of the village, at Zekilia-Pyrgoulis, is a previously known Hellenistic tower, on the west side of which lies the lower part of a Byzantine round olive press.  

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Ligouri, acropolis. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of spolia (a Hellenistic perirrhanterion column and an Ionic column capital) built into the post-Byzantine Church of the Taxiarchon, which itself occupies the site of an older three-aisled church. Re-used large limestone blocks are found in both structures. These spolia were probably brought from the Asklepieion at Epidauros.  

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Ancient Epidauros (property of G. Katsimili). Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of three soft limestone doric column capitals from an ancient temple built into an Early Byzantine (fifth- to sixth-century) wall on the west side of a property which lies on the southwest side of the harbor. Five soft limestone blocks were also found reused in the western part of the southern side. Walls of a Roman bath were excavated along the south side of the plot, with finds including ash, bricks from the hypocaust, marble wall revetment, a cistern, and marble fragments from a statue and a sarcophagus. Part of a Roman inscription was recovered, reading: ]ΚΙΑΘΘΕCΕ.  

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Epidauros, Asklepieion. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a marble lion-head water spout from the Tholos during the cultivation of a field north of the Asklepieion. From another field northeast of the sanctuary came the lower part of a fourth-century BC inscription, reading: ΑΥΤΟΝΟΟΣ ΑΡΓΕΙΟΣ  

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Ancient Epidauros. Ch. Piteros (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of architectural spolia (two doric column capitals and a block) during the opening of a drainage channel by the main coast road west of the harbour. Rescue excavation within the town produced a column capital and part of a doric column from a temple. An earlier discovery of a column capital with a relief depiction of the Chimaera and floral ornament is also noted.  

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Dendra.  E. Pappi (Δ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a horse burial close to chamber tombs 2, 15 and 16 during cleaning in the northern part of the cemetery. A pair of horses (horses 5 and 6) were buried to the east of the pair 1 and 2 excavated in 1977. Four large irregularly shaped stones covered the eastern half of the grave, but cannot securely be associated with it. The horses were laid, confronting each other, directly on bedrock. The few sherds found by their back legs include plain Mycenaean kylikes. West of horses 3 and 4 from the 1977 excavations, between the dromoi of chamber tombs 15 and 16, was a collection of disarticulated horse bones from three or four individual animals. These finds increase the number of primary horse burials to three (with a pair of horses in each), with three to four displaced burials.

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Armakas Cave, Gerakas.  I. Efstathiou (ΕΠΣΝΕ) reports that the completion of trial excavation to bedrock produced Middle Helladic pottery consisting largely of handmade coarse and semi-coarse ware and grey Minyan. A very few sherds had plastic, dark on light, or light on dark decoration, and there was one vessel with incised decoration of Adriatic type.

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Kalamakia Cave. A. Darlas (ΕΠΣΝΕ) reports on the12th season of excavation during which investigation of Stratigraphical Unit IV was completed and that of Stratigraphical Unit VI continued. Stratigraphical Unit IV contained the largest number of strata and was relatively undisturbed (17 successive occupation floors have so far been excavated to a depth of 2m). The upper 0.1m excavated, which contained dense archaeological remains, represents the lower part of a 0.25m-thick level first investigated in 2003 and 2004. It contained a large quantity of bone both from mammals and tortoises, worked stone, and evidence of intense burning. A hard ash deposit (1m2) in the centre of the excavated area indicates the presence of a fireplace set directly onto the floor with no further construction. Ash, carbonized material and burnt bone was scattered across the excavated area. At the base of the stratum lay large stones and pieces of stalagmite: the density of the deposit suggests human action. The level as a whole is too dense, and its contents too varied to distinguish individual occupation floors within it. But it represents a main settlement location, in contrast with most of the later floors which represent brief periods of activity of distinctive character, to judge by the dominance of particular kinds of material (e.g. bones from a particular part of the skeleton or the dominance of one type of stone in the lithic assemblage). Below this level, a layer of red clay 0.1-0.15m thick, containing very little archaeological material, represents a deposit of med when the cave was very damp and largely unoccupied. A few bones (largely ribs and long bones) of a (probably bovine) mammal, and a thin layer of ash in the northeast corner of the trench reflect one brief period of activity. Preliminary examination of the large quantity of bone indicates the presence of: Ursus arctos, Panthera pardus, Lynx cf. lynx, Vulpes vulpes, Felis silvestris, Bos and/or Bison, Capra sp., Cervus elephus, Dama dama, Sus scrofa, Leporidae (probably Lepus), and Testudo sp. Most material came from the upper 0.1m excavated (i.e. from the base of the main level). Deer and chamois bones dominate among mammals (as in all the overlying occupation floors in the cave). Tortoise remains are less common than those of mammals, but include large pieces of shell. Many bones were burnt at high temperatures. Very few bones had cut marks from stone tools, but a number had been bitten and chewed. One tooth (the canine of a boar) bore traces of retouch on the long sides similar to that on stone tools. The stone tools (which were generally very small) were similar in character to those from overlying layers (Mousterian with much evidence of Levallois technique). There was a high proportion of tools in relation to unworked items.  All stages of production are represented, using locally available stone. One piece of limestone had been used as a percussion tool, noting also a number of limestone flakes from the manufacture of similar tools. One further human tooth (an upper incisor from an adult on the basis of wear) was found to add to the five previously retrieved from this level (and from the cave as a whole, six teeth, and single fragments of a cranium, vertebra and radius).  This is the largest collection of Neanderthal remains yet found in Greece. Stratigraphical Unit VI. Following the removal of the upper 2m of archaeologically sterile deposits, excavation reached an occupation floor which proved to be the only archaeological layer in the unit. The upper part of the layer, which contained dense archaeological material, was removed, leaving the floor to be excavated separately. Finds include a number of well-preserved coprolites, stones and a few bones of large mammals (deer are noted). Stones were absent from the upper layers and in general coincide with evidence of human activity. The coprolites were large in size and come from omnivores (probably bears): further analysis (e.g. for phytoliths and mineral content) will follow. They were probably preserved because after a brief period of human habitation, the cave was abandoned and then used as a refuge by flesh-eating animals (and bears). Thereafter it was abandoned altogether and flooded (perhaps because the entrance was blocked).

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Melitzia Cave. A. Darlas (ΕΠΣΝΕ) reports on trial excavation in a cave inside the bay of Oitylos, ca 350m from the shore and at an elevation of 64m. The cave has a single chamber ca 20 x 20m, with an opening ca 2 x 2m. A trial trench 6m inside the entrance (initially 1 x 1m but increasingly restricted by a stalagmite, eventually to 0.25 x 0.4m) reached a depth of 1.3m. The upper 0.7m consisted of a mixture of soil and dung, with some sherds dating to historical periods. Beneath that was a layer of plastic red clay with stones, which contained Upper Palaeolithic remains. The principal archaeological level was found at -0.9-0.98m, and contained bone, shell and worked stone.  The bone remains (1,155 pieces, 440 of which are diagnostic) belong to the following large mammal species: Canis sp., cf. Canis, Vulpes vulpes, Mustelidae, Lepus europaeus, Sus scrofa, Capra sp., Cervus elaphus.  Deer are most common, with ovicaprids well represented; the remaining species are present in a very few examples. This may indicate that the cave was used as a seasonal base for hunting. Bones were rarely burnt, but commonly broken: there is little evidence that they were gnawed by animals.  Shells included a large density of land snails (Helix melanostoma) mostly in the upper excavation levels. The worked stone assemblage (322 examples) featured Upper Palaeolithic (Gravettian and Epigravettian) technology, clearly earlier than Final Palaeolithic (noting the presence of small blades with straight back but the absence e.g. of geometric microliths). Three pieces of haematite were found, perhaps used for the production of pigment (ochre).

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Tripsana Cave. A. Darlas (ΕΠΣΝΕ) reports on trial excavation in a cave on the north shore of the bay of Oitylos, ca 100m from the shore and 15m above sea level. The cave is small (2.3m wide, 4m deep and 3m high) and opens to the south. Two trenches were carried down to bedrock (-1.6m at the rear of the cave and -1.28m near the entrance). Two main archaeological horizons were found (neither rich), with sporadic remains between them. Finds from all levels indicate sporadic use of the cave during the Upper Palaeolithic. A significant number of finds came from surface where they had been transported by animals. At a depth of ca 1m from the modern surface, the slides of the cave slope sharply inwards, suggesting that the cave was originally very narrow (probably too narrow for occupation). When accumulated sediments raised the floor to a level ca 0.8m below the present surface, a space ca 2.5 x 4m was opened up, sufficient to accommodate a small group. The diagnostic bone remains (948 of a total of 1,826 specimens) come from the following large mammals: Vulpes vulpes, Felis sp., Martes sp., cf. Mustela, Lepus europaeus, Canis cf. lupus, Canis sp., Sus scrofa, Capra sp., Ovis/Capra, Boss p., Cervus elephus, Dama dama. Deer and chamois were the dominant species, with a dense concentration of hare especially in surface levels. The condition of the bone indicates long exposure on the surface, with breakage at an advance stage of dehydration. Combined with the very small quantity of cut or burnt bone, this confirms very limited human use of the cave, probably as a temporary shelter or refuge. Both land and sea shells were densely deposited. A large specimen of Pecten jacobaeus could be almost completely restored. Five fragments of bone tools were found (two awls or points with traces of retouch, a deer antler split down the middle, and two pieces of long bone with traces of retouch). The stone tools (269 items) are all Gravettian/Epigravettian microblades. Best represented are small blades with ridged back, while geometric microliths etc. are missing, confirming a date before the Final Palaeolithic. Although absolute chronology remains difficult, a date between 24,000 and 15,000 BC  is likely. One piece of haematite was found. This material is found in all caves in Mani with evidence of Upper Palaeolithic activity, and was probably used as a pigment (ochre).  

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Plisina, Kastanis Cave. A. Darlas (ΕΠΣΝΕ) reports on excavation in this cave near Arphigia, 1,000m north of the bay of Oitylos. The cave opens to the northwest, on the side of a deep ravine 400m from the sea and at an elevation of ca 50m. It is small and shallow, and the front part has collapsed. Only a very small trench (0.3 x 0.4m) was therefore opened, reaching a depth of 0.2m in two passes.  Nonetheless, excavation produced a dense concentration of archaeological remains. The stone tools (63 from the first pass and 56 from the second) are Epigravettian, characterized by the presence of small blades with ridged back, while geometric microliths etc. are missing. The upper pass produced at least 13 individual land snails (Helix melanostoma). The bones belong to the following species: Canis sp., Vulpes vulpes, Lepus europaeus, Cervus elaphus, Capra sp.

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Niata, Cave of Igoumenou. I. Efstratiou (ΕΠΣΝΕ) reports the discovery of Middle and Late Neolithic and a little Roman pottery from this cave.

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Kakagianni, Agion Apostolon, Neapoli. Cave of Apsiphi. I. Efstratiou (ΕΠΣΝΕ) reports the collection of mostly Hellenistic and Roman pottery, figurines and lamps after an episode of illegal excavation. A very few Final Neolithic sherds were also found. Lamps and figurines collected during previous autopsy (by A. Sampson) are now in the Archaeological Collection of Neapolis.

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Trypalia. I. Efstratiou (ΕΠΣΝΕ) reports that a sample of pottery collected from undisturbed fill in a cave like hollow (15 x 10m) – one of a number in the area, close to the Cave of Apsiphi – includes sherds of Final Neolithic pithoi with rope decoration and Late Helladic IIIB-C deep bowls.

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Bourtsomina, Karytsa. I. Efstratiou (ΕΠΣΝΕ) reports that a sample of pottery collected from a cave during autopsy included a few Hellenistic sherds and Archaic-Classical miniature votive vessels.

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