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Dernières notices ajoutées par région : Crète
En 2005 et 2006, L. Platon a poursuivi l’étude de la céramique mise au jour dans le palais de 1964 à 1966, ainsi que dans les cours environnantes et dans le « bâtiment du secteur Nord-Ouest » de Zakros. Dans le palais, la majeure partie de la poterie, parfois décorée en blanc sur sombre, appartient à la couche de destruction du MR IB. Le matériel découvert sous la « cuisine » du palais (notamment des coupelles et des tasses, dont une en « coquille d’œuf », et une cruche de style blanc) est daté du MM III-MR IA, comme celui du « bâtiment du secteur Nord-Ouest ». Le matériel issu des fouilles de 1985 et 1986 de la « Maison Da de la colline d’Aghios Antonios » se répartit du MM IIIB-MR IA au MR IIIA. L’étude a montré que les pièces Sud XI et XII formaient des magasins en sous-sol, dont la couche la plus profonde se rattache au MR IB, un niveau de destruction attesté dans les autres pièces de la maison. Une des jarres porte deux empreintes de sceau superposées sur l’anse, représentant un quadrupède, tandis qu’un signe d’une inscription en hiéroglyphique, en forme de double-hache, est conservé sur un fragment de vase. La céramique provenant d’autres bâtiments de la colline d’Aghios Antonios appartient surtout au MR IB.

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Lieu-dit Kalyvomouri. - Des travaux complémentaires effectués en 2005 sous la direction de S. Chryssoulaki  ont mis en évidence une phase principale d’occupation protopalatiale, bien qu’une partie du matériel date du NF-MA, et ont conduit à réévaluer l’étendue du site fortifié mis au jour par D. Hogarth et St. Alexiou, qui se limite en réalité à la partie supérieur de la butte limitant au Nord-Ouest la vallée de Zakros. Lieu-dit Lakkon (« les fosses ») d’Aghios Antonios. - La chronologie d’occupation du secteur fouillé par D.G. Hogarth au début du XXe s. a été vérifiée : la céramique y est datée de la fin du protopalatial au MR IA, et pourrait provenir des remblais des maisons de la ville proche, déposés dans ces cavités, ce qui limite l’intérêt de ce matériel. Lieu-dit Spiliaras to Ryaki. - Ce site, sur les pentes raides au Nord de la baie de Kato Zakros, a été exploré en 2005. Des murs de contreforts échelonnés sur le versant sont associés à un matériel datant du NF au MR III, et l’on doit probablement y restituer un petit fortin d’époque protopalatiale.

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La fouille reprise en 2004 sous la direction de C. Davaras et de J. Soles a été poursuivie en 2005, afin de compléter l’exploration de bâtiments MR I et de mettre au jour l’établissement prépalatial. Niveaux hellénistiques (fin IIe-Ier s.). Trois pièces alignées à l’intérieur des fortifications et contenant de nombreuses amphores importées (dont une rhodienne timbrée sur les deux anses), ont été fouillées au-dessus du bâtiment C.7. À l’extérieur des fortifications, un bâtiment ayant partiellement détruit la maison A.1. comprenait une grande pièce dotée d’un large foyer, interprétée comme un andreion. Des bols en sigillée importés de Syrie, des amphores, des restes animaux et une monnaie de bronze (émise par P. Cranidius Crassus en 34-32 av. J.-C.) se trouvaient sur le sol. L’ensemble témoigne de la vitalité des relations maritimes avec le Levant. Niveaux néopalatiaux. La poursuite de la fouille du bâtiment C.7, où les analyses de résidus témoignent de la production d’huile d’olive et de vin, a montré qu’il était entouré de voies sur ses quatre côtés, mais la rue orientale avait été bloquée par des murs, destinés à soutenir la façade Est de l’édifice après le séisme lié à l’éruption de Santorin, à la fin du MR IA. Au MR IB, une grande cuisine et une « salle à manger », dotée de banquettes et d’une colonne centrale, furent aménagées le long de sa façade Sud, décalant la rue plus au Sud. Une perle en bronze en forme de libellule, découverte sur le sol de la « salle à manger », est semblable à celles qui ornent le collier de la « déesse » de la fresque de la Xesté 3 à Santorin. Le long de la façade Sud de l’aile Ouest du bâtiment B.2, sous une épaisse couche de destruction, un espace est identifié comme une « aire de théâtre » : il est fermé sur ses quatre côtés, mais non couvert, et était accessible par une terrasse à l’Ouest et par l’aile Ouest du bâtiment, par le biais d’un escalier. Trois longues marches à l’Est auraient pu servir de gradins, alors qu’un autel, formé d’une banquette et d’une plate-forme dans laquelle était inséré un vase décoré, était aménagé à la base de la façade Sud du bâtiment. Un plat à cuire, une marmite tripode, plusieurs coupelles tronconiques et des restes animaux ont été découverts près d’un foyer, situé près des gradins. Un grand bol en pierre, un foret en amphibolite et un sceau proviennent également de la pièce. Niveaux prépalatiaux. Plusieurs pièces à caractère domestique ont été fouillées sous les blocs néopalatiaux B et C, ainsi qu’un atelier de production de vases en pierre, mais aucun bâtiment complet n’a été reconnu. Un complexe de pièces alignées pourrait être associé aux individus de statut élevé ensevelis dans les tombes monumentales du cimetière. Ces vestiges témoignent d’une importante destruction à la fin du MA IIB, avec une réoccupation moins importante au MM I.   T. Brogan a présenté au 10e Congrès Crétologique les données issues des fouilles de 2004-2005 sur Mochlos au MM I-II, période pendant laquelle les importations céramiques se sont développées, surtout en provenance de Gournia et Priniatikos Pyrgos.

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La Mission de l’université de Catane en collaboration avec « l’Institut pour les biens archéologiques et monumentaux de Catane », dirigée par G. Rizza, a exploré en 2005 le secteur Sud-Ouest de la cella et une partie du pronaos du Temple A, jusqu’au rocher vierge. La séquence stratigraphique s’échelonne du MR IIIC au Géométrique, avec notamment un beau cratère de la période géométrique mis au jour dans une fosse au Sud de l’eschara. La fouille du grand bâtiment précédemment découvert au Sud du Temple B a été poursuivie. Le centre de la grande pièce principale (VB) était pourvu d’une grande eschara rectangulaire. Cette salle fut réutilisée à la période archaïque, probablement comme un atelier. Entre cet édifice et le temple B, deux pièces adjacentes appartiennent à une phase antérieure. Sur leur sol pavé se trouvaient sept vases à boire du GR/OA. Dans le secteur de la forteresse hellénistique, des sondages ont confirmé la datation de l’édifice au IIIe-IIe s. av. J.-C., au-dessus de murs plus anciens. Une citerne et une série de pièces à l’intérieur de l’enceinte ont été identifiées, ainsi que des fragments de stèles figurées archaïques en remploi dans le mur hellénistique, semblables à celles qui avaient déjà été repérées.

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La première campagne du projet de prospection sur le paysage urbain de Cnossos (Knossos Urban Landscape Project, KULP) dirigé par T. Whitelaw (University College London), J. Bennett (University of Sheffield), E. Grammatikaki et A. Vasilakis (XXIIIe éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques) s’est concentrée en 2005 sur le noyau urbain du site et a été suivie en 2006 par une campagne d’étude. Le ramassage systématique du matériel sur 2,5 % de la surface explorée (2500 secteurs dans un espace total de 20 x 20 m) s’est traduite par la collecte d’environ 350 000 tessons datant de la fin du Néolithique à la période contemporaine. Une partie (40 %) du matériel a été examinée et offre un nouvel éclairage sur l’histoire de l’occupation du site : la population Néolithique et du MA était probablement concentrée sur la colline de Képhala, à l’emplacement du palais plus tardif, alors que la ville néopalatiale s’étendait sur 60-65 ha (maximum). La distribution de la céramique MR II-III est comparable. Le matériel du début de l’Âge du Fer est particulièrement abondant au Nord du palais, dans des zones non fouillées. L’extension maximale de la ville daterait de la fin de la période hellénistique et ne serait donc pas une conséquence de la colonisation romaine. L’établissement se réduit ensuite à la période romano-tardive et byzantine, notamment au NO du site.

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Ce nouveau programme, piloté par I. Bradfer-Burdet et Maia Pomadère, a pour objectif principal la mise au jour d’un ou plusieurs bâtiments néopalatiaux, afin d’étudier des aspects du site encore peu connus : le mode d’occupation et l’habitat maliote, par le biais de l’examen de l’architecture et des vestiges paléoenvironnementaux. – Un grand bâtiment daté de la période néopalatiale (MM III-MR I) a été mis au jour (baptisé « bâtiment Π »), mais seules les limites Sud, sur la « rue de la mer », ont été atteintes (fig. 1). L’entrée probable depuis cette voie, marquée par un grand seuil d’ammouda (grès dunaire), conduisait à un long couloir au sol enduit (fig. 2). Outre ce couloir, cinq pièces ont été complètement ou partiellement fouillées. Parmi elles, la plus grande possède un sol dallé dont les interstices étaient comblés de galets de couleurs variées, formant une sorte de mosaïque (fig. 3). De manière inaccoutumée, cette pièce était directement ouverte sur la « rue de la mer » dont elle n’était séparée que par une marche. La destruction du bâtiment n’ayant pas été provoquée par un incendie, les vestiges de terre à bâtir ou de briques sont rares, mais des dépôts de matériaux (pierre ponce, fragments d’argile portant des empreintes et utilisée dans la construction du toit) devraient enrichir les connaissances sur l’architecture maliote. la stratigraphie de cette zone au Bronze récent, dont l’identification se fondait jusqu’à maintenant sur des fouilles anciennes. – Il paraissait nécessaire de déterminer les dates d’occupation et d’abandon de l’habitat, afin de mieux connaître l’histoire de la ville de Malia. Au moins trois phases architecturales ont été identifiées. Des dépôts archéologiques stratifiés ont été partout mis au jour : les sols étaient le plus souvent recouverts par une couche de destruction ou par plusieurs remblais néopalatiaux épais. À ce jour, il semble que ces dépôts successifs sont tous datés du MR IA. Le matériel est constitué de vases en céramique, parmi lesquels quelques dizaines de coupelles coniques complètes. Des vases en place se trouvaient dans quelques pièces, dont un important dépôt de vases de cuisine et de stockage (pas moins de 76 fonds de jarres et pithoi). Une première observation du matériel permet d’affirmer que ce secteur n’a pas été réoccupé au MR III. Un sceau lentoïde protopalatial a été découvert dans une couche de remplissage dans une pièce en bordure de la rue. Il représente un lion encadré par des végétaux.

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L’étude du Quartier Epsilon, commencée en 2002 par I. Bradfer-Burdet, avait pour objectif le réexamen complet de l’organisation urbaine du quartier, de l’architecture des trois maisons qui le composent et de sa chronologie générale. Le programme de l’année 2005 comportait trois volets, – l’étude architecturale de la Maison Epsilon et la validation des hypothèses formulées en 2004, le relevé et la restauration de la maison Epsilon Bêta, et le catalogage du matériel des fouilles anciennes : l’étude architecturale de la Maison Epsilon s’est appuyée sur des sondages implantés de manière à répondre à la question des accès et de mieux définir une structure circulaire interprétée comme un silo. Le sondage pratiqué dans la rue Nord a permis d’éclaircir la date de construction du vestibule (le début du néopalatial), construit aux dépens d’une rue sur laquelle il empiète. Le sondage pratiqué dans la pièce de la kouloura incite à penser que la structure a été creusée dans une pièce construite antérieurement, pendant la période protopalatiale, et qui n’est plus en usage à l’époque néopalatiale. avant de procéder à une publication complète de la maison Epsilon Bêta, il était nécessaire de poursuivre le relevé et de restaurer les deux sols, l’un enduit rouge et blanc (fig. 1-3), l’autre dallé de pierres avec un enduit rouge, et un escalier stuqué en rouge, découverts en 1964. Un toit a été construit à la demande de l’Éphorie et prolonge désormais vers le Sud la protection reconstruite en 2003. enfin, le catalogage du matériel des anciennes fouilles des Maison Epsilon et Epsilon Bêta a été mené à son terme. Le matériel céramique des Bâtiments Nord-Est a aussi été enregistré et dessiné.

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En dehors des deux opérations de terrain à Malia en 2005, l'EfA a soutenu financièrement des études destinées à préparer les publications. Pour s'en tenir aux responsables de ces études, qui s'assurent le concours de plusieurs collaborateurs : P. Darcque a poursuivi la préparation de la publication de la fouille des abords Nord-Est du palais. À Athènes et en collaboration avec M. Schmid, il a complété le dossier architectural ; à Malia, l’étude du mobilier a porté sur la céramique proto- et néopalatiale et sur les vestiges fauniques. L’examen attentif de fragments de « plaques » provenant de deux ensembles différents a permis de proposer une première hypothèse sur la forme de ces objets, d’un diamètre de l’ordre de 60 cm, qui étaient sans doute disposés dans des cavités et cuits sur place, à l’instar des « plateaux » néolithiques. Certains fragments de Malia apparaissent comme des rebords en partie retournés vers l’intérieur : il s’agit sans doute de dispositifs de préhension pour ces « plaques » qui pourraient être interprétées comme des plaques de cuisson. l’étude du mobilier issu des campagnes de prospection conduites par S. Muller-Celka a progressé. Le relevé des carrières de grès dunaire, organisé conjointement par l’EfA (S. Müller-Celka) et l’Université de Liège (R. Laffineur, assisté de J.-N. Anslijn et J. Dupagne), a vu cette année l’achèvement des travaux sur les deux plus grandes carrières du littoral maliote, celle de Pyrgos, entre le site archéologique et le village moderne, et celle de Potamos, immédiatement à l’Ouest de la plage du Moulin. Au cours du relevé, des fosses rectangulaires ayant fort probablement servi de tombes ont été découvertes sous un demi-mètre d’eau dans la partie orientale de la carrière de Potamos. Elles sont à mettre en relation avec des fosses similaires identifiées en 2004 sur la butte d’ammouda située juste à l’Est et dans le secteur A de la même carrière mais leur date est impossible à préciser. O. Pelon a continué son inlassable étude architecturale du palais de Malia ; parallèlement, l’étude du matériel céramique et lithique, accompagnée d’analyses effectuées par le laboratoire Pierre-et-Marie Curie, céramique et matériel lithique du palais. la préparation de la publication du cinquième volume consacré au Quartier Mu (Mu V) dans la série des Études Crétoises : Activités quotidiennes au Minoen Moyen II à Malia : objets en terre cuite et outils lithiques (par J.-Cl. Poursat, avec la collaboration de T. Carter, C. Knappett, H. Procopiou) a été poursuivie en 2005. Le texte relatif aux obsidiennes a été remis par T. Carter, ainsi que l’ensemble des dessins nécessaires à la publication. Le dossier graphique concernant l'outillage de pierre polie (Hara Procopiou) est en cours d'achèvement. L’étude de la faune a été poursuivie par E. Vila en collaboration avec D. Helmer (saisie informatique de l’ensemble des données du Quartier Mu). – Une campagne d'études à Malia a permis la vérification finale du catalogue des ustensiles en terre cuite associés aux activités de la vie quotidienne (lampes, braseros, supports de chauffage et de cuisson, poids de tissage), soit environ un millier d'objets. enfin, R. Treuil et M. Schmid ont poursuivi l’étude des vestiges architecturaux du quartier Mu. Grâce à un financement conjoint de l’INSTAP et de la municipalité de Malia, la première phase des travaux d’aménagement du Sanctuaire aux cornes a été réalisée (M. Schmid). Après restauration des vestiges en 2004, la moitié de la toiture de protection a été mise en place.

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À la demande de l’éphorie d’Aghios Nikolaos, l’EfA, avec le concours de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne (A. Farnoux), a repris des travaux sur le site de Latô, qu’elle avait exploré au début du XXe s. puis entre les années 1967 et 1971 (fig. 2): le point de départ en est une mission topographique qui a commencé en 2005 et qui est d’abord destinée à établir la validité du plan dressé par l’architecte Seyks et publié par J. Demargne en 1901, afin de préparer les expropriations nécessaires à la gestion du site (fig. 1). Dans l’ensemble, le relevé a paru beaucoup plus fiable qu’on ne le pensait. Par ailleurs, le repérage des installations modernes et des clôtures a été mené de manière à recaler le plan Seyks sur la carte topographique : l’enjeu est d’importance, puisque ce plan ancien ne comporte pas de courbes de niveaux, indications pourtant fondamentales pour un site escarpé comme Latô. mais il est rapidement apparu que, si la demande de l’Éphorie pouvait être satisfaite, l’intérêt du site commandait de ne pas s’arrêter à cette mission topographique ponctuelle et exigeait de concevoir un programme plus vaste, en parfaite cohérence avec le programme du contrat quadriennal consacré à l’archéologie de l’espace. Celui-ci se déclinerait à une double échelle, locale et régionale. Il a ainsi été décidé de consacrer plusieurs programmes de recherche à Latô dans les années à venir : rassembler les testimonia antiques et constituer un volume sur l’histoire de la découverte du site depuis les premiers travaux d’A. Evans ; mener des études pluridisciplinaires sur le territoire de la cité, l’approvisionnement en eau, le système défensif et le réseau viaire. mais l’échelle d’analyse la plus pertinente passe aussi par la mise en perspective du site de Latô dans cette région de Crète où il occupe une place privilégiée entre la partie centrale et la partie orientale de l’île. À ce titre, Latô entre dans un système jalonné par les sites de l’Anavlochos (Vrachasi) et de Dréros (Néapolis), tous deux fouillés dans l’entre-deux-guerres par l’EfA ; à terme, l’étude du site de Latô pourrait donc s’inscrire dans une étude régionale qui fait défaut.

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Chania. M. Andreadaki-Vlasaki (Secretary General of Antiquities, Ministry of Culture and Tourism; Director, ΚΕ’ ΕΠΚΑ) and E. Protopapadaki (ΚΕ’ ΕΠΚΑ) give an account of the Bronze Age cemetery excavated at 73-77 Igoumenou Gabriel Street (Koukaki property, behind the law courts) in 2003-2005. Some 60 tombs were revealed in an area of 1680m2. To the southeast lay a cluster of seven tombs of the late fourth to early third centuries BC, consisting of six undisturbed cists and a pit-grave. The cists, of sandstone or limestone slabs, are often plastered inside: goods comprise 12 ceramic vessels, nine fragmentary terracotta figurines, 12 silver and gold coins used as Charon’s obol, three iron strigils, three bronze mirrors, needles, rings and beads, a comb fragment, as well as two funerary wreaths. Two eggshells reflect contemporary burial customs. Later in the Hellenistic era, a large pit dug to the west contained building and related debris, including two fine fourth-century marble sculptures from a funerary monument (a female bust with himation and a young male figure). The 54 Late Bronze tombs, dug into the kouskouras bedrock, date from LM II to LM IIIB early (1450-1250 BC). Three types of tomb architecture are represented. Pit-caves are the most abundant, with 32 examples, largely unrobbed, scattered across the site following no particular orientation. The dead were sometimes set on wooden biers, of which the bronze clamps alone remain. Tomb 40, the largest example at the south west, is also the earliest (LM II): the shaft measures 3.5 x 2m, and is 3.3m deep. In place of the usual kouskouras backfill, the shaft was deliberately packed by large stones: the entrance below to the rectangular side-chamber (2.45 x 2.2 x 1.69m) was blocked by two rough-stone walls, the inner more carefully prepared. Within, a male (some 35 years old) lay on his back: tall and robust, he had a broken rib on his left side. Rich burial goods comprise two piriform jars, two jugs, a silver hair-clasp, a bone-handled mirror, a bone comb with relief decoration, a necklace of 23 glass-paste beads (and one in carnelian). Three seals were at his left hand – a haematite lentoid with a Master of Animals behind a bull and a lion; a carnelian with a charging bull; a carnelian with a cow nursing her calf. A bronze sword with a pommel, two daggers and at least 22 arrowheads indicate his warrior status. Three double pit-graves were excavated (a single shaft served a chamber on each long side): in two cases a male lay on one side and a female (with lesser grave goods) on the other. The military identity of the deceased is everywhere apparent: a typical assemblage has a sword, a spear, some arrows, a dagger or two, and a three-handled piriform amphoriskos. Tools (e.g. fish-hooks, awls and net-sinkers) may illustrate individual pursuits and hobbies. Cosmetic items and jewellery are common. Females are less well represented, and less well-equipped (with just a miniature vessel and a stone spindle whorl). Six shaft-graves were also found throughout the burial area with no particular orientation. The level floor of the rectangular shaft was strewn with small pieces of kouskouras onto which the body and goods were set. Grave goods were relatively few: nine ceramic vessels and 12 items of bronze were recovered, along with items in other materials, but a large number of these came from the LM IIIA1 Tomb 46. The shaft (1.4 x 2.9m x 3m deep) was lined at the bottom with rough masonry, producing a smaller burial chamber (roughly 1 x 2.2m and 1.54m high). On the tops of the stone linings rested the four kouskouras slabs that closed the tomb, with lesser stones wedged into the gaps. Within lay a male (some 35 years old), tall and well-built, with large facial features. Grave goods comprise a small piriform jar, a bronze vessel and razor, a carnelian sealstone with a tree-worshipping scene, and further items reinforcing military status (a long sword with bone pommel and gold embellishments, three spearheads and several arrows). The 15 chamber tombs with dromos are grouped in the northern half of the site, largely orientated north-south with the entrance at the north, but mostly looted in antiquity. These are family tombs containing several burials. Tomb 13 was undisturbed. A limestone marker slab lay in the dromos in front of the chamber, which was sealed off by a rough stone wall. Two bodies lay in situ at the east and west sides, with a later interment higher up at the west, and two more in a small pit. The rich finds consist of some eight bronze vessels (a krater, cauldron, two bowls, two ladles and three cups), weapons (a sword, dagger, arrowhead and spearhead), tools (two knife-axes, a chisel) and personal items (two razors, two mirrors and a balance). Glass paste beads filled one bowl, and the razors and a bone comb lay in the other. Fourteen ceramic vases were also found. Of the major classes of find, 108 ceramic vases were retrieved overall, plus 11 swords, 12 spears, 43 daggers and six sealstones.

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Argyroupolis. K. Giapitsoglou (28th EBA) reports on excavation inside the church of Ag. Kyriaki. The longer side-walls are reused from the caldarium of a Late Roman bath. Inside and outside the church are 12th-century cist tombs. Rescue excavation in the town revealed Byzantine walls and houses: a two-roomed glass-workshop, with a large quantity of glass-paste and vase fragments, is a unique find of the Early Byzantine period in this region.    

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Prinias. A. Pautasso (SAIA/CNR Catania) reports on investigation of the seventh-century Temple A and preceding occupation phases conducted in 2002 and 2005. Removal of earlier repairs and restorations showed that only the foundations of the original building were preserved. A wall projecting for 0.3m on the west side gives the appearance of a platform. Access to the temple was through a small paved yard. To the north and east, a major north-south roadway 2.4-2.8m wide led to the Grand Court TZ. Geometric pottery was recovered under its surface. In a revision of Pernier’s interpretation of Temples A and B, Temple B is shown to connect to the complex of rooms overlooking the square, whilst Temple A connects with structures to the west and north. Within Temple A, excavation in the north part of the pronaos yielded a mixed deposit with Late Geometric –Early Orientalizing pottery in the upper part, over PGB to Geometric, and with LM IIIC recovered lowest down. The LM IIIC material contained much cooking ware plus some decorated sherds; the PGB-Geometric material included a likely ritual deposit (a krater covered by sherds of a plain vase, both deliberately broken in half in antiquity). A similar sequence was found between the hearth and the south wall of the temple: Geometric cups and cooking wares lay over another unusual and probably ritual PGB deposit, and below a sandy layer and on the kouskouras was an LM IIIC deposit which also exhibited unusual features. The PGB material was deposited in a pit: a krater with cut-marks on the base and side was held in place by stones, and accompanied by dipped cups, two skyphoi and a terracotta figurine. The LM IIIC context yielded drinking and cooking vessels, pumice, bones (young sheep, goats and pigs) and burnt seeds, all deposited in repeated events. It is unclear whether the gap between LM IIIC and PGB levels was bridged by memory of a ritual event or whether the PGB deposits mark a renewal or reconsecration. The presence of the Archaic hearth over and by earlier areas marked by heavy use of fire and by ceremonial may suggest continuity of focus and practice.

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Karydaki, Silamos. E. Kanetaki (Athens) reports on work on the Venetian church of Panagia Kardiotissa carried out in 2004–2005. The area is known for its springs, tapped by the Venetians to supply water to Chandax (Herakleion). The three-aisled basilica church was built in the first quarter of the 13th century. The narthex is rectangular (4.3 x 2m) with a barrel vault and entrance on the west side, close to the mid-line of the middle aisle. The middle and south aisles (4.3 x 7m) have barrel vaulting: at their southwest corner is tomb containing two skeletons. At the north, the walls of the third and shorter aisle (1.9 x 4.8m) are preserved to a height of 2.5m. Damaged frescoes are preserved in the niches of the north and middle aisles.

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Chania, National Stadium. E. Kataki (ΚΕ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the excavation of 280m2 of the cemetery of ancient Kydonia. The 81 burials uncovered, cut into in a deep sand layer, comprise 60 enchytrismoi (51 in amphorae, eight in beehives, and one in a chytra), 19 pits, and two tile graves.  The enchytrismoi contained premature or new-born infants (one amphora held premature twins). Most lacked grave goods, but a few had unguentaria or plates, iron bracelets or rings, and there is one case of a terracotta bird figurine.  In some cases a jug or olpe was set outside the burial vessel.  The boundaries of the pit graves could no longer be discerned, but eight contained multiple burials (with two, three, or four bodies and in one case at least 12).  The dead were supine and oriented north-south (head to the south) or east-west (head to the east). One inscribed stele of worn limestone was found.  A few pit burials lacked grave goods, but most had one or two domestic pots (unguentaria, olpes, jugs), and black-glaze vases such as kantharoi and kotylai were also represented.  Other finds included female figurines, four silver danakes, an iron strigil and an iron knife.  Of the 12 or more bodies contained in a single pit grave, most were men aged 17 to 25 and two may have been women.  These individuals had been in poor physical condition (one man under 20 had died as a result of a triple trepanation). Grave goods comprised a small lekane, a lamp and a fine lagynos.  One pit burial (36) contained a man (who had poor teeth) accompanied by iron shackles. The main period of use of the cemetery was from the mid fourth until the first half of the third century BC.

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Kastelli, Agia Aikaterina Square.  M. Andreadaki-Vlazaki and Y. Tzedakis (KE’ ΕΠΚΑ), with E. Hallager (Swedish School of Archaeology) report on rescue excavations, notably in the area at the east side of the square, where a room with linear B tablets had been excavated in 1990.  Finds covered a 5000 year period: Christian era: trenches in the north revealed elements of the foundations of a Venetian cathedral and two poor Christian burials.  The foundations of a minaret and pieces of mosaic from an early Christian basilica were also found. Hellenistic period: a large number of tiles were found in a pit. LMIIIB 2 –LMIIIC: in the past floors of this period have been found without objects or signs of destruction.  This year ten clay objects interpreted as loomweights were found scattered on a floor.  A kiln which had been destroyed by Geometric pits was also found. LMIIIB 1: building 2, where three linear B tablets had been found in 1990, was further explored.  In room F several steatite whorls, a terracotta figurine, a gaming piece with incision on its upper surface, and a painted juglet were found.  In space H a large clay cup, a bone handle, part of a bronze pin and part of an ivory object with incised and sculpted decoration were found together with large numbers of bones.  In room B an inscribed stirrup jar was found in a pit under the last floor level.  The inscription has the name za-ta-ro accompanied by the syllable wa. The large building was destroyed by fire around 1250 BC, leaving a destruction layer 0.20-30m thick. LM IIIA 2 and LM II: pieces of linear A tablets were found in an LM IIIA2 context and an LM II road. Neopalatial:  excavation further uncovered the remains of building III (discovered in 1990) and the square between buildings I, II and III. One room, with a hard plaster floor and a built platform of unknown function, was reused in LM II.  Immediately outside were two bases, possibly for wooden columns, interpreted as an entrance way leading from the narrow street to the square between the buildings.   Within the square were the cover slabs of a pipe and on the surface several conical cups (one with a potter’s mark), a decorated pithos, a red jasper bead, a loomweight, part of a crucible, and a clay sealing.    All trenches revealed a thick MM III layer on which the later Neopalatial buildings were founded. The layer consists of small stones and a large quantity of pottery (principally coarse ware and cooking pot).  Visible everywhere under the Neopalatial layers was Prepalatial construction.  A Protopalatial phase has been found but its traces were largely destroyed by the Neoapalatial buildings. Prepalatial finds include a finely made stone arrow, part of an appliqué bird from the handle of a large vessel, an EMI clay metalworking mould, and murex shells.  EMI architectural remains comprised a floor on the natural rock where some cavities were created for the placement of large pots.  

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Kokotsi Street (ΔΗΠΕΧ). M. Andreadaki-Vlazaki (KE’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavation within the east cemetery of ancient Kydonia.  An Archaic (late sixth-century) pithos burial was accompanied by offerings including a bronze mirror and a stone alabastron. An oinochoe and a black-figure kylix lay outside the lip of the pithos.  Two white slipped lekythoi and three miniature vases were also found. Three tile graves date to the late fourth or early third century BC.  Grave 1 held a black glaze lamp, a lekythos, and a silver coin, while grave 2 had a black glaze unguentarium.

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Aptera. V. Niniou-Kindeli (KE’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that pottery recovered during conservation of the fortification walls dates their construction shortly before the mid fourth century BC.  Under a layer of fallen material lay a layer containing numerous catapult bolts, slingshots and other metal weapons.  The same area produced numerous Hellenistic (third- and second-century) graves with inscribed stelae.  Pottery from the area consisted principally of lamps found with animal bones and ash.  Northwest of these deposits, close to the road leading into the city, large grave monuments had been looted and damaged. One (first-century AD, Trajanic) example had a marble relief depicting a young couple.  A second, alongside it, had an underground burial chamber and is dated by associated finds (local figurines, glass vessels, and lamps) to the first century BC-first century AD.  To the south lay a rectangular tower around which were infant graves plus pyres with elaborate vases, animal bones and seeds: the earliest date to the third quarter of the fourth century BC.  Excavation on the property of E. Barbouni revealed a high density of Geometric to Roman graves (87 in total).  Two seventh- to sixth-century burial pithoi were used as grave covers in the Hellenistic period.  A third was in situ but disturbed by a Roman burial.  More numerous later burials consisted of shallow pits dug into the rock: ten Roman chamber tombs (all looted) were also found.  Despite looting, some of the pit graves held bronze coins, figurines, and local or imported pottery. Thirty-eight more pit graves were uncovered on the property of S. and M. Mechelioudaki.  Many third-century BC lamps (and fewer second-century), plus some fourth-century grey unguentaria, were collected. There were also figurine fragments, a Plaketten amphora, and a silver coin.  

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Agios Demetrios, ancient Nopigeia. M. Andreadaki-Vlazaki (KE’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of an early Late Minoan IA deposit (35m x 0.6m, up to 1m deep) in the Agios Demetrios cemetery south of the ancient settlement of Nopigeia.  The homogeneous fill (dark brown soil mixed with stones and river pebbles) contained up to  4000 conical cups and deep hemispherical cups, plus cooking pots, bowls, buckets, basins, pithoi, braziers, incense burners, and closed vases with a high foot.  Bones and seashells were numerous but there were only six small finds: a clay sealing, two grinders, a quern, a bronze strip, and a piece of pyrite.

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Kastelli (Kisamos). M. Andreadaki-Vlazaki (KE’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on discoveries made while preparing the site for public display. The peristyle court and garden of the suburban mansion on the former Raisaki property were revealed.  Beneath early Christian buildings lay a grain storage structure and a stone weight taken to indicate oil or wine production.  A fallen statue identified as Aphrodite may belong to the peristyle decoration.  At the west end of the peristyle is an apsidal triclinium with a mosaic floor depicting a scene with Orpheus and a badly preserved marriage of Dionysus.  At the north edge of the property was a room with wall paintings in situ, indicating the building extended in that direction, while to the south was a paved road.  The east baths on the former Pateromichelaki property consist of a main entrance to the east, a large colonnaded room with granite columns, a caldarium to the west, a tepidarium in the centre, and a frigidarium to the east. All had marble floors and wall cladding.  The largest room, the frigidarium, contained statues of Pan and a satyr.  Small finds included bronze clips, iron nails and bronze coins. At Pano Kamara (Papastamataki property), where a building and Early Byzantine graves were found in 2004, excavation revealed that the area was used as a cemetery from Imperial Roman times to the Arab invasion. A Roman period workshop and a medieval agricultural building were also found. The oldest grave monument (Imperial era) consists of a large underground chamber with two small side chambers.  It was looted and preserved few finds (including an amphora, sherds of glass vessels and a coin): crania indicate that it contained at least 14 burials.  A wall across the property is interpreted as a peribolos delineating four late third-century AD vaulted tombs.  One contained a bronze coin of Constantius and an early Christian inscription, and another third-century pottery and a marble disc with a suspension hole.  Three Christian graves were also excavated: the cover slabs of one include a reused early Christian inscription, above which was a cross of pebbles (with an iconostasis to the west of it). The grave contained human remains but no grave offerings, although sherds in the fill may indicate a sixth- or seventh-century AD date. The continuation of the Roman-Early Christian cemetery came to light 10m to the west, on the Koutsonaki property, together with a stretch of road and Late Roman and Byzantine walls and pits. Four badly damaged vaulted tombs were uncovered, containing a large quantity of pottery, lamps, glass unguentaria, coins, two gold strips, and a fragment of gold jewellery.  Ten Early Christian graves were also found, including one child burial. One or two houses were uncovered on the Kakaouani property.  One room had a limestone slab floor with intense signs of burning and a hearth in the east corner.  Forty coins were recovered, including a gold coin of Constantius (365AD, mint of Rome), together with a variety of other small finds, several small marble plaques, and fragments of glass.  

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Agia Irene. P. Karamaliki (KE ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Late Minoan and Hellenistic buildings on the east slope of the hill. Sparse LMIIIC architectural remains were revealed in an area where Hellenistic strata had been removed by a mechanical digger.  One room had an in situ floor deposit of tripod cooking pots, cups, and storage vessels.  Elsewhere, three rooms of a large third- to second-century BC building were revealed, but the external walls of the structure were not found.  One room, which had a low bench along one wall and a square base, contained a large quern stone, lamps, braziers, cups and jugs, and a figurine depicting two armed figures.  A second room contained ten pithoi and amphorae, plus 20 other vases and 56 loomweights.

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Stavromenos (property of E. Vardiobasi and I. Alexandraki). M. Andreadaki-Vlazaki (KE ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a partially preserved LM IIIB chamber tomb which contained fragments of terracotta larnax, bronze fragments (from a dagger and two vases), a painted stirrup jar and a gold spiral ornament, plus a very few bones.

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Ancient Axos.  E. Tegou (KE ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavation around ancient Axos.  At Stou Mouri, three fragments of animal figurine and a bronze fibula were found in an area without architectural remains.  A 16th-century Venetian coin also came from the same area.  At Ag. Giannis, various walls, a pebble floor, and two Early Christian graves were found in a badly disturbed area: Byzantine phases were the most prominent.  Finds included nine Hellenistic coins from a cutting in the rock; eight other Hellenistic, Roman and Early Christian coins; part of a Hellenistic inscription; an honorary decree of the first century BC- first century AD; and a fragment of a probably Roman architrave depicting grapes.

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Pera Galini. E. Tsivilika (National Museum) and E. Banou (KE ΕΠΚΑ) report on excavation in Complex A on the top of the hill and exploration of the southern slopes.  Two successive floors were found in Complex A with Middle Minoan IB-IIA pottery between them.  On the southern slopes, the presence of one or two kilns is suggested.  In one area, a layer of small stones contained Middle Minoan coarseware together with pieces of clay, plaster, bronze, and stone tools.  Elsewhere, a layer of soft burnt soil and ash contained Middle Minoan III pottery together with pieces of mud brick.

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Vrysinas. E. Papadopoulou (KE ΕΠΚΑ) and I. Tzachili (University of Crete) report on excavation at the peak sanctuary, which concentrated on the northeast slope (which has three terraces, the uppermost being the summit on which the modern church sits). Three layers were identified above bedrock.  The upper layer was loose and yielded Minoan and more recent finds mixed together.  The second layer (said to be Middle Minoan) with a thin solid brown soil which contained the bulk of the pottery and figurines.  The third layer was red-brown with a few finds in the upper parts.  No pyres were found, and the sporadic finds of bone came mostly from the upper levels. The 516 figurines recovered were mostly were animals, although male and female anthropomorphic figures were also numerous.  The animal figurines were mostly cattle, principally solid and ca 0.15m long, but there were also wheelmade and double headed cattle.  The human figures were 0.1-0.15m tall and solid, with emphasis on their hats, hairstyles and clothing. There were a few votive limbs, imitation phalloi, and clay lumps. A bronze figurine of a male votary wearing a loincloth was also found.  The poorly preserved pottery was mostly undecorated (with the exception of some cups and a few pieces with barbotine decoration), and included scuttles and small one handled jugs.

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Knossos, Bougada Metochi (Pissa property). A. Vasilakis (ΚΓ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of the walls of a large Middle Minoan III-Late Minoan IA building which extended beyond the property to the east and north.  In the southern part of the property were two different, unconnected, Late Hellenistic and Roman buildings and two cisterns.  An intact statuette of Hermes, part of a female figure, and several fragments of terracotta human figurines, all Hellenistic, were collected in the west of the property.

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Kastelli. K. Galanaki (ΚΓ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Late Minoan architectural remains, including substantial walls with indented façades on the Kardoulaki property in the centre of the modern town.  Work to replace a shelter over the Minoan central building (see Rethemiotakis in ADelt 47-48 [1992-1993] Mel 29-64) uncovered a seal depicting a galloping dog against a floral background; a continuation of the Late Minoan II wall κδ; and a paved area south of the processional road.  An Archaic pit and Byzantine-Medieval architectural remains were also found.  To the south of the Minoan central building on Agios Georgios Square and Metamorphose Street, work for a sewage installation revealed Minoan and Roman architectural remains.  The Minoan pottery was consistently dated to Middle Minoan III.  

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Koutsoulocharako, Lyttos. K. Galanaki (ΚΓ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a disturbed Roman cist grave without grave goods.

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Tsoutsouros, ancient Inatos. K. Galanaki (ΚΓ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a Roman building and four Late Roman cist graves at Agia Paraskevi (Gargoulaki property), on the western edge of the ancient city.  The graves had been looted in antiquity.  One contained three burials, a bronze belt pin, and a small oinochoe; another held five burials; and below a third lay an earlier, badly disturbed cist grave with a child burial. A fourth-century AD building was found in the same area (on the Fragelaki property).  At Aliori (property of the parish of Tsoutsouros), excavation on a low hill produced Early and Late Minoan sherds of various dates plus five stone grinders.  Protogeometric pottery, six more stone grinders, and other stone tools were also collected in surface survey.

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Ancient Chersonissos.  S. Mandalaki and K. Galanaki (ΚΓ ΕΠΚΑ) report. On the Mountraki property, at the east end of the modern neighbourhood of Polis, within the most densely inhabited part of the Roman city, the first phase of building consisted of two rectangular rooms containing late Classical pottery plus some earlier sherds (including possibly sixth-century black-figure aryballoi) and some Roman.  The second phase consisted of a long north-south wall with rooms to the east and probably a road to the west.  The third phase saw alterations and additions to the second phase constructions.  One room, paved in marble, produced a large quantity of bronze and iron nails, bronze strips, lamps, bone pins, five coins and a female figurine.  On the Syntichaki property in the area of the ancient theatre, the largest Roman cistern thus far discovered in the city (15.2m x 5.24m) may relate to the bath complex in the same area. Its construction is dated to the second century AD, and it is argued on the basis of a thick layer of pottery inside it that it fell out of use long before the roof collapsed (probably in the earthquake of 365AD).  On the Kefalogianni property, Late Roman settlement remains overlay Early Roman structures.  In one Late Roman room were found the bases of two pithoi containing pottery, in another an impluvium, and in a third, a possible oven or kiln.  Small finds included figurine fragments, glass vessels, and bronze coins.  On the Mastoraki property, parts of a hypocaust and of a mosaic floor with underlying pipes were uncovered.  Pottery from the fill spanned the first to sixth centuries AD, and five bronze coins were recovered from the layer of the pipes. Finds from the Tamiolaki property comprise houses and a glass-worker’s shop with a small elliptical kiln underlying Late Roman remains.  On the Papasinou property, outside the ancient city in the direction of Ano Chersonisos, the corner of a building and two peribolos walls were found.  The outer peribolos contained architectural spolia and three inscriptions.   Finally, 12 Roman graves (six cists, two tile graves and four pits) were excavated at Palatia (Kypriotaki property).  Most were disturbed and few goods were found, but extensive use was made of  older (first- to second century AD) grave stelae in their construction. One grave (7) contained 16 bone pins and fragments of glass vessel.    

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Ano Viannos. S. Mandalaki (ΚΓ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a Roman kiln under a stream bed.  Although the stream had swept away most of the associated pottery, the most characteristic sherds remaining were terra sigillata with incised decoration on the base.  Nearby were two Late Roman walls.

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Galatas. G. Rethemiotakis (Heraklion Museum) reports that excavation along the eastern external wall of the north wing of the palace revealed a stepped entrance way.  Large quantities of Late Minoan IA pottery and some animal bones were found, together with a bronze pin and tweezers.  The south wing of the palace was completely uncovered.  The fill was no more than 0.5m deep, and the western part of the structure had been destroyed by modern cultivation.  Two rooms, one with a plaster floor, were separated by a corridor leading to the central court.  These rooms contained a pithos, domestic pottery, and many querns and grindstones.  In the northwest part of the wing was a stone rectangular exedra facing onto the central court, and in contact with a rectangular construction previously interpreted as an altar.  Outside and to the south of the south wing was a rectangular structure or platform with a standing stone on the north side.  This arch-shaped stone has a worked base.  Finds comprise large pots and basins, communion cups, fragments of stone offering tables, two bovine figurines and a jug with relief birds.  In a cutting in the rock were three Middle Minoan IB cups, an amphoriskos, jug and tumbler.   Within the stairwell of the Late Minoan IB building 2 a hut shaped rhyton was uncovered

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Galatas Survey. L. Vance Watrous (ASCSA) reports the discovery of 44 sites.  Late Neolithic/Early Minoan sites are small and close to water sources.  Prepalatial Bronze Age sites seem rare.  In the Neopalatial period, site numbers increase sharply and many of the sites are large (over 100m in length).  A mason’s mark, matching one in the palace at Galatas, was found in a quarry.  The settlement of Galatas was apparently encircled by large buildings to the south and east.

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Agios Nikolaos, Stavros (Tranta property). V. Apostolakou (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the excavation of three pit graves in the area of a known cemetery.  One had no grave goods, but the other two contained amphorae placed at the feet of the dead.  One graves also contained an iron ring and strigil, together with the scattered bone of a second burial.  A new funerary epigram was also discovered.

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Alevriko. V. Zografaki (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Middle and Late Minoan architectural remains in the area (1km from Agios Nikolaos).  Parts of at least 3 rooms were visible.  The main pottery shapes reported are large tripod cooking pots together with fine open shapes.  A few stone tools and vases, loomweights, seashells and animal bones were also found.

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Almyros. V. Apostolakou (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the excavation of several vaulted tombs and cist graves.  The largest vaulted tomb (tomb 30) was 3.75m by 2.3m and 2.3m high.  Most graves appear to have been looted, but one looted vaulted tomb nevertheless contained 53 bronze, 30 iron, 7 silver, and 6 gold objects, including the head of a gold pin, two gold earrings and a gold band.  Two of the vaulted tombs (24 and 25) appear to be a group delineated by a peribolos.  A cist grave (26) first uncovered in an earlier season proved to be a monolithic poros sarcophagus covered by reused architectural members.  It contained the bones of at least three individuals together with a vase, two coins and two bronze, two iron, and two stone items.

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Chalasmenos. M. Tsipopoulou (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on further excavation of the large building first uncovered in 2004 and dated to the site’s main LM IIIIC phase.  The building consisted of large rooms with antechambers to the front and other areas to the back.  The large rooms contained central hearths (one of which was built and the other of clay), and benches.  Finds include whole vessels in situ, fragments of figurines, a small gold disc, stone tools, a stone bead and a small pierced stone disc.  Animal bone and carbon were present, as were earlier Minoan sherds.

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Pacheia Ammos. M. Tsipopoulou (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Early Minoan architectural remains close to the shore at Chalepa.  A possible Hellenistic kiln was found in the same place.

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Kaminaki. V. Apostolakou (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the continued excavation of a tholos tomb.  The floor was completely cleared.  Finds include an Early Minoan I stone lamp with a tall foot, part of a clay larnax, small bone plaques and small figure-of-eight bone shields.

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Faneromeni Skopis. Ch. Sofianou (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on a tholos tomb that was largely destroyed by a mechanical digger.  Early Minoan pottery and steatite beads were collected.

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Praisos. Ch. Sofianou (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that excavation alongside a rock-cut chamber (which A. Papadakis had interpreted as a tomb) brought to light a large neighbouring room partially cut into the rock.  There was a thick destruction layer of roof tiles and building material.  The room contained eight Archaic pithoi, an amphora, a figurine of Cybele and two more figurine fragments. Twenty two silver coins with a scrap of cloth, pots, metal objects, and animal bones were also found.

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Palaikastro. Ch. Sofianou (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a bath-larnax within a rock shelter at Kastri Chionas. It contained sherds, two items of bronze jewellery and a piece of shell.

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Kalamavka, Panagia Psathi. V. Zografaki (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a built Late Minoan tholos tomb which had been disturbed.  Finds included crania and other bones, stirrup jars and cups, bronze jewellery and a spear head.  A second tholos, damaged by ploughing, was found a few meters away.  It had been looted: sherds, bones, and a loomweight were recovered from its interior.

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Mermegkas, Vrachasi. V Zografaki (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of two grave enclosures northwest of the village of Vrachasi.  The first contained one grave built of a circle of roughly worked stones plus pottery fragments: it held bronze fibulae, iron fragments, a clay bead and pebbles collected in a corner.  A second grave of similar construction contained sherds of two vessels.  The second grave enclosure was very disturbed. Pottery recovered from it dated from the Geometric and Archaic periods.  A large number of metal finds include bronze pins and a small iron knife.

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Petras. M. Tsipopoulou (ΚΔ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the excavation of 50 trial trenches along the path leading to the site.  Discoveries were made on the north slope just below sector III of the settlement.  Three large Protopalatial column bases were revealed, together with a shell-shaped rhyton and a pebble incised with a bucranium.  Excavation of the level below the column bases revealed Middle Minoan IB pottery.  Nearby, two Late Minoan IA rooms were excavated.  One contained a large number of conical cups in a burnt layer with animal bone.  The other, also in a burnt layer, contained a pithos, a stone cup, a bronze needle, and the remains of a wooden box covered in ivory plaques, together with an uninscribed clay nodulus.

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Almyros, Dialektakis plot. V. Apostolakou (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports the excavation of several vaulted tombs and cist graves.  The largest vaulted tomb (tomb 30: Fig. 1) was 3.75m by 2.3m and 2.3m high.  Most graves appear to have been looted, but one looted vaulted tomb nevertheless contained 53 bronze, 30 iron, 7 silver, and 6 gold objects, including the head of a gold pin, two gold earrings and a gold band.  Two of the vaulted tombs (24 and 25: Fig. 2) appear to be a group delineated by a peribolos.  A cist grave (26: Fig. 3) first uncovered in an earlier season proved to be a monolithic poros sarcophagus covered by reused architectural members.  It contained the bones of at least three individuals together with a vase, two coins and two bronze, two iron, and two stone items.

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AVERTISSEMENT
La Chronique des fouilles en ligne ne constitue en aucun cas une publication des découvertes qui y sont signalées.
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