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Dernières notices ajoutées par région : Épire
En 2005, l’Institut finlandais a poursuivi sous la direction de B. Forsèn, la prospection intensive (archéologique, géologique et géophysique) dans le bassin drainé par la rivière Kokytos (« Thesprotia Expedition »), en vue de retracer l’histoire du peuplement dans cette région.   En 2005, de nouveaux sites ont été repérés dont les plus anciens remontent au Paléolithique Supérieur et Moyen : outre le site PS 4 repéré en 2004 et qui se trouve auprès d’un gîte de silex, deux nouveaux sites ont donné d’importantes concentrations de pièces d’outillage lithique (PS 22 et PS 23). On a aussi localisé deux sites du Mésolithique, dont l’un (PS 3) a produit un large spectre d’outils et d’éclats ; il est intéressant de noter que ces sites se trouvent dans l’arrière-pays et non sur le littoral comme c’est généralement le cas. Aux périodes préhistoriques plus récentes appartiennent quatre sites, dont trois (PS 12, PS 18, PS 20) datent du NR et du BA, le quatrième (PS 17) de l’Âge du Fer ; ce dernier est situé au pied de la petite acropole classique et romaine d’Aghios Donatos (PS 25). Sur l’acropole d’Agios Donatos, qui est le site le plus important repéré jusqu’à présent par la mission, on a nettoyé la fortification et repéré deux portes et une tour carrée ; on y a aussi repéré des restes de murs de terrasse, des fondations de maisons rupestres et des blocs architecturaux (triglyphes, métopes, tambours de colonnes, blocs d’orthostates). Trois petits sites datent de l’époque classique et hellénistique ; l’un d’entre eux, situé près du village de Sévasto (PS 15), a été exploré par le Service archéologique pour éviter sa destruction par des fouilles clandestines ; les fouilles ont mis au jour une grande maison du IVe-IIIe s. On a aussi prospecté intensivement un petit établissement (PS 5-PS 7) qui, quelques années auparavant, avait été partiellement fouillé par le Service archéologique[1]. À la fin de l’époque romaine le réseau d’occupation spatiale change radicalement : de nombreux petits sites apparaissent au fond de la vallée ; cinq d’entre eux ont été mieux étudiés, dont la villa PS 14. Enfin, plusieurs sites d’époque moderne ont aussi été identifiés.   [1] Cf. I. Svana, « Une agglomération rurale d’époque hellénistique dans la plaine de Paramythia en Thesprotie », dans l’Illyrie méridionale et l’Épire dans l’Antiquité. Actes du 4e colloque international de Grenoble, 10-12 octobre 2002 (2004), p. 209-213.

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En 2005, les travaux menés sous la direction de Chr. Souli, A. Vlachopoulou et K. Gravani ont été poursuivis dans le Portique Ouest du sanctuaire, situé à l’Est du Prytanée. On y a achevé le dégagement du portique sur toute sa longueur (80 x 10,50 m) ainsi que de l’espace qui s’étend devant lui (fig. 1). La colonnade de la façade est d’ordre dorique, la colonnade intérieure d’ordre ionique. L’extrémité Ouest du portique aboutit au Prytanée et à un portique plus court et étroit avec lequel il forme un angle obtus. Le mode de jonction entre le Prytanée et le portique indique que le second est postérieur au premier. L’escalier d’accès à l’extrémité Est du portique comporte six marches. Le long du portique on a repéré les bases in situ de 25 statues (fig.2-3). Notons enfin qu’après l’abandon du monument un four à chaux fut installé à l’endroit où le Prytanée et le portique se rejoignent.

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En 2005, les travaux de restauration et de protection dans le catholicon du monastère de la Pantanassa ont été poursuivis par P. Vocotopoulos en collaboration avec la 8e éphorie des antiquités byzantines (V. Papadopoulou). La restauration des peintures murales qui avaient été trouvées, en 1990, dans le passage entre les galeries Sud et Ouest du peristoon a donné des résultats très intéressants : une représentation (haut. 1,67 m, larg. 2,12 m) d’un couple de souverains accompagnés de deux jeunes princes ; au-dessus d’eux, entre deux anges, la Vierge tenant le Christ (fig. 1). D’après les inscriptions qui accompagnent les deux souverains, on peut les identifier avec Nicéphore Ier Comnène, sa femme Anne et leurs deux fils. Une deuxième peinture murale, découverte en 1988, a aussi été restaurée : elle représente saint Marc l’évangéliste (fig. 2).

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En 2005 a été inauguré un programme de recherche, codirigé par H. Kars (Geo- Bioarchaeology Institute, université de Vrije) et K. Zachos (XIIe éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques), sur les perspectives de développement du site dans le cadre du paysage moderne. L’objectif principal du Service archéologique étant la mise en valeur de cette vaste cité d’époque romaine et byzantine et la création d’un parc archéologique, l’Institut néerlandais a lancé deux projets. Le premier vise à la reconstitution géomorphologique et végétale du paysage à l’époque romaine, sans que l’on sache si les résultats de cette étude pourront être utilisés pour la mise en valeur du site ; le second vise à une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes de dégradation responsables de l’état actuel des vestiges de Nikopolis. Dans le cadre de la recherche sur le paléoenvironnement du site, on a effectué une série de 29 carottages sur 5 transects. Les premières analyses polliniques ont montré une évolution allant d’un milieu ouvert à un développement du couvert forestier puis un retour à une végétation ouverte ; cette dernière période correspond à l’époque romaine et donc à une population très dense et un usage intensif du sol. En ce qui concerne la recherche sur la dégradation du site, on a choisi comme point de départ l’étude du théâtre antique. Outre le délabrement physique du monument par les séismes et par les procédures diverses d’altération chimique, la colonisation biologique s’est avérée être un agent d’altération particulièrement important. Car si les divers types de lichens ont un effet plutôt protecteur, le reste des plantes, broussailles et arbres, ont causé une dégradation beaucoup plus dangereuse avec leurs réseaux de racines. À l’issue de cette première campagne, trois scénarios sur la préservation à long terme du site ont été proposés.

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Ladochori, Igoumenitsa (IKA property). G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that rescue excavation revealed part of a cemetery (which likely continues beneath the adjacent pavement and town square) in the vicinity of a known Late Roman-Early Christian settlement and bath. Six tombs were excavated – five tile graves and an enchytrismos. The tile graves were plastered on the outside and defined by rows of small unworked stoned; the deceased (one of which was a child) were laid supine, east-west, mostly without offerings (grave 3 contained two bronze coins by the feet and a small bronze ring by the cranium and grave four a bronze coin). The enchytrismos of an infant was in a pithos with a lid.  Remains of walls were found in the southwest of the plot, with pottery and tile scattered across the entire area, with a mound of fieldstones, animal bones and pottery in the north. The small quantity of pottery recovered comprised plain domestic ware (mostly amphorae and chytres) plus some with combed decoration or red slip. A few fragments of glass vessels and plates, two glass ring-stones (one engraved with a male figure), small bronze and iron objects, and an intact terracotta conical loomweight were also found.  Coins (one silver, one lead and 60 bronze) are mostly Late Roman or Early Christian, with some Hellenistic also.

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Fanoti-Doliani, Geroplatanos. G. Riginos and V. Lambrou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) report the discovery of a badly damaged cist grave west of the road from the archaeological site of Doliani towards Geroplatanos, next to the Hellenistic cist grave excavated in 2001. Excavation at a second site, on the western slopes of the hill east of modern Fanoti on which the Hellenistic town cemetery has been located, revealed ten cist tombs (four of which were intact). Lower on the same hill, 11 Byzantine tombs were excavated in 2000 during the construction of the road to Geroplatanos.  The tombs, built of well-cut limestone slabs, contained adult inhumations with the exception of inurned cremations in tomb 10. Skeletal remains had been removed to pithoi outside tombs 11 and 12 and inside tombs 7 and 9.  Tomb 9 has three phases of activity; in the earliest, an adult inhumation was accompanied by a handmade kanthariskos and kantharos (similar to seventh-century BC examples from Vitsa) and a small metal item; only a few bones were recovered from the second phase; the third and final level contained the inhumation of a young woman with a pair of Middle Byzantine bronze earrings and a bronze ring. Bones from displaced burials were put into a specially prepared area in the northwest side of the grave. Tomb 10, which was particularly large and well-built, contained at least two ash urns from a single phase of use, and a further eight vessels (including lamps, plates, lachrymateria, and a black-glaze relief bowl) plus iron strigils, a dagger and a large quantity of iron nails. Tombs 10, 3 (which contained a plain oinochoe, lachrymaterion and intact lamp) and 4 (containing a lamp) are Hellenistic in date (late fourth- to mid second-century).

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Plain of Elaia and Finiki, Filiates. G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavation at a number of sites in connection with irrigation work on the plain (Fig. 1). Site 1: a rectangular, stone-paved building with walls of large unworked stones and a threshold block in the northeast corner. A destruction layer contained a quantity of pithos and amphora sherds, plus other vessels. No date is reported. Site 2: trenching for a water channel revealed a rough pavement (of small stones, tile and sherds packed in soil) for a length of 21m. Fill removed during cleaning contained animal bone, shell, a bronze item and a large quantity of pottery (noting three probably Archaic sherds with linear decoration). Site 3 (Fig. 2): part of a farmhouse with at least three phases was revealed on the southern part of the plain. The earliest phase is represented by one polygonal wall, the second was likely short, and the third by the re-use of the visible early walls for the foundations of a new structure. East of the building, a dump deposit contained a significant quantity of pottery (mainly late Classical and Hellenistic drinking vessels), an early fourth-century figurine, a relief skyphos depicting a male head (dated ca. 175-146 BC) (Fig. 3), and bronze coins of the Epirote League. Large quantities of domestic pottery and storage vessels (especially transport amphorae), and ovicaprid and bovine bones, indicate that the structure was a farmhouse destroyed in the Roman sack of 167 (noting evidence of burning in the destruction deposit over the entire area). Sites 4-12: traces of human activity over the entire plain of Elaia did not all merit excavation. Thus site 4 produced part of a human cranium and fragments of rooftile; sites 5 and 6 a kind of pacving of small stones and tile fragments; site 7 a looted Roman cist grave; site 8 part of a tile kiln; site 10 the corner of a modern building; and sites 9 and 12 lime kilns. Site 11: a small basilica with a semicircular apse shows at least three building phases (Fig. 4). The walls (preserved to a height of ca. 3m) were of small-medium roughly worked stones, with courses of slabs and occasionally bricks. The main entrance was on the west side; originally there were four further entrances, two in the north wall and two in the south (all later closed). Inside there was a low bench around the walls. Sections of wall painting were preserved around the altar, the templon and in the northwest corner of the building. Three layers of painting were preserved on the north wall (the latest depicts a saint on horseback). Tile and cist graves were preserved inside and outside the building, with a later built tomb also found in the centre of the main church. Site 13: two buildings were investigated (that to the west more fully, since that to the east fell beyond the excavated area).  The west building, a Late Roman farmhouse, was divided into northern and southern parts around a central court (Fig. 5). The north part contained four storage and adjunct rooms (rooms II and III were initially a single space).  Room IV contained sherds of cooking pots and glass vessels and a bronze ring. Area V was an open courtyard, at the west edge of which was the enchytrismos of an infant. The south part contained the main residential spaces: the majority of coins were found in the west of this area. The residential area was approached via the courtyard, which also accessed the storerooms, with doorways in the south and east sides, although the storerooms also had a separate entrance from the east. The complex is dated by green and violet glass drinking vessels, pottery with combed decoration, bronze lenticular coins and coins of Constantine the Great and his successors, and the custom of burial inside the house. Site 14: a pipe trench north of the church of Ag. Georgios revealed sherds and tile over a distance of ca. 150m. This was investigated via excavation at three locations where find density appeared greatest. 14α: a well-preserved rectangular house containing five rooms, with walls standing to four courses (Fig. 6). Both internal and external walls were 0.55-0.65m thick, built of two rows of unworked or roughly worked medium-sized stones bound in clay, and with a fill of small stones between the faces: the superstructure was probably brick (as preserved in room I). Yellow and white decorative plaster was preserved in rooms IV and V. Storage and adjunct rooms in the east part of the building included one room with four pithoi in situ, and an iron working shop immediately to the south. The room furthest to the north (plus perhaps that immediately to the west of it) was likely used for dining, to judge from the animal bones found there. Room VI also produced two iron knives, domestic pottery and fragments of glass vessels.  The building is dated to the fourth – seventh centuries AD by the glassware and cooking pots, combed ware sherds and lenticular coins, as well as the construction of the walls.  14β: finds indicating domestic activity comprise plain domestic pottery and cooking wares, sherds with combed decoration, fragments of glass vessels, three conical terracotta loomweights, a few lenticular coins and a bronze medicine spoon. No architectural remains were found and it is conjectured that the building was located further to the east. 14γ: the corner of a building and part of a stone-paved road were found. Finds identical in character to those from 14α and 14β suggest that this is part of a larger residential complex of the fourth to seventh century AD.  

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Skala, Aetos (Apostolou or Micha property). G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on further excavation in the Late Bronze Age to late fourth-century BC hill settlement overlooking the valley of Meso Kalama.  The property had been illegally landscaped into four terraces, only the topmost of which was investigated, although occupation appears to extend onto lower terraces too. The long oval building 2 (14.5 x 3.5m internally), built of stone slabs bound with mud, was divided into two rooms of unequal size (Fig. 1); the larger (eastern) room contained traces of stone paving and scattered pithos sherds. To the southeast lay the similar (but less well preserved) building 3, on the same east-west orientation. To the north of this was the later, rectangular building 1, oriented northeast-southwest. Over this single-roomed structure (with a paved floor) was a thick destruction layer. The northwest wall of building 1 was founded on an earlier curved wall forming an apse oriented to the east. The settlement was dense and likely arranged on a series of levels defined by terrace or peribolos walls, one of which was revealed. The stratigraphy was too disturbed to support precise dating; fill contained mixed pottery from the Late Bronze Age to the fourth century BC. Wares include handmade pottery with plastic, impressed or incised decoration dating from the Bronze Age to ca. 900 BC; finer Early Iron Age handmade ware, generally unpainted; and later Classical wheelmade pottery including imported Attic black-glaze. The oval or curved-walled buildings appear to have been in use from the Early Iron Age until the end of the fourth century, while building 1 is dated by pottery and coins to the second half of the fourth century.  

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Anc. Gitani. G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a rectangular building and four graves at the entrance of a cave close to the archaeological site.    

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Anc. Elea. G. Riginos and K. Lazari (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) report on excavation of buildings in the central (flat) part of the site and of sections of ancient roads which will form part of planned visitor access routes to the site. Building 4 lies north of the main street, by the junction with the street which defines the west side of the agora. A rectangular structure (30 x 10 m) with three rooms, its west and south sides are best preserved. The main entrance, from the street to the west, led into a central corridor with a room on each side: a storeroom on the south side contained three pithoi beneath a thick destruction layer, while the room on the north likely contained a loom, since 80 loomweights were found (as well as an Adriatic transport amphora). Building 5 lies on a road which ran northwest to southeast across the level central area, to the north of building 4. Similar in construction to building 4 (with exterior walls in polygonal masonry and a fired brick superstructure), it too is probably a private house.  At least four rooms were uncovered in the western part of the building (an area of 13 x 10m). The main entrance, in the northwest side, gave into a long, narrow room (I) which had four pithoi set along its west side. A terracotta bathtub in the southeast corner drained via a stone channel into the neighbouring alley. A dense destruction deposit contained bronze coins, iron nails and pins, small bronze and iron items, and sherds of pithoi and pithoid vessels. Rooms II and IIII lay to the east of I: the northernmost (room II) contained storage vessels. To the south of it, room III had a semicircular hearth in the southeast corner and a large storage pithos in the northwest corner.  A collection of 29 conical and pyramidal terracotta loomweights in the middle of the north side may indicate the position of a loom. Room III communicated with a further room to the east. Building 34, in the northwest corner of the agora, is defined by roads on all sides. Beyond the road to the south lies the colonnaded building 30. The area to the east was landscaped into three shallow terraces down to the stoa building 28 which defined the north side of the agora. The extent of destruction in this area precludes precise architectural reconstruction, but it is likely that small buildings with open fronts facing the agora may have housed local businesses.  Building 34 (10 x 16m) had 6 rooms (V-X), with severe disturbance throughout, arrayed on two levels on a north-south alignment (Fig. 1): the upper, eastern side, comprised rooms V, VII and IX, and the lower western VI, VIII and X) communicated directly. The building was divided into two parts of separate function; the northern comprises rooms V and VI, including a threshold over which were five female terracotta figurines (perhaps indicating a small shrine), while the southern contained the intercommunicating rooms VII, VIII, IX and X: a water channel ran beside room X and across the neighbouring road.  Rooms VII and VIII in the centre of the building were entered via room X, and covered with a thick destruction deposit containing sherds of pithoi and other storage vessels and many bronze coins. Rooms IX and X on the south side of the building were workshops or storerooms: four pithoi were found in situ in room IX (a room in which many bronze coins, iron nails and pins, terracotta female figurines, a stone rubber, two iron spearheads, a transport amphora and a bell-shaped plain vessel with two openings.  Room X contained iron nails and pins, terracotta female figurines, and four stone grinding bases (Fig.2). Sector Z10: two rooms of a complex on the easternmost end of the plateau were investigated. Room 1 contained a stone bench along the east wall, with a destruction deposit containing mainly domestic pottery.  Room II lay largely under a stone mound with a little tile and pottery. Sectors E9-E10 comprises one room (5 x 5m) later than the surrounding structures. The entrance is on the west side. Roads: a large part of the central arterial road was excavated, plus the main cross road, and smaller roads north of building 33 (between buildings 10 and 32) and between buildings 30 and 34 in the northwest part of the agora. A thick destruction layer was found over all these roads, chiefly from neighbouring buildings, with much pottery, many terracotta and metal objects, and silver and bronze coins. In all cases the road surfaces were made of beaten clay, gravel and small stones, tile and sherds packed over bedrock.    

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Sternari, Zervochori. G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on further excavation of a Roman complex first revealed during the opening of a rural road in 1992. The large rectangular complex (50 x 40m) had a central, probably open air, 10 x 7m courtyard (area I, Fig. 1), with walls of medium-large worked hard limestone blocks, many of which were re-used. Around the court were the two long rooms II (30 x 3.5m) and III (23.5 x 10m), which had floors of beaten earth and pebbles, as well as a number of smaller rooms with similar or paved floors. The southern wall of the building could not be located. Inside the building were two tile graves and two cists without grave goods. The small tile grave I contained a few bones of an infant. The badly damaged tile grave 4 contained partial remains of an inhumation in supine position. Cist grave 2, of limestone slabs, contained an inhumation placed diagonally, with the head in the northwest corner. Stone cist 3 held the bones of a small animal placed in the centre of the tomb. A few pieces of worked stone and small stone projectiles were found, plus part of a millstone, a lead clamp, small bronze and iron objects (sheet, nails, an iron arrowhead and a bronze hook), a terracotta strainer, conical terracotta loomweights, plain domestic pottery and fineware (including sherds of three small glazed vessels), and 39 bronze coins (38 Roman and one Late Hellenistic).  

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Sternari (land of A. Bika). G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the exposure during ploughing of scattered ancient building material, tile and plain pottery in a field a few metres west of the river Kokytos.

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Aerodromio, Prodromiou (land of the Petsiou brothers). G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of a three-roomed farm building and five tile graves (two without goods and three severely damaged). Finds include iron nails, fragments of glass vessels, a very few plainware sherds (some with combed decoration), and a bronze coin. The finds, and the form and construction of the building (in unworked stones bound with mud), indicate a date in the first centuries after Christ.    

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Mavromantilia. G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Geometric to Late Hellenistic settlement remains, plus tile and bone from a destroyed tile grave, during the opening of a drainage trench on the Prodromio plain, ca. 200m east of the river Kokytos. An 0.5m-thick cultural level (ca. 50m long), found at a depth of 1.5m below the modern surface, contained small and medium-sized fieldstones, traces of burning, fragments of (mostly animal) bone, and sherds of pithoi and other vessels. A ca. 10 x 1m section of stone pavement was located on the north side of the trench. The grave remains came from the east side of the trench at a depth of 0.6m. Finds comprised largely pottery, including sherds with Geometric decoration in black or brown paint on a cream slip (of vertical and horizontal lines, zigzags, herringbone pattern, meanders, and semicircles), pithos sherds (some with rope decoration), an intact small two-handled vessel, terracotta figurines (three animal heads and a bird), a conical terracotta loomweight, small bronze and iron objects (hooks and sheet), part of a stone tool, and a very few pieces of worked stone.  

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Balakia (land of F. Sioziou). G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of Late Roman-Early Christian settlement remains, a stone-built tomb and a tile-covered child burial in a field by the national road from Paramythia to Preveza. These remains form part of a larger site of this period which extends over the northern part of the plain of Zervochori. The stone tomb - built of medium-sized blocks with lime mortar - was partially destroyed (the cover was lost). The floor was covered in stone slabs and rooftiles. The tomb likely held more than one interment, but the bones are now scattered within it. The tile grave was 3m to the south; disarticulated infant bones and a bronze coin lay beneath a cover tile. To the west of the tombs was a layer of small and medium stones (covering ca. 8.5 x 7.5m), with traces of plaster, terracotta rooftiles, pots sherds, traces of burning, and small metal objects. The pottery was mostly plain domestic ware, with a few sherds of pithoid vessels. Other finds include pieces of a millstone, a few fragments of glass vessels, lead clamps, small iron and bronze items, and 15 bronze coins mostly of the Late Roman and Early Christian periods.  

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Pano Pigadi, Sevasto (land of the brothers D. and F. Christou). G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of an Early Hellenistic farmhouse (Fig. 1).  Four rooms of the structure were revealed (total preserved area 16.6 x 9m), with walls of medium-sized unworked limestone pieces bound in mud. Room 4 (7 x 6.5/7m) formed the central space of the building with the main entrance in its south side (the threshold is preserved plus a paved alley outside). While the area was not completely explored, it is clear that the destruction deposit did not extend over the entire area. To the west was the second largest room (1, 5 x 8m), the northwest side of which has been disturbed by a mechanical digger; the remainder of the space was covered with a destruction layer. In the northwest corner was a round stone hearth. Room 3, northwest of room 1, was the most severely damaged by the digger. Room 2, the smallest (2.8 x 2.6m), communicated with room 1; an area of stone paving would found on the western side, with a bench in the northwest corner.  Finds include domestic pottery (including black-glaze), small bronze and iron items (sheet, mails, handles), three almost intact terracotta lamps, conical terracotta loomweights, iron clamps for the repair of pithoi, and eight bronze coins of the Epirote League.  

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Agios Nikolaos (land of E. Bazina). G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery of 12 Byzantine cist graves a few metres to the west of the bed of the river Kokytos. The graves, of thin limestone slabs, were set together, all oriented east-west, in an area of 10 x 5m. The smaller tombs 5 and 7 held child burials. Tomb 2 contained a bronze ring, 4 an iron object, and 6 two bronze hoop earrings: the remaining graves lacked offerings. The bodies lay directly on the ground, head to the west, hands crossed on the chest: tombs 2, 3, 9 and 11 had small stone headrests. The burials rested on earlier architectural remains: four stone walls, a paved area, a rectangular cement-lined structure (probably a cistern), and a large pithos with relief linear decoration.  The few finds include sherds of plain fine ware as well as pithoi with rope decoration, a conical terracotta loomweight, part of a terracotta inscribed tile, small bronze and iron items, and five bronze coins. At least three phases of activity are noted. The first in the first to third centuries AD, the second when the building took its final form in the fourth to sixth centuries, and the third, when the 12 Byzantine tombs were constructed.  

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Fragma Kalama. G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery beneath the modern national road from Igoumenitsa to Sagiada of a Π-shaped funerary enclosure of the Late Classical/Early Hellenistic period. The enclosure contained three parallel cist tombs, two of which (ΤΦ1 and 2) contained only a few fragments of bone while the third (ΤΦ3) contained many offerings (including 12 vases, a bead, silver coin, a bronze cymbal and gilded bronze nuggets) and the remains of at least three previous inhumations displaced to the west side of the tomb.

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Doliani. G. Riginos, V. Lambrou and D. Drosou (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) report the discovery of 75 cist graves, with adult and child burials largely without goods, by the north gate of the outer fortification. Inside building 16 on the acropolis, five pithoi were found in situ: north and northeast of this building were walls showing two building phases, the earlier likely contemporary with the initial construction of the neighbouring buildings 16 and 3. The same two phases were shown in the 1995 excavation of building 3, between building 16 and the inner fortification wall. Cleaning of the area to the south of building 3 revealed remains of a further ancient building.

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Anc. Gitani.  G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that cleaning revealed the limits of the central arterial roads (6 and 12) as well as part of a paved road near building 20. At the west end of road 6, northwest of the small temple (building 25), a rock-cut deposit was cleared, containing much pottery including intact vessels. Removal of fallen material over road 1 revealed a stone water channel.  Removal of collapse levels over building 59 (16 x 17m) revealed that the building had at least seven rooms or courts. On the site of the future visitor centre, eight tombs were excavated, oriented north south, plus four inurned cremations inserted into hollows in the rock. Outside the tombs, five concentrations of small vessels were likely offerings to the dead. The most usual grave offerings were lachrymateria, lekythoi, lamps and pyxides (oinochoae being used as ash urns). One tomb contained a collection of metal medical instruments as well as vases.  

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Dymokastro. G. Riginos (Η’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports that work to present the site included investigation of the rock-cut buildings 19 and 20; building Z was revealed alongside them comprising eight intercommunicating rooms. Building 19 to date consists of three rooms linked by rock-cut steps, but clearly extends further to the east. Building 20 was likely a single room, with both walls and floor shaped from the rock.  Buildings 19, 20 and Z together extend over ca. 600m2. Some of the walls of building Z were plastered, while rooms IIIB and VI had brick floors and room V a floor of tile fragments. Along the west wall of room IV were column bases in situ and fallen columns (probably from the doorway linking rooms IV and VI).  To the northeast of building A, the east and south sides of a further building were revealed, with an entrance (and threshold) on the east side. Cleaning work produced quantities of plain domestic pottery and black-glaze, whole vessels (lamps, transport amphorae, lagynoi etc.), terracotta loomweights, a terracotta figurine, bronze jewellery with relief decoration, and a bronze lion paw. Also found were iron and bronze arrow heads, many small metal items (parts of vessels, sheet, clamps, nails, hooks, needles etc.), a marble altar, stone architectural members, small bone items, fragments of glass vessels, and a large quantity of mostly bronze coins.  These span a long period from the mid fourth to the second half of the first century BC.   

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Agios Georgios, Doliana (land of S. Alexiou).   A. Karaberidi (8th EBA) reports the completion of excavation in the Early Christian basilica, with the exposure of the central area and the south section of the narthex.  The central part of the narthex (14x4m) is narrower than the side sections (5.5m north and 3.8x5m south). Piers rose in the corners of the north and south sides, and in the west at the junction of the central and side sections of the narthex. Five doorways in the central part communicated with the nave and aisles, and with the two adjunct areas, and there were two further doors in the west wall. Part of the southern door in the west wall and the communicating doorway with the southern side section were walled off at a later stage. Traces of wall-paintings were found on the east wall of the central part of the narthex. The mosaic floors of the narthex was found almost intact: these had garlands in the borders and in the rectangular central panels, foliate ornament (in the south section), and three panels (in the central area) with a four-leafed arrangement of interlocking circles in the two outer and in the central panel a circle surrounding a (lost) medallion with a garland around it and ‘pinecone’ like ornament. Peacocks decorated the four corners of the central area. Trial excavation outside the building for the supports of a new roof revealed walling parallel to the south wall.

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