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Dernières notices ajoutées par région : Crète
Mochlos. J. Soles (ASCSA/North Carolina) and K. Davaras (Athens) report on the 2007 season. Conservation work was centred upon the consolidation of part of the Prepalatial settlement and its reburial. The Prepalatial settlement remains are fragile and, being located beneath the LM IB remains, undermine the later buildings. The conservation of house C.2 in the Neopalatial settlement was completed.

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Papadiokambos. S. Apostolakou (Director ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) and Ch. Sofianou (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) report on the excavation of a M building in 2007. Continuing work begun in 2004, 6 more rooms were investigated of this 2-storey structure (some 130m2; walls standing to 1.4m) of LM I date.  Storage and household ceramic vases, sea shells, stone tools including a large stone mortar and obsidian blades were all found in the rooms; the yard yielded a whole bronze dagger and a clay basin full of limpet shells. The sudden destruction of the building might be connected with the volcanic eruption on Thera as many pumice pieces were recovered in that horizon. A 27m l. wall, noted in 2005, served as a protective embankment against the flooding of a nearby stream.

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Praisos. J. Whitley (BSA/Cardiff) reports on the first season of excavation. Work in 2007 concentrated within the fenced zone on the NW slopes of the first acropolis of Praisos, immediately to the W and N of the so-called andreion or Almond Tree House, investigated by R.C. Bosanquet in 1901. (Fig.1) Three trenches were opened. The smallest (A-100), immediately N of the andreion, was defined by 2 of the surviving walls which Bosanquet had called ‘earlier’. Two larger trenches were opened to the W of the andreion, A-200 to the N and A-300 to the S. For recording purposes, the andreion was itself considered a trench (numbered A-400). A-100: this area, defined by 2 of Bosanquet’s ‘earlier walls’ to the N of the andreion, was not completely investigated this season. However, these  2 walls, though of inferior workmanship, clearly abut and are therefore later than the NW outer face of the andreion. The walls do not underlie this monumental structure, as Bosanquet thought. To the W, cleaning the face of the outermost and lower wall revealed a layer of possible roofing debris underlying the wall, which was not excavated  this season. A-200: like its neighbour to the S (A-300), the most prominent feature in the upper levels of this trench was the Med−mod. (probably Ven) terrace wall (A-203). The upper layers below topsoil were rich in cultural material: large quantities of animal bone, tile and pottery of various dates from the BA until the present, with Hel and LCl material predominating. Some bases of LAr cups, together with some shoulders of what appear to be very thin-walled (and so probably Cl) high-necked cups could also be discerned. Small finds from these layers comprised numerous terracotta loomweights of all types (pyramidal, round/disc and bi-conical, with the former predominating) and one terracotta plaque of a young man. (Fig.2) Below were layers which, if  not closed, were relatively undisturbed. To the E, a rock cutting formed the E extent of an anc. surface (almost certainly not a floor), below which were a number of small rock-cut pits and natural hollows, one of which contained a mass of animal bone and another a high-necked cup. This surface, which was probably an open-air space, was squared off to the SW by a stone setting and marked to the S by a rock cutting. To the W ran a substantial anc. wall (A-210), at least 0.7m w., set almost against the vertical face of the bedrock. To the NW of this wall was a cross-wall (A-215) with a threshold in the NW corner and a rock-cut floor. The area behind this to the NW (A-213) contained numerous small finds − an iron and a bronze nail, an iron knife and a lead weight, a mysterious stone foot, a kernos and some pithos fragments. These seem to be associated with other terracotta weights  which had fallen into the adjacent room (A-216), finds associated with further pithos fragments and the only (bronze) coin of the season. Excavation of this adjoining room proved particularly productive. While the NW of the room had been disturbed by a later pit (A-217), a layer of fragments of at least 2 pithoi which had fallen in situ were found in the SE corner (Fig.3). In the centre of the room was a stone column base and to the SW a rectangular stone-built hearth with a setting of stones and a small amphora to the S. The stone setting is interpreted as a ‘warming stone’ and around this were masses of carbonized material. A-300: the upper layers in this trench, opened up around the probable Ven terrace wall, contained material which was, in most respects, very similar to that found in the upper layers of A-200; masses of animal bone, pottery of all dates from the BA to the E20th Ct, with Hel material predominating. There were some slight differences however. First, there were about double the number of loomweights (one pyramidal example, stamped AΔ) and far fewer examples of Ar cup bases. Moreover, there was some possibly Rom ridged ware (about 5 sherds). After the upper tumble was removed, at a d. of about 0.7m, a complex of walls  was uncovered, some standing quite high. To the S of the trench, a pair formed 2 sides of a probable building whose inside was filled with tumble. Excavation concentrated on the N and NE corner, on either side of the extraordinarily well-preserved wall A-310, which ran broadly E−W (Fig. 4). This wall, with its well-defined stone door jambs, survives to a h. of about 1.8m above the original ground surface. Another wall, A-314, at  right angles to and partly below this, clearly abuts (and is therefore later than) wall A-309.  A partially rock-cut bench sits next to a possible window in wall A-314. To the W is another wall, A-315. Excavation concentrated on the area immediately S of wall A-310, where a very large pithos had fallen onto an original ground or floor surface. This surface was in turn directly overlain with largish blocks (tumble). A bronze pin was found immediately adjacent to this pithos. In sum, there is a complex of several walls in several phases, broadly datable to the Hel period. The working hypothesis is that these represent several phases of houses. A-400: the W face of the andron was cleaned, fully revealing a monumental façade in a clearly mainland style broadly characteristic of the 4th Ct BC. The structure is highly visible to anyone travelling along the route from the coast along the old kaldirim route from the mod. village of Maroneia past the Skalais cave. No other areas were excavated, but several worked blocks from a large monumental structure were recovered. These do not seem to fit the so-called andreion, and may indicate the existence of another large civic building in the vicinity. The upper layers in trenches A-200 and A-300 comprise mixed deposits. The presence of residual BA (tripod legs and one probable MM III fineware sherd) and EIA (one PGeo sherd with compass-drawn concentric circles), Geo and Or (one pithos with a guilloche embossed on a raised band) materials confirm the results of the survey − they indicate E habitation further upslope on the first acropolis. Part of the upper layers probably represent Bosanquet’s dump partly mixed with hillwash. That this dump comprised, in part, Ar and later drinking vessels and animal bone (with at least one jaw of a wild pig) is at least consistent with his hypothesis that the monumental building he also called the ‘Almond Tree House’ might, at some stage, have been an andreion, i.e. a public area for communal dining and drinking. In his description of this building and the adjacent structures which he excavated, Bosanquet did not remark how all the surrounding walls butt onto, and thereby partially obscure, this structure. He was probably right in thinking that its original purpose was not for processing olive oil: the olive presses must relate to a 2nd phase, when the use of the building was quite different. There are no parallels for such a monumental building on Crete in LCl or EHel times, and this provides a prima facie case for its being some kind of civic building, rather than a private house. The fact that it would have been so clearly visible to travellers coming from one of Praisos’ ports makes it a very appropriate building for a public guest-house or koimitiria, and the large quantity of animal bone and drinking cups found in the upper layers are at the very least consistent with some kind of public dining. The date of the final phase of occupation remains unsolved. Wall A-310 seems to be the latest of our walls; if one follows Strabo and the Moni Toplou inscription, it ought to date to the last building phase of the city, i.e. in the decades before 146 BC. But no clear destruction horizon exists, nor is there any layer of tile collapse or roofing debris consistent with a phase of abandonment. This last might be explained if the building of A-310 had been robbed of its tiles before the building fell in. Though we would like to date wall A-310 to the E2nd or L3rd Ct BC, we cannot rule out some kind of ‘Hierapytnan reoccupation’ in the latest Hel period.  The absence of any quantity of Rom pottery rules out the notion that there was any serious Rom reoccupation of this part of the city.

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Pseira. P.P. Betancourt (ASCSA/Temple) and K. Davaras (Athens) report on work conducted in 2007 towards the publication of block AF and on an investigation of stone quarries on the island. Block AF is the most S section of the town, E of the harbour. The earliest architecture, predating MM II, is scanty: several rooms from a MM II house are preserved. More architecture from the next phase, destroyed in LM IA, is visible. This last building is of special interest because its destruction can be associated with the period of the eruption of Thera. After the damage, a foundation deposit consisting of Theran pumice, deep-water sea shells and one conical cup was placed on the floor before the next building phase was constructed. The discovery of a new stone quarry in 2007 brings the total of known M quarries on Pseira to 3. This project studies the stone formations on the island, the way they were exploited to remove stones, and the use of those same stones in the M town.

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Off Pseira. A 5th season of underwater excavation was carried out by E. Hatzidaki (EMA) on a MM IIB shipwreck. The tally of finds has risen to some 120, comprising 80 vessels (mostly amphorae, pithoi, jugs, cups and cooking vases: many with E Cretan parallels) and items of stone, lead and obsidian. It is hoped that parts of the wooden vessel may lie preserved in the sands.

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Lato. A. Farnoux (EfA/Paris IV) and H. Würmser (EfA) report on the study season following the 2006 survey. In addition to specialist reports on matters of geology and hydrology, attention again centred on the site’s topography, following the work of J. Demargne in 1901. In addition to achieving a better understanding of the town’s organization (by road, terrace and building), the focus was on the W quarter (and the construction of 2 cisterns). Further, of the several entrance gates proposed by Demargne, only that fortified at the W is justified in being so termed.

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Agios Charalambos Cave. P. Betancourt (ASCSA/Temple) reports on the 2007 study season. The pottery, numbering 15,000 sherds and vases, extends from FNeo−MM IIB, with less than 10 sherds from LM I−III. The bones (all disarticulated) and the offerings were in a mixed state within the cave. This pattern suggests that burials of an earlier date were put in the cave during MM IIB, and that the cave was closed by the end of the BA. The pottery includes both local vessels and pieces imported into Lasithi from other parts of Crete. The local wares are recognizable by their soft red clay fabric, which has fragments of phyllite as inclusions. The imported sherds include pieces of Pyrgos Ware (EM I), Vasiliki Ware (EM IIB) and several MM styles. Among the MM pieces are goblets from central Crete, Chamaizi pots, vases with white spirals, and polychrome sherds. The human bones, of which over 10,000 have been catalogued to date, include those of children, as well as both men and women. Fragments of a single skeleton have been excavated from different levels and from different rooms. Many animal bones are also represented. Some of them have cut marks on them, showing that they are the remains of food offerings that accompanied the deceased. Animals include sheep or goats, cattle, pigs, and smaller numbers of bones from dogs and cats. Hares and other wild animals are also present.

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Sissi/Sisi. J. Driessen (Belgian School/Leuven) and I. Schoep (Leuven) report on the first season of excavations at the M settlement on Kefali tou Ag. Antoniou. Lying 4km E of Mallia on coastal routes, it has a strategic importance (Fig. 1). Work in 2007 involved geo-radar prospection, aerial photography and survey, all designed to reveal the most promising areas for excavation. Ceramics collected in the survey date the earliest apparent occupation to EM IIA, with material from LM II being the latest; one fragment carries a Linear A sign. The excavation shows early burials by the seashore and at least one large structure (perhaps 35 x 25m) on the summit: of EM III−MM IA construction, this was reused into LM I, reoccupied in LM IIIB and then finally destroyed. Four areas were excavated (Fig. 2). Zone 1 (the lowest terrace by the sea at the N) was a burial area (EM III/MM IA and MM IIB) with rock-shelters and over 12 built ‘house tombs’: 2 rooms in one house-tomb yielded EM III−MM IA cups; near another such tomb was a MM I−II pottery deposit, consisting largely of pouring and drinking vessels. Zone 2, inland and on the terrace immediately above, is defined by a wall which could have served defensive purposes. There are at least 3 structures made from large stones (one investigated by C. Davaras in the 1960s): investigations between 2 of them show they were set on destruction debris of Neopalatial date; to the SW, redeposited burnt material of MM II lies under the 3rd. On the summit, in zones 3 and 4, are several discrete structures, some of which were visible on the surface (an impressive N−S wall to the NW, with threshold). This limits a room to the W in zone 3: a platform and storage jars on and set into the floor, a funnel and a deep bowl were covered by a destruction layer (burnt to the S) with much pumice intermixed. To the S were smaller rooms and corridors: one space held a pithos top, inverted and perhaps acting as a basin; another yielded a pithos, jar and decorated krater, to which a LM IIIB date can be assigned. In a 3rd trench to the E was a fine façade of limestone: running W−E, it turns to the N, and at its S end its position is influenced by a likely access route. Behind it were further remains of walls, the latest was built over a possible drain containing Neopalatial sherds (elsewhere material of this and the Postpalatial era has been eroded away). Internal partition walls marked the earliest construction here in EM III−MM I. Zone 4, further S, has a megalithic wall with 3 rooms associated. A fine limestone column base was retrieved, perhaps reused and of Protopalatial date: the pottery is all Postpalatial and includes Chaniote imports (a small stirrup jar, from the same source, was found in zone 3).

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Malia. M. Pomadère (EfA) reports on the 2007 excavation season in Quartier Delta of the M town (Fig. 1). The main focus was building Π. Less monumental than its neighbours, architectural studies nonetheless established 2 main phases of use in the Protopalatial and Neopalatial periods (with 3 subphases in MM III−LM I), but no later reoccupation. Room 4, with its flagstones, 2 column bases and red-paint decoration, is a small colonnade/portico; a pit to the SW contained many dozens of often complete vases, from some destruction. Rooms 10 and 11 (Fig. 2), like 14 and 15, are long spaces designed as storerooms. As often seen at Malia, they may have cisterns set in or even replacing a wall − in this case at the E end. Lacking an obvious entrance, it is argued that these were entered from above; filled with destruction debris, they yielded vases of everyday use, but decorated and of good quality. Room 8 (5.7 x 4.9m) was perhaps partly open, its single pillar not being deemed sufficient to support the roof for the entire space; in its last phase it was subdivided, with a cistern set on its paved floor. Yet another specimen appears in the party wall of rooms 12 and 13, in the W sector of which were also found stone tanks (up to 0.45m across), sunken into the floor: one is filled with small stones and the other with broken pottery. Finds were scarce and mostly Neopalatial in date. Sondages show earlier occupation on the site, with 4 sealstones and a steatite bead in the shape of a double-axe.

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Isle of Dia. The discovery is reported of a Byz naval stronghold, belonging to the time of the recovery of Crete from the Arabs for Byzantium by Nikiphoros Phokas (ca. 960 AD). The site is impressively large, running out from the present shoreline into the waters to a d. of 22m. A little further out, in 30m of water, the reasonably well-preserved remains of a boat, possibly Byz, have been located. Other underwater exploration off Dia has produced hundreds of amphorae of all dates: these and examples recovered earlier by Cousteau are being processed in the Ven fort in the old harbour of Herakleion.

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Knossos Urban Landscape Project (KULP). M. Bredaki (Director, ΚΓ' ΕΠΚΑ), A. Vasilakis (ΚΓ' ΕΠΚΑ) and T. Whitelaw (BSA/London) report on the 3rd season of survey. In 2005 the majority of the urban site, extending over some 1.5km2, was intensively surveyed. In 2007 walking moved into the low hills surrounding the city, on which the city’s cemeteries were located. A number have been identified and excavated, ranging in date from ca. 2,000 BC to 800 AD. Particularly notable are the groups of rock-cut tombs, from the later BA, the EIA and the Rom period. These are complemented by less substantial burials in pithoi, larnakes, pits and tile graves, as well as built mausolea of Rom date. Cemeteries of all phases ring the urban site and flank the Kairatos valley down to the harbour town. The areas of known tombs in the S of the valley were surveyed intensively, from the Kephala hill in the N to Spilia, and from Fortetsa in the W to the upper slope of Aï Lias to the E. Some 7,000 grids (20m2) were intensively investigated, covering the core of the protected Alpha zone (Fig. 1). An estimated 60,000 sherds were recovered; approximately 30% of the recovered material has been preliminarily processed. When it became clear that survey had extended well beyond the boundaries of the urban site and surface densities had dropped considerably, the field strategy was modified to increase the speed of coverage and the likelihood of encountering now rare material. Two 20m transects were walked across each square, usually along the W side and down the centre, to ensure scanning of the entire unit for features. An area 1m w. was scanned intensively along each transect for material, expanding to 40m2 the area in each unit actually searched, and increasing significantly the chances of encountering low-density material. Excavations in the last Ct, both within the city and in the encircling cemeteries, have been quite patchy, with major work focusing in the area of the M palace, and rescue tests under the mod. villages and along the main road. This has left major areas of the site and the surrounding landscape uninvestigated. The excavations do, however, provide good data for areas not available for survey at the core of the site. Accordingly, the 2 investigation strategies are essentially complementary, The area surveyed in 2005 extended to what was believed to be the probable boundary of the aggregate urban area; high densities of material were sustained up to that boundary on most sides (Fig. 2). Extending outwards, the 2007 fieldwork has defined more clearly the boundaries of the occupied area, as this shifted through time. Moving out into the hills, the continuous surface coverage serves to fill the significant gaps between the known clusters of tombs. Moderately dense distributions of ceramics, particularly to the W, on the acropolis and the S, up Lower Gypsadhes, suggest either that the fringes of the site shifted back and forth between occupation and burial in different phases, or that major areas of shallow burials, perhaps pithos cemeteries, have been destroyed by agriculture. These possibilities will be assessed through the detailed analysis of the nature of the assemblages recovered and may add a significant new element to the picture provided to date by the rock-cut chamber tombs which have been the focus of previous research. In contrast to the material recovered in 2005, where 19.6% of the sample is represented by feature or decorated sherds, in the sample of 2007 material studied so far 27.8% of material falls within these particularly diagnostic categories. This presumably represents the better preservation of material protected for at least part of its lifespan in tomb contexts. Of the 2,842 readily diagnostic sherds collected in 2007 27% are PH, 21% EIA−Hel, 17% Rom and 35% post-Rom. For the 55,672 sherds recovered in 2005 on the city site the comparable distribution is 19% PH, 48% EIA−Hel, 29% Rom and 4% post-Rom. Considerably more material was encountered on the surface in 2007 than had been anticipated. PH items are relatively more abundant in the periphery, where they are not so effectively masked by overlying EIA−Rom material. The predominance of post-Rom material, essentially off-site scatter from the last millennium following the abandonment of the urban site, reflects to a large degree the protection afforded to material buried in the rock-cut chamber tombs so common throughout the use of the cemeteries.

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Prinias. The University of Catania and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Catania, teams report on continuing excavation in the Ar area of the town (Patela) (Fig. 1). Three areas were investigated: the monumental building, the rooms immediately to its N, and the area of temple A. In the first, a structure with 2 small columns and a central pillar was revealed (Fig. 2). This can be dated to the first, LGeo, phase of the building, when the presence of votive offerings in its W room confirms that it was a cult place. In the Ar period the building experienced a secondary use for industrial purposes. Work in the rooms between the so-called temple B and the monumental building concentrated on room VE, also part of a structure of some importance. Here a foundation deposit was earlier recovered, related to the construction of the nearby building. In the area of temple A, excavation in the rooms immediately to its W revealed more and earlier building phases of LM/SubM date (Fig. 3). As previously, high-quality painted pottery was found inside. Finds also included fragmentary stone sculptures of a small bull and a seated sphinx.

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Galatas. G. Rethemiotakis (Herakleion Museum) reports on the 2007 season of excavation at the M palace and town of Galatas, focused on the Neopalatial building 6, W of the ‘Court of the Baetyl’, in particular its N wing. Rock cracks contain sherds of black-polished EM I−II wares. The large structure (500m2) is better preserved to the E, but eroded to the bedrock at the W. The centre of attention was a M hall and adjacent rooms of moderate size. The hall (5 x 3.3m) has  a pier and door system at its W, of 5 doors and limestone bases, as well as a portico with a single column set midway between the side walls. Two plaster floors were laid; at the SE corner was a stone-lined pit, with a foundation deposit of vases and a libation table fragment; at the SW, a stone dressed pit apparently for libations. Pottery indicates an LM I (probably LM IA) date for the use of the room; a rectangular table of offerings, of serpentine, had fallen from an upper floor. The surrounding rooms are of moderate size, with one casement for a double staircase leading to the upper floor. Two rooms were located to the E and SE: the first had a single plaster floor, partly preserved. Its destruction deposit had many broken pithoi, part of a large chalice and a serpentine offering table. Its floor, as with the room to the S, was laid over a deep earth fill, small stones and quantities of MM IB sherds. In this, all known types of finewares and coarsewares appear: the prevalence of tumblers and carinated cups (all sizes down to miniatures) suggest drinking ceremonies were practised. A potential ritual aspect is suggested by certain cylindrical vessels, part of a triton shell and 2 animal figurines. The locus for such events could have been the ‘Court of the Baetyl’, where similar finds were re-encountered last year. Accumulations of vases and similar were swept away into rock crevices. N of the M hall, at the E, was the placement for a staircase. Other than some ordinary vases, the main find was a steatite sealstone: lentoid in form, it has an ‘ibex-headed woman’ in the central position, dressed in a long skirt and with arms on the waist as if dancing. At her sides are birds: one by its long s-shaped neck might be an aquatic bird (?crane), the smaller is arguably a duck. Unparalleled as the design is, it yet must draw upon the world of the divine − a nature goddess, a protector of horned animals and waterfowl perhaps. The next room to the W contained many and varied ceramic vases and a bronze axe of utilitarian sort. Under the Neopalatial floor, destruction debris for the first phase of building 6 dates to the MM IIIA. Stratigraphically connected to this earlier phase, as well as architecturally, the following room to the W is of great interest: it is a lustral basin. All the essential physical characteristics are present: a short staircase of 2 flights, a floor below that of the surrounding rooms and a paved corridor that impinges on the E side (as that found at Chania a little while back). Here too much timberwork is associated (now carbonized), perhaps a railing; the floor and walls are plastered and painted (the floor yellow with a red band at the foot of the white walls). However, there are differences too from the full Neopalatial basins: the parapet of the stairs, of mud and small stones, is delicate, at only 0.18m w. Probably it was a low partition on the inner side of the stairs. Again, there is no massive pillar terminating the stairs, merely a final post of wood, whose stone support slab remains. These variables are presumably due to its very early date − at the present, the earliest known, excepting something similar at Malia in quartier mu. With typical pottery, mostly cups, from the fill go 2 beads: one an amygdaloid of reddish banded agate, the other a sphere of amethyst. Above the infilling of the basin come vases of the final use of the area: one has a typical LM IB scale pattern. S of the M hall, 2 unusual structures were revealed: apparently enclosures with walls and artificial terracing inside dedicated to ritual actions. That which faces onto the ‘Court of the Baetyl’ is divided into 2, one lower than the other and containing many vases, mostly cups. The 2nd, to the W, has several small terraces giving access to an inner compartment: this last has a plaster floor, with a stone construction in its SE corner. It is arguably an altar: it has a stone set onto it − dressed and with a hollow suited to receiving liquids, as a jug found near it could indicate. All around, the space was packed with pottery: utilitarian and ritual alike. The latter include cylindrical vessels, miniatures (cups and an amphora), rectangular stands, as well as some human and animal figurines.  A roofless house model is of interest: door openings are shown and perhaps horns of consecration at the upper edge.

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Galatas Survey Project. L.V. Watrous (ASCSA) reports on the 3rd field season of the systematic survey around the palace of Galatas, under the supervision of P. Galanaki (ΚΓ' ΕΠΚΑ). The area surveyed in 2007 was focused between the villages of Galatas, Zinta and Arkalochori: 48 new sites, ranging in date from Neo to Ot, bring the total number to 172. On return to the palatial site of Galatas, to determine better the size of this settlement during the Protopalatial and Neopalatial periods, it has become clear that Galatas grew dramatically in size in the latter period: a number of massive cyclopean structures at the edge of the site appear to have been built then. Three large M settlements were identified S of Galatas, at Korakia, Kastellos, and Paratiritirion. Korakia and Kastellos are the 2 most important M sites in the area of Zinta. Following the LM IIIB period, the local population during the EIA occupied defensible hilltop sites separated from one another by a km or more: a large number of Geo-Ar settlements were discovered. One, atypically, sits on the unprotected valley bottom. Rom occupation around the Galatas palace appears scarce during the 1st−7th Ct AD. The survey uncovered 18 sites, 2 of which had only an E occupation, 9 with E and L occupation, and 7 with only a L occupation. Settlement did increase by the 4th Ct AD, but was even so not substantial. Study of the Byz through to mod. periods revealed that the paucity of Rom settlement continued into the Byz period, as only 8 of this season’s sites appear to have Byz phases. Ven sites are much more plentiful and typically continue into the Ot and mod. periods. These post-Byz sites often also display evidence for M phases, revealing that much of the land exploited in the M periods was not use  again until the 13th Ct and later. Of particular note for the Ven period is the fortress surveyed near Meleses. A number of imports from Italy, N Greece and Cyprus have been observed. The pattern of settlement in the area surveyed in 2007 differs in some respect from that of the previous 2 seasons. The earliest settlements are Neo and EM hilltop sites as before, but Protopalatial and Neopalatial settlement is largely nucleated on defensive locations away from valley bottoms . The dispersed Neopalatial pattern of settlement around the palace of Galatas does not seem to occur in the Zinta-Arkalochori area. Instead, such settlement is confined to large hilltop sites. While the population around Galatas moves to the site of Astritsi in the LM IIIC−Hel period, this pattern is not repeated in the 2007 survey zone. Here rather the EIA population remains dispersed on small and large sites. By the Cl period, several of these sites have been abandoned, presumably for larger settlements. Some evidence for assigning a Ven date for some ‘soroi’ has been gathered.

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Profitis Ilias settlement. N. Allegro (SAIA/Palermo) reports on the 2007 season of excavation, involving sector B (W part, N of E−W road). Here a new Geo−Ar building (IV; 10 x 8m investigated) was uncovered adjacent to and to the E of building V, W of an alleyway and fronting the E−W road to the S; its N limit is outside the excavated area (Fig. 1). One certain external entrance is known at the W, from the N−S alleyway. Inside, 4 rooms are known to date. The lack of communication between the  W and E sides led the excavators to suggest there are in fact 2 simpler strip-houses. The shortage of tumbled stone inside the room interiors perhaps indicates a greater use of brick for the upper elevations. There are few finds and little furniture on the floors, which makes the function of the rooms unclear. The E unit may have an opening onto the S road from room 13/14: its S and E walls have shelves made from stone slabs − potentially rests for pithoi to judge from the abundant sherds in the abandonment layers. Room 17 to the N has a structure in the NW corner composed of a bench of 3 limestone blocks and an arc of slabs. Inside this was part of a millstone; this could identify the structure as a grain mill. The W unit rooms (15 and 16) are linked by a door 2m w. Room 15 to the S has a roughly central flat slab set in the earth floor: perhaps a support for a wooden post. In the NW corner is a quadrangular bench, built with rough stones. Room 16 has a few potential pot-stand bases of stone at floor level. Part of a later road-bed was seen over its NW corner, after the abandonment of the house in the 7th Ct BC. Alley (B18) between this and building V on the E is 1.8m w. It runs off to the N from the E−W road, its surface a mix of earth and stone flakes; it might have had steps. Building V is little explored: it is entered from the W, from the alley B18, whose threshold has a pivot-hole for the door. The settlement layout is well enough understood to discern that it had a pattern in its final phase (L8th-E7th Ct BC): an E−W main artery with alleyways off it defining the house-plots in between. This presupposes planning and political organization of a quite advanced nature.   Building S in the Byz quarter. G.M. Fabrini (SAIA/Macerata) reports on the excavation season of 2007. The position and nature of this structure, with its façade of large blocks on the W street, indicates that it originally served a public function (Fig. 2). Constructed in the LRom period, it was then used into EByz times when more domestic structures grew up around it. Its latest stages, until the destruction of Gortyn by the earthquake of 670 AD, still require elucidation. Access was by a monumental entrance hall (with a door frame of limestone blocks and doorstep of reused marble) both long and narrow: on either side a small room exists, with 2 larger ones further from the road. Another room of similar dimensions lies at the NW. Research was focused on the large central space, room 53 (8.22m E−W x 5.75m N−S): its walls, set on the bedrock, were of a chalky material worked into blocks of varying size, in turn split and arranged in roughly horizontal courses, regulated at times by inserting smaller pieces of stone and brick. A well-made pavement of rectangular limestone slabs, fully preserved, was laid on the prepared bedrock. Two doorways, one each in the N and S walls, are accented by 2 double-layered niches. The scanty material associated with this phase of construction dates it to the last decades of the 4th Ct AD − in keeping with the building techniques used. Room 53, and presumably all of building S, was reconstructed after a destruction, which is marked by the presence of huge blocks of sandstone and other recycled materials. The destruction was caused by the terrible earthquake of 670 AD, as indicated by the stratigraphy: a layer of ash and broken and charred beams contained many roof tiles and hundreds of iron nails, all from the collapse of the roof. In the same layer many differently shaped slabs of marble of varying sources and quality were recovered: these have been restored as a decorative upper flooring of geometric panels and polychrome strips. Small hexagonal bricks are associated, as well as a roundel of green serpentine. Following the destruction, collapsed levels relate to other walls composed from reused material: fragmented sculptures and architectural fragments such as a small Cor-Italian sandstone column of the 2nd−1st Ct BC. Further collapses have been ascribed to the L7th−E8th Ct AD and beyond, culminating in abandonment. Other work was undertaken N of the monument. When building S was begun, this was an open space. Later structures and walkways were added, culminating in the erection of rooms 47 and 47a. This stage produced material dating to the L8th Ct AD and later. The thermal baths to the S of the so-called praetorium. G. Bejor (SAIA/Milan) reports on the excavation concentrated in the area between the frigidarium and the praefurnia of the baths. This sector was initially occupied by the hot rooms, but underwent an early collapse of the floors and subsequent caving in of the ground: in turn this permitted only simple construction. The most significant area for understanding the anc. monument is the W range behind the frigidarium. A strip of original floor is preserved in the northernmost room. A door connected this room, which ought to be the caldarium according to its position, to room N, not yet excavated: the area was occupied by village houses in the 7th Ct AD. A 2nd room at the centre is much better preserved: its construction is linked to the reconstruction of the frigidarium, already established as belonging to the 5th or E6th Ct AD. It was separated from the frigidarium by a newly-built wall that incorporated 2 earlier pillars. In the wall were a door and doorstep, inlaid in opus sectile. Inside were 2 basins of differing sizes, accessed by steps. Both were covered in the customary polychrome marble lining, many fragments of which remain. The N basin has a well-preserved floor with a black and white chequered mosaic, each motif made up of hundreds of marble tesserae. Work was undertaken on the access-way to the SW bath complex. The existence of a large column base in situ here was previously noted; it appeared to have been covered by the outer wall of the baths which thereby conserved it. The top of the column base is visible, as well as a paved road relating to the square in front of it. These are the first traces of monumental construction in this area: they probably belong to the period of the nymphaeum which was subsequently transformed into the cistern for the bath complex. The square seems to cover an area of almost 80m2, delineating the S limit of the bath structure in the direction of the large baths accessed by the Megali Porta. The Byz quarter of the Pythion. E. Zanini (SAIA/Siena) reports on the 5th excavation season. There were 3 goals in 2007: to the NE to clear the street that acted as the axial thoroughfare in all periods; to expand excavation to the N to include a large structure of EByz date; and to the W to unify a number of areas investigated earlier. The axial street, running NE−SW, had assumed this role perhaps as early as the start of the 5th Ct AD; by the time of its abandonment in the 1st half of the 8th Ct AD it led through a landscape of ruins and decay. The EByz building had a central role in its district: of large size, it was well appointed with pavements and painted wall-plaster. Built in the L6th/E7th Ct, it underwent several complicated phases, with a series of internal spatial reorganizations. It was accessed from the street through a large entrance with a threshold of a slab probably reused from the Pythion. This led into a paved court with rooms off it. A large and well-planned drainage system, emptying into the sewers under the street, implies a large volume of water − initially perhaps for civic use (for baths?) and later used for artisanal purposes. Finally, to the W and in front of the Pythion complex, a trial trench dug by Halbherr (in the E 1900s) was reopened. Mostly occupied by a Byz rubbish pit, filled in 2 phases (5th and 7th Cts AD), there was below a likely Rom structure showing a quality of construction consistent with that evident in known Rom phases in the temple.  A structure 4.2m2 encloses a circular room: the whole is entered from the W. Inside, though much robbed and rebuilt, a few original traces remained: clay lamps of the 2nd/3rd Ct, amphorae and jug sherds suggest a possible cult connection (Fig. 3).  A similar conclusion is indicated by its direct alignment with the doorway of the Pythion. The water supply of Gortyn. E. Giorgi (SAIA/Siena) reports on the 3rd season of investigation of the city’s water supply in the Graeco-Rom and Byz periods. Gortyn’s main aqueduct is sourced ca. 15km away, from the springs at Zaros on the slopes of Mt Ida. The water feeds first into a capture tank, a rectangular chamber (37 x 5m) with walls of thick opus caementicum and a concrete vault. Thence it is transported in a rectangular-sectioned conduit (1m h. and 0.5m w.), at times set into rock cuttings and at others supported by a 2m h. wall. Once in the valley of the Mitropolianos (N of Gortyn), the line ran along the river bank and into the city. At least 4 phases have been identified. While a Hel predecessor has been conjectured, this currently lacks archaeological support. The first unequivocal presence of an aqueduct dates to the E Imperial period (2nd Ct AD). Two aqueducts directed the flow to the acropolis and the N side of Gortyn. In the city centre water towers fed a system of underground clay pipes. Near the praetorium, these pipes connect the monumental nymphaeum with the Rom baths; more are known beneath the Byz quarter by the Pythion. The system continued to the end of the 4th Ct, but then suffered detectable damage: the praetorium system went out of use around the turn of the 5th Ct AD. The EByz phase (L6th−E7th) is best understood (Fig. 4). Outside the city the Rom system of delivery was maintained. Inside, innovations were made − some pipes were replaced by above-ground cistern fountains (51 known so far), mostly arranged in clusters by landmarks such as the acropolis, the praetorium and the Megali Porta baths. They are of different sizes, ranging in capacity from 48 to 62m3. Fed directly from the aqueduct, they were built of stone blocks and bricks (typical of the work of the time). They were rectangular in shape with a barrel vault, coated with hydraulic mortar and reinforced inside at the corners with ribs to counter the outwards thrust of the water. On the exterior, enlivened with geometric patterns in the brickwork, niches were created (1−3 in number), carrying draw taps. In addition, 3−4 larger cisterns, in volume in the hundreds of m3 range, were located at important places, such as the acropolis, the baths and the church of St Titus and that at Mitropolis. They were probably to hold emergency stores and could not be drawn on directly. The Hel temple. E. Lippolis (SAIA/Rome) reports on renewed excavation (begun in 2005) of the temple in the block N of the praetorium gymnasium. As well as new elements of the façade (Ionic half columns) and an inner fronton, an internal arch 7m w. in ashlar is of particular interest: its lintel is decorated in sequence by an architrave, an Ionic denticulated frieze and a final cornice. Study suggests this arch, with its 2 side ante of 1m w., was set in the wall that divides the vestibule from the cella. This allows the entire cult hall to be visible from the entrance − a unique arrangement in the Mediterranean (though with some faint echoes of Syrian usage). It would also help explain another very rare aspect − the closed-in façade, with Ionic half columns, to the vestibule. Against the N wall of the vestibule once stood a rectangular arrangement of stone blocks, likely a monumental structure for offerings, although now robbed out. Following the abandonment of the structure as a place of worship, excavation has revealed 2 L antique phases. Initially it became a public building, with a portico, and remained as such to the start of the 7th Ct; later, and into the 8th Ct, it was used as a manufacturing centre. Three cisterns against the N side yielded some valuable statuary: apart from small fragments, noteworthy are a head of a youth, the lower part of a man in a toga (a composite piece) and a large torso of a woman, a peplophoros. This last seems to be a 2nd Ct AD reworking of a Demeter Capitolina type.  

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Phaistos. M. Benzi (SAIA/Pisa) reports on a new project begun in 2007. This consists of a survey of the hill surrounding Phaistos where many sites have been discovered through non-systematic exploration in recent decades. The focus of this year’s work was identification, GIS-referencing and information gathering for sites in the area already known or suggested from the archives of the ΚΓ' ΕΠΚΑ and the SAIA. PH ceramics and structures were located on the hill of Marathoviglia Petrokefali. Field survey was accompanied by the recording of materials originating from Italian excavation in locations around the palace, in part kept in the Stratigraphical Museum of Phaistos.

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Mnemata. E. Tegou (ΚΕ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on a rescue excavation at one of the cemeteries of Eleutherna, resulting from road-works between Alpha and Eleutherna. Sited on the W slopes and terraces of a gorge to the N of the city, the site is extensive: the tombs investigated all lie within the zone of the works, with the mod. road marking its limits to the W. The cemetery has been mentioned in the literature for some time, but only now has it been investigated. Before work began, traces of rock-cut cist tombs were observable in 6 places. Many more were found: 128 have been definitely identified, in 5 main groupings. All are orientated N−S, except for 11 which lie E−W. They are cut into the bedrock (a soft limestone): some were executed carefully, others less so. Many were disturbed and damaged as a result of the road preparations, so that only 3 preserved in place their triple covering slabs. For many the sides were to be seen in outline as were the sockets cut to receive the cover slabs. Pottery is the most numerous find: the 657 pieces recorded comprise several sorts of closed and small shapes − perfume bottles, lekythoi, jugs and oinochoai. Important for determining burial customs were 2 gold mouth covers, both inscribed. The burials can be dated broadly to the Hel period, with the earliest assigned to the L4th−E3rd Ct BC.

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Zominthos. Y. Sakellarakis (ASA) reports on the continuing excavation of the M settlement, conducted in collaboration with D. Panagiotopoulos (Heidelberg). The M main building, of 2 or 3 storeys, covers ca. 1,500m2; its 2 entrances, good façade, and frescoes establish its élite status. It was a working establishment, perhaps central to the exploitation of the upland terrain in which it is located. It had its own potter. Three chronological phases are distinguished: Prepalatial, Protopalatial and Neopalatial. Burnt after an earthquake, it was later replaced by a Myc structure. Some 50 pithoi have so far been located, among numerous other vessels, and bone and metal tools (knives, double axes). Over 30 types of seed have been found (barley, wheat, lentils, horse-beans), plus evidence of aromatic materials, and the bones of sheep, goat, hares, and quantities of deer. In the excavations of 2007, 5 rooms along the N face of the main structure were investigated. Room 7 had quantities of plaster and stones fallen from its upper storey/roof; wall-fresco pieces were still in place at their junction with the floor (thin coloured bands are detectable). Room 8 has a window (as have rooms 9, 14 and 15), plus more fresco in situ, 3 small vases, bits of wood and bronze, and some upright stones arrayed in arcs at the W that block an easy passage into the door with room 9, whose lintel still remains. Room 17 contained a fallen pithos and various clay vases including spouted jars, hemispherical and conical cups, and jars, as well as bones and burnt wood. Corridor 16 was partly blocked by a stone floor of schist and limestone fallen from above, partly by fallen vases, plaster and burnt wood. Room 15, a basement, has collapsed stones with a pithos and smaller vases, cooking pots, part of a set of Horns of Consecration, bones and burnt wood (Fig. 1). Geophysical survey of the area of this M structure and its Myc successor revealed traces of a considerable number of walls. Environmental studies (animal bones) and conservation in the building continue.

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Eleutherna. The discovery by N. Stampolidis (Crete/Museum of Cyc Art) of 3 Geo pithos burials (ranging from the L8th to M−L7th Ct BC) is reported. The pithoi (ca. 2m h.) were set on their sides between 2 parallel stone walls and had stones arranged over them, forming a sort of false vault as they rested on the curve of the vases. The interconnection of the 3 was emphasized by their being laid so that the base of one closed the top of the other. All contained skeletons (at least one adult and some children) and grave goods. A marker further identified the spot. The earliest burial had 3 bodies: perhaps one interred before the other pair. The oldest person, a female, had a gold sheet diadem attached to the forehead by a now perished cord. Finds associated were gold pins, beads of rock crystal, carnelian and other stone, and a scarab with winged deities. An impressive bronze ladle had a deep bowl and a 0.5m l. handle with a bird terminal: by the mouth of the pithos was an 8th Ct Cypriot oinochoe. The 2nd pithos held a single skeleton associated with one gold and one iron pin. The last pithos too held one body, with a necklace of gold sheet rosettes, a gold relief bead with a head in EIA style and more pins of bronze and iron. The goods in the first pithos resembled others found earlier in a pit grave which held the burnt remains of a ‘warrior prince’. The excavators surmise that there may be earlier BA burials in the area − perhaps the source of offerings such as sealstones and stone vases in Geo burials. Also in this area is a Geo structure of the 8th Ct BC, partly sunk into the ground. It is not fully excavated, but has substantial walls (2m h. x 1.5m w.), stone benches and tables inside and is equipped with kraters and many cups. The report speculates on a possible connection with rites for the dead. Finally, 3 ash urns were found, similar to those associated with the warrior-prince pit burials; they had been closed by bronze bowls imported from Egypt or Asia Minor. Further press reports describe a unique item that is compared with the Antikythera mechanism and interpreted as a Rom lock. Recovered in 2002, it has been subjected to extensive scientific examination at Rethymnon (D. Kalligeropoulos and S. Vasileiadou). It was recovered in a pottery store of a small Rom bath-house, the roof of which collapsed in the 365 AD earthquake, killing at least one person. Probably once attached to a ceiling beam by its 10-link chain (0.53m l.), a potential key to it was located nearby. The mechanism is cylindrical, around 1kg in weight and of metal: it has further bands of bronze attached to the exterior. The interior was divided into 2, with 3 cogged wheels of iron set on a pin and a further ovoid plate.

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Gavdos Katalymata. K. Kopaka (Crete) reports on continuing work on the building on the hill of Tsirmiri, in the interior of the island. The structure, of which several rooms have been excavated, is reminiscent of a M ‘villa’. Probably associated is the M 2nd millennium pithos burial, reported in AR 53 (2006−2007) 121.

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Chania. M. Andreadaki-Vlazaki (Director, ΚΕ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the 3rd season of excavations within the heart of the old town (Kastelli hill and Splantzia quarter) on the ‘Katré 1’ plot, adjacent to the S walls of the acropolis of anc. Kydonia. Opposite lies the ‘Katré 10’ plot, where J. Papapostolou revealed the Linear A archive in 1973. Seven more trenches were opened, towards the N and E; the architectural remains revealed again bear witness to the complex stratigraphy created by the site’s long history. Apart from 2 mod. walls, the latest features date to the LRom period; ERom, Hel and Cl vestiges are localized to the S and E, and Ar, EAr and LGeo remains to the N and W.  A big pit, containing many fine cups with matt black paint (6th Ct BC), probably for feasting, was dug in the W-central part.  In PH times, and immediately afterwards, a large open-air space seems to have occupied the N part: here, an extensive layer of burnt pithos fragments and small stones of the LGeo (L8th BC) was revealed below the Ar and EAr remains. Below comes a level with LM IIIC pottery, and deeper still one with quantities of shaped stones from well-built constructions, now lying on a floor with numerous animal bones found in situ. Among indisputable local LM IIIB pottery were quite a few LM IB sherds. Here a completely preserved LM IB roundel was found: it carries the Linear A ideogram for cloth on its upper surface and 15 impressions of one seal, depicting 2 couchant lions, on the periphery. Preserved by the conflagration of about 1450 BC, it is similar to examples already found in both the Katré 10 and GSE excavations, albeit having more impressions on its periphery than do the others. N. Maravelaki has added further pieces of stucco of Hel, Rom and later date to his study concerned with establishing new dating techniques for structural remains.

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Kisamos. S. Markoulaki (ΚΕ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the continuation in 2007 of the excavation of a Rom town house or villa on the Stimadoraki plot. Situated on the W side of the anc. settlement, towards the harbour, only a part of this enormous structure, the largest of its sort yet uncovered here, lies within the plot’s borders. Set against the paved E−W road (decumanus) and entered from the same into a lobby (fauces), that part of the edifice excavated is divided into 2 zones by a N−S wall (24.5m l.) at right angles to the road. W of the wall lies the W wing and to the E is the peristyle courtyard. In the W wing, parts of 8 rooms were revealed. Four to the S had earth floors and were relatively ordinary; 4 to the N had more splendid functions, as the multi-coloured mosaic pavements show. As well as interesting geometric patterns, figured scenes exist. The southernmost has various symbols with masks and at the centre a Medusa; that to its N, larger still, shows the retinue of Dionysos. An E−W corridor comes next, permitting internal access to these reception room suites: though damaged, its use of glass-paste tesserae creates much colour − a man with a wreath and a Muse are depicted: 2 names survive, in their endings only. The last room at the N has a representation of Eros with garlands in a flower-filled meadow. Preliminary study places the mosaics in the L2nd−E3rd Ct AD on stylistic grounds. The peristyle courtyard is bordered by a stoa, presumably with a garden (viridarium) at its centre. Parts of the W and S colonnade exist: 10 column settings (at intervals of 2.5m, reduced to 2m at the N) for the first, with one extant only at the S. The colonnade is 2.9m w. at the W and 3.5m at the S. Nothing of the columns is preserved (probably they were of wood), nor of their stylobates. They were set on stone blocks (0.5m2): lime plaster was poured fresh into square pits dug down below the floor before the blocks were positioned. Below the floor a lead pipe of small di. ran diagonally across the yard. The structure was probably built in the L2nd−E3rd Ct AD, although concrete evidence of coins or other firmly datable material is at present lacking as excavation has not gone deep enough. The villa had a 2nd phase of use involving important alterations that mark its decline as a structure: cross-walls divide up the large yard so that more people could be accommodated, albeit at a lower standard of living. The columns were removed and their bases covered over when the earth floor was raised. A small opening in the large N−S wall allowed access to the W wing. A floor of clay plaques and a small oven are preserved on its interior. The room with the Muse and that with Eros are also given earth floors. The first became a cellar, connected to the peristyle yard, whose amphorae were smashed in the building’s destruction: under a layer of fallen roof tiles was a human skeleton, with another located by a wall in the converted yard. A coin hoard of sesterces of Gordian III was retrieved on a floor of the 2nd phase; other coins of the 2nd half of the 3rd Ct AD show the alterations to have been undertaken after the M3rd Ct. The final destruction, responsible for the 2 fatalities, can be assigned to the general stratigraphical horizon associated with massive earthquake of 365 AD.  This levelled Kisamos.

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Zakros.  E. Platon (ASA) reports on a study season focused on pottery from excavations conducted by N. Platon in the M palace and town of Kato Zakros.  Pottery from rooms 44 and 45 of the S workshop sector comprises coarse household ware, strengthening the interpretation of the assemblage as linked to the production and storage of foodstuffs and other goods.  The relatively few examples of LMIB painted ware were accompanied by animal bones, including jawbones of ovicaprids and bovids.  The pottery from areas 70 and 71 in the E wing comprises undecorated vessels for the storage of liquids.  In the town, the pottery retained from building Y was studied.  The discovery of part of a probable LMII Ephyrean goblet from the area immediately N of the building shows that the area was reoccupied almost immediately following the destruction of the settlement and the palace at the end of LMIB, and that there were links with Knossos, from where table vessels of high quality were imported.  Pottery from the upper terrace on the slope of Ag. Antonios included vessels for liquids, mostly handleless conical cups and kyathoi, many preserved more or less intact.  This supports N. Platon’s interpretation that the artificial terraces constructed from large unworked stones were used as a kind of open-air sanctuary. 

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Kato Episkopi. M. Katiphori (13th EBA) reports on excavation and restoration at the Church of the Apostles (Fig .1) conducted between 2005-2007. The structure (Figs 2 - 5) began as a Middle Byzantine bath-house (10th to 11th century AD). Its elaborate system of piping can be traced: water from a heated cistern at the east was taken to a hot plunge bath at the northern apse, and then drained out through the wall; hypocaust channels heated the middle large room from below; cold water, bypassing the cisterns, went straight to the cold plunge bath at the southern apse, and then drained out. Vertical flues in the walls circulated the warmed air. The entrance and changing area were set at the west. In this respect, it is typical of such baths of the late Christian, Byzantine and early Islamic periods. Its conversion to a church occurred during the Venetian period (probably late Venetian, perhaps 16th century AD). In the Ottoman period it fell into disuse: stores and animals were quartered there. In 1896-1897 it was reconsecrated. Six main burials were located within the structure, all Venetian in date.

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Lefkochori. P. Epitropakis (13th EBA) reports on conservation undertaken in 2006-2007 at the mortuary Church of the Metamorphosis of the Saviour (Figs 1-5). The 14th-century AD wall-paintings (some dated AD 1320-1330, according to Borboudakis) display two pictorial styles. The main nave mostly displays a mixing of the flowing Palaeologan school with the linear mannerisms of the previous century, a style widespread in Crete. Those paintings by the High Altar (Fig. 6) and inside the north transept are freer in execution and more expressive, reflecting the influence of contemporary popular styles. Many explanatory and dedicatory inscriptions are listed (Figs 7-13).

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Fourfouras. P. Varthalitou (28th EBA) reports on restoration from 2007 onwards at the Church of the Virgin (Figs 1-3) in a ruined monastic setting. This small church (Fig. 4) was shown to have two construction phases; architectural alterations in the early 18th century AD included the use of ‘accoustic’ pots (the vessels themselves being re-used from late in the previous century). The surviving frescoes in the east of the building date to the original construction in the last decades of the 14th century AD: one main hand and at least one assistant can be detected (Figs 5-8). A painted inscription of five lines (white on black) on the north wall records the name of Nicholas Arkoleo (Fig. 9), after whom the settlement was once named. At the west, a simple stone-built tomb yielded a bronze coin, probably a tornesello of Michael Steno (Doge 1400-1413) (Fig. 10).

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Kephala. A. Fiolitaki (28th EBA) reports on excavations conducted between 2005-2007 at an Early Byzantine farmstead (Fig. 1). Five rooms were opened: four of essentially the same constructional phase form a cluster, with the fifth (room A) off to the southeast. The first unit is served by two entrances, from the north and the east (the latter serving rooms set three steps down from the others). Rooms B1/2 (Fig. 2) were used for storage, as shown by 17 pithoi, sunk and plastered home in their pits (two cist graves, one with plaster poured over it, must have been placed there after the building had been abandoned). Rooms Δ and E combine storage with living: more pot-pits and low stone benches on the east, south and west walls were found, as were knife blades, a lead handle for a box, a small bronze pin and two finger-rings. Room A probably had two storeys: roof tiles were found along with irregular stone slabs and traces of wooden support beams for the upper floor. Two shallow pits and a V-shaped drainage system were cut into the rock inside the room at one end. Outside the east and south walls were further drains and parts of three stone mortars. Other spaces in the open zones around the rooms were defined by stone (e.g. a circular space to the northwest). West of room Δ were two ovens. Ceramic evidence dates most of the floor deposits of the first unit to AD 530-580, with some lamps and amphorae allowing an upper limit of the early seventh century AD. This accords with the two coins found, of Phocas (AD 602-607) and of Constans II (AD 642-643).

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Kamara. G. Fandakis (ΚΕ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavations in 2007 within the late Christian cemetery east of Kissamos (Fig. 1). Six broadly fifth- to seventh-century AD cist graves were recovered at the east (Figs 2-3), of which two were undisturbed (tombs 1 [Fig. 4] and 4). These are built of large slabs (three per side) held in place with smaller stones, and with three to four limestone cover slabs covered with thick layers of strong plaster: the floors are mostly earthen, though tomb 6 (Fig. 5) contained two large tiles. The undisturbed graves contain supine inhumations and a few grave goods which may be more closely dated to the fourth to early fifth century AD - a hoop ring (Fig. 6) with a little gilding, a whorl (Fig. 7) and a distaff hook (Fig. 8), and a lightly decorated bone pin (Fig. 9). Traces of a structure with at least two building phases (Figs 10-11) were found 7m to the southwest. The first phase consists of two walls, with five Late Roman coins dating the construction: a thick destruction layer contained tiles and nails from the roof. Against the north wall was a pithos base (Fig 12) and, close by, one coin of Arcadius (Figs 13-14) and a second (Figs 15-16) of a member of the dynasty of Constantine the Great (third- to fourth-century AD). A Venetian tornesello (Figs 17-18) was introduced in later disturbance. A bronze surgical probe (Fig. 19) with cast linear decoration is of fourth- to seventh-century AD date. Later in the Early Byzantine phase, further walls extended the building to the east: to this phase belong coins (Figs 20-21) of the second year of Heraclius’ reign and of Constans IV (Figs 22-23). A sixth- to seventh-century bronze hemispherical, legged censer (Fig. 24) with simple decoration was also retrieved. A small semicircular kiln (Fig. 25) was recovered southwest of tomb 6, built from re-used stone blocks. A small hearth built from a pot base and many large tiles was also found: metal sheet and plentiful slag suggest a connection with metalworking. Mostly domestic pottery was recovered, dating first to the third to fourth century AD, and then with plentiful sixth- to seventh-century AD material with simple linear decoration (Fig. 26). Other finds include fragments of glass vessels (Figs 27-28), especially stemmed cups, of the fourth to sixth century AD, and 27 bronze coins which date mostly to the fourth to fifth century AD.

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Kato Episkopi. M. Mari (13th EBA) reports on research inside the domed church of the Ag. Apostolai (Fig. 1), which was converted in the 16th century from a bath. Numerous burials below its floor left the earlier floor and hydraulic fittings best preserved within the two side niches.  

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Chania. Agios Rokkos. M. Milidakis (ΚΕ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavations within the church in Daskaloyianni Street carried out in 2007 in collaboration with the 28th EBA. Protected by their position, phases elsewhere removed since World War II were here available for study.  The first occupation was in EM II (2600-2300 BC): a stone scatter on bedrock, accompanied by pots of Vasiliki ware. Though a continuous presence was noted thereafter, up to LM IIIC (1200-1100 BC), little can be said of the use of the area. Numerous finds are associated, and two walls of different phases recorded. One hearth was associated with an LM IIIA1 floor – ash, stone tools (pounders and grinders) and limpet shells suggest work or food preparation was carried out here – and another hearth at the same depth and perhaps date was found a little to the west, outside the church. A second hearth, in the same area as the first, is associated with an LM IIIC floor.  A fourth-century BC pit at the northwest extended outside the church: its presence forced the Venetian builders to provide deeper and stronger foundations for the church wall here. Other pits are associated with the preparation of the ground for the construction of the church, and before the laying of the terracotta floor tiles.  

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Chania. Junction of Skalidi and Manoussoyannakidou Streets (Agricultural Bank property). L. Limantzaki (ΚΕ’ ΕΠΚΑ) reports the discovery in 2004-6 of significant architectural and workshop remains, especially of the Roman period. The earliest evidence of occupation is an eighth-century BC rubbish pit. By the Archaic period, a pit grave indicates that the region was used for burial, fitting its then position at the city boundary. In Classical and Hellenistic times a beaten earth road ran east-west between houses. During the Roman period the area became an industrial quarter with a potter’s workshop producing transport amphorae. Two kilns were recorded to the southeast, positioned to allow a single roofed space with an earth surface north of kiln 1 and east of kiln 2 to accommodate the stoking and firing of both: accumulated charcoal and an amphora were found here. Strewn all around were kiln furniture (wedges), elements of wheels, wasters, sherds (including amphorae), and loomweights. An Ottoman pit cut into the northwest part of the complex. Kiln 1 had a 2.8m square stacking chamber with an entrance at the southeast corner and walls of a clayey-soil (0.5-0.6m thick, preserved to 0.6m high) baked hard on the exterior. A clay grate of clay separates the stacking floor from the firing chamber below. Larger perforations at the edges of the grate had clay pipes to direct the hot airs into the stacking chamber. The roof was not preserved. The firing chamber below is smaller with a vaulted roof; in the centre was the large cylindrical support for the grate. The clay-coated walls were baked grey-black. The kiln mouth (1.05m high, 0.83m across) is at the north. To the northwest, the smaller Kiln 2 (2.3 x 2.1m) is more damaged but has the same basic arrangement. The east and south walls, of clayey-soil, are free-standing, while the north and west walls abut existing stone walls. The entrance is at the southeast; the roof is not preserved. Parts of the grate survive, on which pots from the last firing remained in position. The firing chamber below, mouth to the east, was not excavated. Two further structures relate to water supply. An underground construction in the north of the plot may be a cistern complex. A passage with walls of mixed ashlar and field-stones leads down via a flight of 14 stone steps to a subterranean rock-cut chamber with a steep incline from west to east (13m x 0.8-1.05m, with a further 17 steps). From the chamber, two tapering holes (reducing from 1.4 and 1.2m diameter) connect to the ground above either for ventilation or to funnel rain water into the chamber below. East of this complex is a 9.2m deep rock-cut well, lined for the most part with rough stones and tapering in diameter from 1.6 to 1.3m. Besides is a ramp of two stone blocks, one worn from the rope used to draw water.     

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Agios Petros. E. Kanaki and Ch. Bilmezi (13th ΕΒΑ) report the excavation of 81 graves in the central aisle, the two chapels and along the north wall of the church.  There are four types: simple rectangular tombs with earth floors, some with cover-stones that are inscribed or bear family crests; ashlar built tombs of pyramidal shape; vaulted tombs; graves with two compartments.  The majority of tombs contained more than one burial.  The dead were supine, head to the west. Nails indicate they were in wooden coffins.  They had simple jewellery, usually of a religious nature and occasionally pottery (usually unguentaria) and coins.  One plate is a Venetian import of the 15th or 16th century, and a cup from Ferrara or Venice dates from the late 15th to early 16th century.

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Meseleroi, Kontopodi plot. V. Apostolakou (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on the identification of a pithos burial. The pithos, repaired in antiquity, was oriented horizontally and E-W, with the head of the inhumed at the base of the vessel. The mouth of the pithos was closed with a smaller vessel. The cut of the burial contained a moderate amount of pottery.

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Ierapetra, ring-road. V. Apostolakou (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports the excavation during construction of the ring-road parallel to Kyprou St. of a section of Roman building and an area of floor with clay tiles.

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Petras, plot of E. and M. Pateropoulou-Liontaki. M. Tsipopoulou (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on a test conducted under her direction with the participation of G. Papadatos in this plot (Figs 1-2), whose eastern boundary abuts the fence around the archaeological site. Architectural remains dating to the MM and LM IA period were discovered, including a probable retaining wall of LM I date and two less thick walls of equivalent use. The earliest remains (EM III/MM IA – MM III) comprised 2 rooms, one destroyed by the LM IA wall and the other with a floor of smoothed bedrock, plus a floor of lime-plaster and small pebbles to its east, the extent of which could not be determined. The limited scope of excavation and the absence of in situ findings do not allow for any secure conclusions regarding the layout and function of the structures. A most important find, however, was an LM I sealstone depicting a female figure and an animal.

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Petras, plot of N. Stamatakis. M. Tsipopoulou (KΔ'ΕΠΚΑ) reports on excavations in this plot adjacent to the tarmac road from Petras to Piskokephalo, conducted with the participation of G. Papadatou (Figs 1-2). Neopalatial architectural remains, a section of Roman irrigation pipe, and a Byzantine oil or wine vat made of lime-plaster were revealed. The Neopalatial remains indicate that the Neopalatial settlement of Petras covered a very wide area and was not confined to the top and slopes but reached the base of the hill, adjacent to the ancient coastline. The section of irrigation pipe adds new data on the use of Petras in the Roman period, hitherto previously known only from a few tombs excavated in the modern settlement. The plastered vat indicates rural oil or wine production in Petras perhaps from the Early Byzantine period.

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Petras, plot of S. and E. Mama. M. Tsipopoulou reports on excavations in this plot, low on Hill I of Petras and adjacent to that of N. Stamatakis (Figs 1-2); the excavations were conducted with the participation of G. Papadatos. Investigations revealed a section of wall associated with the neopalatial settlement. A square structure with a lime-plaster floor was identified, probably dating to the Byzantine period. The excavators suggests that the preparation of the floor may indicate that the building was used for production and storage of wine or oil, particularly when considered in association with the plaster vat in the adjacent plot. The pottery recovered dated to the Minoan, Roman and Byzantine period. As in the neighbouring plot, indications are that human activity on the base of the hill was not restricted to the LM III period, but the Neopalatial settlement reached the shoreline.

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Schisma Elounda, plot of E. Kounoulaki-Loukaki. V. Zographaki (ΚΔ' ΕΠΚΑ) reports on investigations that uncovered 9 tombs and probably a tenth, badly destroyed. A marble tombstone with relief decoration of a warrior and part of a built tomb were found in the area of a previously identified cemetery of the Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods. A total of ten tombs (of which one was heavily damaged) were subsequently identified. It seems that the vaulted, single-chamber Tomb 1 (Fig. 1) disturbed not only earlier burials, but also re-used inscribed funerary stelai as building material (Fig. 2). No attempt was made to preserve the visibility of the inscriptions. The floor of the tomb was tiled. One wall survives up to the start of the vaulting. The burial was disturbed and the interior of the tomb backfilled. A jug, three lamps, fragments of glass vessels and another inscribed block were retrieved. This vaulted tomb is the first discovered in the cemetery of Olous. Four tombs belonging to the familiar type of tile-covered "hut tombs" (Fig. 3). All were defined by small field-stones, and one was entirely covered with them. The burials were disturbed and finds were minimal, consisting mostly of pottery. An amphora was found in tomb 3; a jug and cup in tomb 4, and a bronze hook, part of a strigil and fragments of glass vessels in tomb 8. Three cist graves were found. The burials were undisturbed; grave goods included a few pieces of pottery and fragments of glass vessels. Pottery, tiles, part of a pin and an iron object were retrieved from soil removed from sections and apparently originate from damaged or disturbed graves. Excavations were not completed. E. Tsampanaki participated in the excavations.  

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